A crossbreed is an organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations. Crossbreeding, sometimes called "designer crossbreeding", is the process of breeding such an organism with the intention to create offspring that share the traits of both parent lineages, or producing an organism with hybrid vigor. While crossbreeding is used to maintain health and viability of organisms, irresponsible crossbreeding can produce organisms of inferior quality or dilute a purebred gene pool to the point of extinction of a given breed of organism. A domestic animal of unknown ancestry, where the breed status of only one parent or grandparent is known, may be called a crossbreed though the term "mixed breed" is technically more accurate. Outcrossing is a type of crossbreeding used within a purebred breed to increase the genetic diversity within the breed when there is a need to avoid inbreeding. In animal breeding, crossbreeds are crosses within a single species, while hybrids are crosses between different species.
In plant breeding terminology, the term crossbreed is uncommon, no universal term is used to distinguish hybridization or crossing within a population from those between populations, or those between species. The many newly developed and recognized breeds of domestic cat are crossbreeds between existing, well-established breeds, to either combine selected traits from the foundation stock, or propagate a rare mutation without excessive inbreeding. However, some nascent breeds such as the Aegean cat are developed from a local landrace population. Most experimental cat breeds are crossbreeds. In cattle, there are systems of crossbreeding. In many crossbreeds, one is larger than the other. One is used when the purebred females are adapted to a specific environment, are crossed with purebred bulls from another environment to produce a generation having traits of both parents; the large number of breeds of sheep, which vary creates an opportunity for crossbreeding to be used to tailor production of lambs to the goal of the individual stockman.
Results of crossbreeding classic and woolly breeds of llama are unpredictable. The resulting offspring displays physical characteristics of either parent, or a mix of characteristics from both, periodically producing a fleeced llama; the results are unpredictable when both parents are crossbreeds, with possibility of the offspring displaying characteristics of a grandparent, not obvious in either parent. A crossbred dog is a cross between two known breeds, is distinguished from a mixed-breed dog, which has ancestry from many sources, some of which may not be known. Crossbreeds are popular, due to the belief that they have increased vigor without loss of attractiveness of the dog. Certain planned crossbreeding between purebred dogs of different breeds are now known as "designer dogs" can produce puppies worth more than their purebred parents, due to a high demand. Crossbreeding in horses is done with the intent of creating a new breed of horse. One type of modern crossbreeding in horses is used to create many of the warmblood breeds.
Warmbloods are a type of horse used in the sport horse disciplines registered in an open stud book by a studbook selection procedure that evaluates conformation, pedigree and, in some animals, a training or performance standard. Most warmblood breeds began as a cross of draft horse breeds on Thoroughbreds, but have, in some cases, developed over the past century to the point where they are considered to be a true-breeding population and have a closed stud book. Other types of recognized crossbreeding include that within the American Quarter Horse, which will register horses with one Thoroughbred parent and one registered Quarter Horse parent in the "Appendix" registry, allow such animals full breed registration status as Quarter Horses if they meet a certain performance standard. Another well-known crossbred horse is the Anglo-Arabian, which may be produced by a purebred Arabian horse crossed on a Thoroughbred, or by various crosses of Anglo-Arabians with other Anglo-Arabians, as long as the ensuing animal never has more than 75% or less than 25% of each breed represented in its pedigree.
A hybrid animal is one with parentage of two separate species, differentiating it from crossbred animals, which have parentage of the same species. Hybrids are but not always, sterile. One of the most ancient types of hybrid animal is the mule, a cross between a female horse and a male donkey; the liger is a hybrid cross between female tiger. The yattle is a cross between a yak. Other crosses include the yakalo; the Incas recognized that hybrids of Lama glama and Lama pacos resulted in a hybrid with none of the advantages of either parent. At one time it was thought that dogs and wolves were separate species, the crosses between dogs and wolves were called wolf hybrids. Today wolves and dogs are both recognized as Canis lupus, but the old term "wolf hybrid" is still used. A mixed-breed animal is defined as having undocumented or unknown parentage, while a crossbreed has known purebred parents of two distinct breeds or varieties. A dog of unknown parentage is called a mixed-breed dog, "mutt" or "mongrel."
