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Pusher configuration

In an aircraft with a pusher configuration, the propeller are mounted behind their respective engine. According to British aviation author Bill Gunston, a "pusher propeller" is one mounted behind the engine, so that the drive shaft is in compression. Pusher configuration describes this specific thrust device attached to a craft, either aerostat or aerodyne or others types such as hovercraft and propeller-driven snowmobiles."Pusher configuration" describes the layout of a fixed-wing aircraft in which the thrust device has a pusher configuration. This kind of aircraft is called a pusher. Pushers have been designed and built in many different layouts, some of them quite radical; the rubber-powered "Planophore", designed by Alphonse Pénaud in 1871, was an early successful model aircraft with a pusher propeller. Many early aircraft were "pushers", including the Wright Flyer, the Santos-Dumont 14-bis, the Voisin-Farman I and the Curtiss Model D used by Eugene Ely for the first ship landing on January 18, 1911.

Henri Farman's pusher Farman III and its successors were so influential in Britain that pushers in general became known as the "Farman type". Other early pusher configurations were minor variations on this theme; the classic "Farman" pusher had the propeller "mounted behind the main lifting surface" with the engine fixed to the lower wing or between the wings forward of the propeller in a stub fuselage called a nacelle. The main difficulty with this type of pusher design was attaching the tail; the earliest examples of pushers relied on a canard but this has serious aerodynamic implications that the early designers were unable to resolve. Mounting the tail was done with a complex wire-braced framework that created a lot of drag. Well before the beginning of the First World War this drag was recognized as just one of the factors that would ensure that a Farman style pusher would have an inferior performance to an otherwise similar tractor type; the U. S. Army banned pusher aircraft in late 1914 after several pilots died in crashes of aircraft of this type, so from about 1912 onwards the great majority of new U.

S. landplane designs were tractor biplanes, with pushers of all types becoming regarded as old fashioned on both sides of the Atlantic. However, new pusher designs continued to be designed right up to the armistice, such as the Vickers Vampire, although few new ones entered service after 1916.. At least up to the end of 1916, pushers were still favoured as gun-carrying aircraft by the British Royal Flying Corps, because a forward-firing gun could be used without being obstructed by the arc of the propeller. With the successful introduction of Fokker's mechanism for synchronising the firing of a machine gun with the blades of a moving propeller, followed by the widespread adoption of synchronisation gears by all the combatants in 1916 and 1917, the tractor configuration became universally favoured and pushers were reduced to the tiny minority of new aircraft designs that had a specific reason for using the arrangement. Both the British and French continued to use pusher configured bombers, though there was no clear preference either way until 1917.

Such aircraft included the Voisin bombers, the Vickers F. B.5 "Gunbus", the Royal Aircraft Factory F. E.2, however these would find themselves being shunted into training roles before disappearing entirely. The last fighter to use the Farman pusher configuration was the 1931 Vickers Type 161 COW gun fighter. During the long eclipse of the configuration the use of pusher propellers continued in aircraft which derived a small benefit from the installation and could have been built as tractors. Biplane flying boats, had for some time been fitted with engines located above the fuselage to offer maximum clearance from the water driving pusher propellers to avoid spray and the hazards involved by keeping them well clear of the cockpit; the Supermarine Walrus was a late example of this layout. The so-called push/pull layout, combining the tractor and pusher configurations — that is, with one or more propellers facing forward and one or more others facing back — was another idea that continues to be used from time to time as a means of reducing the asymmetric effects of an outboard engine failure, such as on the Farman F.222, but at the cost of a reduced efficiency on the rear propellers, which were smaller and attached to lower-powered engines as a result.