A cat of unknown parentage is referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cat generically, in some dialects is called a "moggy". A horse of unknown bloodlines is a grade horse. Artificial selection Canid hybrid Heterosis Introgression Selective breeding
The Chartreux is a rare breed of domestic cat from France and is recognised by a number of registries around the world. The Chartreux is large and muscular with short, fine-boned limbs, fast reflexes, they are known for their blue water-resistant short hair double coats which are slightly nappy in texture and orange- or copper-colored eyes. Chartreux cats are known for their "smile": due to the structure of their heads and their tapered muzzles, they appear to be smiling. Chartreux are exceptional hunters and are prized by farmers; as for every French cat with a pedigree, the first letter of the official name of a Chartreux cat encodes the year of its birth. All Chartreux born in the same year have official names beginning with the same letter; the code letters rotate through the alphabet each year, omitting the letters K, Q, W, X, Y, Z. For example, a Chartreux born in 2011 would have an official name starting with the letter G; the Chartreux is mentioned for the first time in 1558 by Joachim du Bellay in a poem entitled Vers Français sur la mort d'un petit chat.
There is another representation of a Chartreux in 1747 in the Jean-Baptiste Perronneau's painting Magdaleine Pinceloup de la Grange into which the cat is painted as a pet, quite rare at this time. There is a legend that the Chartreux are descended from cats brought to France by Carthusian monks to live in the order's head monastery, the Grande Chartreuse, located in the Chartreuse Mountains north of the city of Grenoble, but in 1972, the Prior of the Grande Chartreuse denied that the monastery's archives held any records of the monks' use of any breed of cat resembling the Chartreux. Legend has it that the Chartreux's ancestors were feral mountain cats from what is now Syria, brought back to France by returning Crusaders in the 13th century, many of whom entered the Carthusian monastic order; the first documented mention of the breed was by the French naturalist Buffon in the 18th century. The breed was diminished during the first World War and wild populations were not seen after World War II.
A concerted effort by European breeders kept the breed from extinction. The first Chartreux were brought to the U. S. in 1971 by Helen and John Gamon of La Jolla, California. In 1987, the Cat Fanciers' Association advanced the Chartreux breed to championship status. There are fewer than two dozen active Chartreux breeders in North America as of 2007. Famous Chartreux owners include the French novelist Colette, Charles Baudelaire and French president Charles de Gaulle. Chartreux cats tend to be quiet making noises such as mewing or crying, some are mute, they are quite observant and intelligent, with some Chartreux learning to operate radio on/off buttons and to open screen door latches. They take about two years to reach adulthood. Chartreux cats are playful cats well into their adult years. Chartreux are good with other animals, they are non-aggressive, good travelers and very healthy. Chartreux tend to bond with one person in their household, preferring to be in their general vicinity, though they are still loving and affectionate to the other members of the household.
The mascot of the world's largest jazz festival, the Montreal International Jazz Festival, is a blue Chartreux affectionately named'Ste Cat', after the festival's hub, Sainte Catherine Street in Montreal. Gris-Gris, Charles De Gaulle's cat, who followed him from room to room. French writer Colette made one of her Chartreux the heroine of her books "La Chatte" and "Les Vrilles de la vigne." Fogle, Bruce. The New Encyclopedia of the Cat. New York: DK Publishing Inc. ISBN 0-7894-8021-2. Siegal, Mordecai; the breeds. Chapter 2 in The Cornell Book of Cats: A Comprehensive and Authoritative Medical Reference for Every Cat and Kitten. Second edition. Edited by Mordecai Siegal. Villard:New York. ISBN 978-0-679-44953-9. Simonnet, Jean; the Chartreux Cat. Translated by Jerome M. Auerbach. Paris: Synchro Company. ISBN 978-2-9506009-0-5. Helgren, J. Anne. Encyclopedia of Cat Breeds, 2nd Edition. Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 978-0-7641-6580-1. CATS, Alice Buckland. TAJ Books. ISBN-13:978-1-84406-101-3. CFA profile Chartreux Cat FAQ Chartreux Cat Pisica Chartreux
A breed is a specific group of domestic animals having homogeneous appearance, homogeneous behavior, and/or other characteristics that distinguish it from other organisms of the same species. Breeds are formed through genetic isolation and either natural adaptation to the environment or selective breeding, or a combination of the two. Despite the centrality of the idea of "breeds" to animal husbandry and agriculture, no single, scientifically accepted definition of the term exists. A breed is therefore not an objective or biologically verifiable classification but is instead a term of art amongst groups of breeders who share a consensus around what qualities make some members of a given species members of a nameable subset; when bred together, individuals of the same breed pass on these predictable traits to their offspring, this ability – known as "breeding true" – is a requirement for a breed. Plant breeds are more known as cultivars; the offspring produced as a result of breeding animals of one breed with other animals of another breed are known as crossbreeds or mixed breeds.
Crosses between animal or plant variants above the level of breed/cultivar are referred to as hybrids. The breeder who establishes a breed does so by selecting individual animals from within a gene pool that they see as having the necessary qualities needed to enhance the breed model they are aiming for; these animals are referred to as foundation stock. Furthermore, the breeder mates the most desirable representatives of the breed from his or her point of view, aiming to pass such characteristics to their progeny; this process is known as selective breeding. A written description of desirable and undesirable breed representatives is referred to as a breed standard. Breed specific characteristics known as breed traits, are inherited, purebred animals pass such traits from generation to generation. Thus, all specimens of the same breed carry several genetic characteristics of the original foundation animal. In order to maintain the breed, a breeder would select those animals with the most desirable traits to achieve further maintenance and developing of such traits.
At the same time, the breed would avoid animals carrying characteristics undesirable or not typical for the breed, including faults or genetic defects. The population within the same breed should consist of a sufficient number of animals to maintain the breed within the specified parameters without the necessity of forced inbreeding. Domestic animal breeds differ from country to country, from nation to nation. Breeds originating in a certain country are known as "native breeds" of that country. Cultivar Landrace Plant variety Purebred Race Selective breeding Subspecies Strain Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture FAO. 2007. The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Agriculture. Rome. FAO. 2007. The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration. Rome. FAO. 2012. Phenotypic characterization of animal genetic resources. FAO Animal Production and Health Guidelines No. 11. Rome. FAO. 2015. The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Agriculture.
Rome. Breeds of Livestock - Oklahoma State University Domestic Animal Diversity Information System Implementing the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources
The Siamese cat is one of the first distinctly recognized breeds of Asian cat. Derived from the Wichianmat landrace, one of several varieties of cat native to Thailand, the Siamese became one of the most popular breeds in Europe and North America in the 19th century; the refined modern Siamese is characterized by blue almond-shaped eyes. The International Cat Association describes the modern Siamese as affectionate, social and playful into adulthood enjoying a game of fetch. Siamese tend to seek human interaction and like companionship from other cats; the Siamese is among the foundation stock of several other breeds developed by crossbreeding with other cats. The Siamese cat comes in two distinct variations: traditional, with an apple-shaped head and a chubby body. A description and depiction of the Wichienmaat first appears in a collection of ancient manuscripts called the Tamra Maew thought to originate from the Ayutthaya Kingdom. Over a dozen are now kept in the National Library of Thailand, while others have resurfaced outside of Thailand and are now in the British Library and National Library of Australia.
In addition to the old Siamese cat, the Tamra Maew describes other heritage cats of Thailand including the Korat cat which are still bred for preservation in Thailand today and have become popular in other countries, Konja cat, Suphalak. When the capital city Ayutthaya was sacked on 7 April 1767 at the end of the Burmese-Siamese war the Burmese army burned everything in sight and returned to Burma taking Siamese noblemen and royal family members with them as captives. Buddha images were hacked apart for their gold, all the royal treasures were stolen. Thai legend has it that the Burmese King Hsinbyushin found and read the poem for the Thai cats in the Tamra Maew; the poem describes the all Thai cats as being as rare as gold, anyone that owns this cat will become wealthy. He told his army to round up all the Suphalak cats and bring them back to Burma along with the other treasures. Today in Thailand this legend is told as a humorous explanation as to why the all Thai cats are so rare; the pointed cat known in the West as "Siamese", recognized for its distinctive markings, is one of several breeds of cats from Siam described and illustrated in manuscripts called "Tamra Maew", estimated to have been written from the 14th to the 18th century.
In 1878, U. S. President Rutherford B. Hayes received the first documented Siamese to reach the United States, a cat named "Siam" sent by the American Consul in Bangkok. In 1884, the British Consul-General in Bangkok, Edward Blencowe Gould, brought a breeding pair of the cats and Mia, back to Britain as a gift for his sister, Lilian Jane Gould. In 1885, Gould's UK cats Pho and Mia produced three Siamese kittens—Duen Ngai and Khromata—who were shown with their parents that same year at London's Crystal Palace Show, their unique appearance and distinct behaviour attracted attention but all three of the kittens died soon after the show, their cause of death not documented. By 1886, another pair was imported to the UK by her sister, Ada. Compared to the British Shorthair and Persian cats that were familiar to most Britons, these Siamese imports were longer and less "cobby" in body types, had heads that were less rounded with wedge-shaped muzzles and had larger ears; these differences and the pointed coat pattern, which had not been seen before in cats by Westerners, produced a strong impression—one early viewer described them as "an unnatural nightmare of a cat."
Over the next several years, fanciers imported a small number of cats, which together formed the base breeding pool for the entire breed in Britain. It is believed that most Siamese in Britain today are descended from about eleven of these original imports. In their early days in Britain, they were called the "Royal Cat of Siam", reflecting reports that they had been kept only by Siamese royalty. Research has not shown evidence of any organised royal breeding programme in Siam; the original Siamese imports were medium-sized, rather long-bodied, graceful cats with moderately wedge-shaped heads and ears that were comparatively large but in proportion to the size of the head. The cats were not extreme in either way. In the 1950s–1960s, as the Siamese was increasing in popularity, many breeders and cat show judges began to favor the more slender look; as a result of generations of selective breeding, they created long, fine-boned, narrow-headed cats. By the mid
The Andalusian known as the Pure Spanish Horse or PRE, is a horse breed from the Iberian Peninsula, where its ancestors have lived for thousands of years. The Andalusian has been recognized as an distinct breed since the 15th century, its conformation has changed little over the centuries. Throughout its history, it has been known for its prowess as a war horse, was prized by the nobility; the breed was used as a tool of diplomacy by the Spanish government, kings across Europe rode and owned Spanish horses. During the 19th century, warfare and crossbreeding reduced herd numbers and despite some recovery in the late 19th century, the trend continued into the early 20th century. Exports of Andalusians from Spain were restricted until the 1960s, but the breed has since spread throughout the world, despite their low population. In 2010, there were more than 185,000 registered Andalusians worldwide. Built, compact yet elegant, Andalusians have long, thick manes and tails, their most common coat color is gray.
They are known for their intelligence and docility. A sub-strain within the breed known as the Carthusian, is considered by breeders to be the purest strain of Andalusian, though there is no genetic evidence for this claim; the strain is still considered separate from the main breed however, is preferred by breeders because buyers pay more for horses of Carthusian bloodlines. There are several competing registries keeping records of horses designated as Andalusian or PRE, but they differ on their definition of the Andalusian and PRE, the purity of various strains of the breed, the legalities of stud book ownership. At least one lawsuit is in progress as of 2011, to determine the ownership of the Spanish PRE stud book; the Andalusian is related to the Lusitano of Portugal, has been used to develop many other breeds in Europe and the Americas. Breeds with Andalusian ancestry include many of the warmbloods in Europe as well as western hemisphere breeds such as the Azteca. Over its centuries of development, the Andalusian breed has been selected for athleticism and stamina.
The horses were used for classical dressage, bullfighting, as stock horses. Modern Andalusians are used for many equestrian activities, including dressage, show jumping and driving; the breed is used extensively in movies historical pictures and fantasy epics. Andalusians stallions and geldings average 15.1 1⁄2 hands at the withers and 512 kilograms in weight. The Spanish government has set the minimum height for registration in Spain at 15.0 hands for males and 14.3 hands for mares — this standard is followed by the Association of Purebred Spanish Horse Breeders of Spain and the Andalusian Horse Association of Australasia. The Spanish legislation requires that in order for animals to be approved as either "qualified" or "élite" breeding stock, stallions must stand at least 15.1 hands and mares at least 15 1⁄4 hands. Andalusian horses are elegant and built. Members of the breed have heads of medium length, with a straight or convex profile. Ultra convex and concave profiles are discouraged in the breed, are penalized in breed shows.
Necks are broad, running to well-defined withers and a massive chest. They have broad, strong hindquarters with a well-rounded croup; the breed tends to have clean legs, with no propensity for blemishes or injuries, energetic gaits. The mane and tail are thick and long. Andalusians tend to be docile, while remaining sensitive; when treated with respect they are quick to learn and cooperative. There are two additional characteristics unique to the Carthusian strain, believed to trace back to the strain's foundation stallion Esclavo; the first is warts under the tail, a trait which Esclavo passed to his offspring, a trait which some breeders felt was necessary to prove that a horse was a member of the Esclavo bloodline. The second characteristic is the occasional presence of "horns", which are frontal bosses inherited from Asian ancestors; the physical descriptions of the bosses vary, ranging from calcium-like deposits at the temple to small horn-like protuberances near or behind the ear. However, these "horns" are not considered proof of Esclavo descent, unlike the tail warts.
In the past, most coat colors were found, including spotted patterns. Today most Andalusians are bay. Of the remaining horses 15 percent are bay and 5 percent are black, dun or palomino or chestnut. Other colors, such as buckskin and cremello, are rare, but are recognized as allowed colors by registries for the breed. In the early history of the breed, certain white markings and whorls were considered to be indicators of character and good or bad luck. Horses with white socks on their feet were considered to have good or bad luck, depending on the leg or legs marked. A horse with no white markings at all was considered to be ill-tempered and vice-ridden, while certain facial markings were considered representative of honesty and endurance. Hair whorls in various places were considered to show good or bad luck, with the most unlucky being in places where the horse could not see them – for example the temples, shoulder or heart. Two whorls near the root of the tail were considered a sign of courag
Dog types are broad categories of dogs based on form, function or style of work, lineage, or appearance. In contrast, modern dog breeds are particular breed standards, sharing a common set of heritable characteristics, determined by the kennel club that recognizes the breed. Dog types include locally-adapted forms. A dog type can be referred to broadly, as in gun dog, or more as in spaniel. Dogs raised and trained for a specific working ability rather than appearance may not resemble other dogs doing the same work, or any of the dogs of the analogous breed group of purebred dogs; the origin of the domestic dog is not clear. Whole genome sequencing indicates that the dog, the gray wolf and the extinct Taymyr wolf diverged at around the same time 27,000-40,000 years ago; these dates imply that the earliest dogs arose in the time of human hunter-gatherers and not agriculturists. The earliest books in the English language to mention numbers of dog types are from the "Cynegetica", namely The Art of Venery 1327 by the Anglo-French Master of game, Twiti, a treatise which describes hunting with the limer, the pack of running hounds greyhounds, alaunts.
More in recording the use and description of various dog types, The Master of Game circa 1406 by Edward of York a treatise which describes dogs and their work, such as the alaunt, pack scent hounds and mastiff used by the privileged and wealthy for hunting purposes. "The Master of Game" is a combination of the earlier Art of Venery and the famous French hunting treatise Livre de Chasse by Gaston Phoebus circa 1387. The Boke of St. Albans, published in 1486 a "school" book about hawking, hunting and heraldry, attributed to Juliana Berners, lists dogs of the time by function: " First there is a greyhound, a bastard, a mongrel, a mastiff, a limer, a spaniel, kennets, butcher's hounds, dung-heap dogs, trundel tails and prick-eared curs, small ladies puppies that bear away the fleas and diverse small sorts". 100 years another book in English, De Canibus Britannicus by the author/physician John Caius, translated from Latin in 1576, attempts the first systematic approach to defining different types of dogs in various categories, demonstrating an apparent increase in types, population.
"English dogs": the gentle kind, serving game—harriers, bloodhounds, greyhounds, limers and stealers. "Fowling dogs"—setters and spaniels. As well as the pastoral or shepherd types, mastiffs or bandogs, various village dogs. Sub-types describing the function of dogs in each group were included. In 1758, Carl Linnaeus in Systema naturae named the domestic dog “familiaris” and added other dog classifications or species. More dog types were described as species by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1788, by Robert Kerr in his English translation of Systema naturae in 1792. Today the species Linnaeus named are identifiable as not species or subspecies. Some, such as Canis aegyptius, a hairless dog type of Peru, have been documented and registered as breeds. There are only two categories of domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris and C. l. dingo, recognized by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Beginning with the advent of dog shows in the mid-19th century in England, dog fanciers established stud books and began refining breeds from the various types of dogs in use.
"It is important," remind Ann Rogers Clark and Andrew Brace, "Not to claim great age for breeds, though it is quite legitimate to claim considerable antiquity for types of dogs." The attempts to classify dogs into different'species' show that dog types could be quite distinctive, from the'Canis melitaeus' of lapdogs descended from ancient Roman pet dogs to the more ancient'Canis molossus', the Molossan types, to the'Canis saultor', the dancing mongrel of beggars. These types were uniform enough to appear to have been selectively bred, but as Raymond Coppinger wrote, "Natural processes can produce, could produce, do produce populations of unusual and uniform dogs, that is, dogs with a distinctive conformation." The human manipulation was indirect. In a few cases, Emperors or monasteries or wealthy hunters might maintain lines of special dogs, from which we have today Pekingese, St. Bernards, foxhounds. At the beginning of the 19th century there were only a few dogs identified as breeds, but when dog fighting was outlawed in England in 1835, a new sport of dog showing began.
Along with this sport came rules and written records and closed stud books. Some of the old types no longer needed for work were remade and kept from extinction as show dogs, other old types were refined into many new breeds. Sometimes multiple new breeds might be born in the same littler of puppies. In 1873 only 40 breeds and varieties were known. Dog types today are recognized in Section categories of dog breed registries, but dog types have not disappeared. Types of feral dogs are being discovered and registered as breeds, as with the New Guinea Singing Dog and Carolina Dog. Types re-emerge like the Longdogs from Lurchers and Greyhounds. Named types of dogs that are not dog breeds are still being used where function or use is more important than appearance for herdi
A landrace is a domesticated, locally adapted, traditional variety of a species of animal or plant that has developed over time, through adaptation to its natural and cultural environment of agriculture and pastoralism, due to isolation from other populations of the species. Landraces are distinguished from cultivars, from breeds in the standardized sense, although the term landrace breed is sometimes used as distinguished from the term standardized breed when referring to cattle. Specimens of a landrace tend to be genetically uniform, but are more diverse than members of a standardized or formal breed; some standardized animal breeds originate from attempts to make landraces more consistent through selective breeding and a landrace may become a more formal breed with the creation of a breed registry and/or publication of a breed standard. In such a case, the landrace may be thought of as a "stage" in breed development. However, in other cases, formalizing a landrace may result in the genetic resource of a landrace being lost through crossbreeding.
Landraces are distinct from ancestral wild species of modern stock, from separate species or subspecies derived from the same ancestor as modern domestic stock. Landraces are not all derived from ancient stock unmodified by human breeding interests. In a number of cases, most dogs and horses, domestic animals have escaped in sufficient numbers in an area to breed feral populations that, through evolutionary pressure, can form new landraces in only a few centuries. In other cases, simple failure to maintain breeding regimens can do the same. For example, selectively bred cultivars can become new landraces when loosely selective reproduction is applied. Increasing adoption of and reliance upon modern, purposefully selected plant strains, considered improved – "scientifically bred to be uniform and stable" – has led to a reduction in biodiversity; the majority of the genetic diversity of domesticated species lies in landraces and other traditionally used varieties, a "reservoir of genetic resources".
General features that characterize a landrace may include: It is morphologically distinctive and identifiable, yet remains "dynamic". It is genetically adapted to, has a reputation for being able to withstand, the conditions of the local environment, including climate and pests cultural practices, it is not the product of formal breeding programs, may lack systematic selection and improvement by breeders. It is maintained and fostered less deliberately than a standardized breed, with its genetic isolation principally a matter of geography acting upon whatever animals that happened to be brought by humans to a given area, it has a historical origin in a specific geographic area, will have its own local name, will be classified according to intended purpose. Where yield can be measured, a landrace will show high stability of yield under adverse conditions, but a moderate yield level under managed conditions. At the level of genetic testing, its heredity will show a degree of integrity, but still some genetic heterogeneity.
Not every source on the topic enumerates each of these criteria, they may be weighted differently depending on a given source's focus. Additionally, not all cultivars agreed to be landraces exhibit all possible landrace characteristics. Plant landraces have been the subject of more intensive study, the majority of the academic literature about landraces is focused on agricultural botany, not animal husbandry. Most plant landraces are associated with traditional agricultural systems. While many landrace animals are associated with farming, other domestic animals have been put to use as modes of transportation, as companion animals, for sporting purposes, for other non-farming uses, so their geographic distribution may differ. For example, horse landraces are less common because human use of them for transport has meant that they have moved with people more and than most other domestic animals, reducing the incidence of populations locally genetically isolated for extensive periods of time; the word landrace means'country-breed' and close cognates of it are found in various Germanic languages.
The term was first defined by Kurt von Rümker in 1908, more described in 1909 by U. J. Mansholt, who wrote that landraces have better "stability of their characteristics" and "resistance capacity to tolerate adverse influences" but lower production capacity than cultivars, are apt to change genetically when moved to another environment. H. Kiessling added in 1912 that a landrace is a mixture of phenotypic forms despite relative outward uniformity, a great adaptability to its natural and human environment; the word entered non-academic English in the early 1930s, by way of the Danish Landrace pig, a particular breed of lop-eared swine. Aside from some standardized breeds having "Landrace" in their names, actual landraces and standardized breeds are sometimes further confused when the word "breed" is used broadly; as one example, a glossary in a Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations guideline defines landrace or landrace breed as "a breed that has developed through adaptation to the natural environment and traditional production system in which it has been raised".
It defines breed expansively and in multiple ways, with a focus on t