By the late 1930s the widespread adoption of all-metal stressed skin construction of aircraft meant, at least in theory, that the aerodynamic penalties that had limited the performance of pushers, were reduced. During World War II, experiments were conducted with pusher fighters by most of the major powers. Difficulties remained that a pilot having to bail out of a pusher was liable to pass through the propeller arc; this meant that of all the types concerned, only the conventional Swedish SAAB 21 of 1943 went into series production. Other problems related to the aerodynamics of canard layouts, used on most of the pushers, proved more difficult to resolve. One o

Sultan Ahmed bin Sulayem

Sultan Ahmed bin Sulayem is the Group Chairman and CEO of DP World. Bin Sulayem is involved in Seven Tides International, a diversified Real Estate Investment and Development Company in Dubai UAE. On 30 May 2007 Bin Sulayem became the Chairman of DP World; the Sulayem family has been one of Dubai's most prominent business and political families since at least the early 20th century. Ahmed bin Sulayem's father was a key advisor to Dubai's ruling Maktoum family. A son of his, Ahmed bin Sulayem, is prominent in business. Bin Sulayem's first job after graduating from college in the late 1970s was as a customs inspector at Dubai's sleepy port, he told Fortune Magazine in 2008 that his future career was set when a man mistakenly came into his office one day and in the course of chatting suggested that Dubai could serve as an entrepot for the tea trade if it created a tax-free zone at the port. That chance meeting encouraged him to travel the world studying tax-free trading zones; when he returned home he approached Dubai's future ruler and family friend Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum with a proposal to build a free trade zone at the port.

"If you believe in it, you go run it." Bin Sulayem said. "I was 30."That conversation led to Bin Sulayem serving as the first chairman of the Dubai government's tax-free Jebel Ali Free Zone when it was founded in 1985. Since the 1980s, Bin Sulayem has been one of the most prominent businessmen in Dubai, with a string of government-linked ventures. In addition to chairing Dubai World he helped found Nakheel, one of the UAE's largest property developers and Istithmar, a major investment holding company in Dubai. Both companies are Dubai World subsidiaries, he served on the board of the Investment Corporation of Dubai, the emirate's sovereign wealth fund, until November, 2009, when Bin Sulayem was removed from that post in the wake of the debt crisis that struck Dubai that year. In late 2009 and early 2010, Dubai was struggling to pay $80 billion in debt, most of it linked to Dubai World and its subsidiaries; the Wall Street Journal's influential Heard on the Street column said in October 2009 that Dubai World "has just been radically restructured after running up $60 billion of liabilities on ill-judged acquisitions like struggling Madison Avenue retailer Barneys and the Queen Elizabeth 2 liner, which has since languished in a Dubai dry dock" and that "surprisingly, senior management remains in place, including Sultan bin Sulayem, the chairman who masterminded the expansion."

Sulayem was removed from his post in December, 2010 and was replaced by Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum, a member of the royal family. He received a B. S. in economics from Temple University of Philadelphia, the United States. He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from Middlesex University in Dubai

Grahamia australiana

Grahamia australiana is a species of plant from the family Anacampserotaceae, endemic to Australia, it is better known as Anacampseros australiana but the genus Anacampseros is now thought to be restricted to Africa. Grahamia australiana is a perennial succulent herb with weak, fleshy branches which have succulent, sessile leaves arranged alternately around their tips and which has tuberous roots and ascending flowering stems up to 20 cm in length which are leafy towards their base; the leaves are oblanceolate to obovate in shape, are infrequently elliptic, measuring 1–2.5 cm in length and 5–12 mm across with a sharp point at the tip and covered in hairs. The inflorescences consist of few-flowered cymes The sepals enclose the 5 white to pinkish petals which are each 5–15 mm long and there are 8-10 stamens; the superior ovary contains numerous ovules. It has a 3-valved fruit 5–12 mm long which sheds its epicarp early, the endocarp is a membrane which persists, the endocarp valves are surrounded by and are alternate with bristly and hardened remains of mesocarp and contains numerous pyramidal seeds.

Grahamia australiana is endemic to Australia where it is found in New South Wales, Northern Territory and South Australia. This plant can be found on rocky ranges, hills or rises composed of neutral or acidic rocks, is recorded as growing from rock crevices and between boulders, it has been recorded as flowering throughout the year and the fruits appear about a month after flowering

Sanam Teri Kasam (2009 film)

Sanam Teri Kasam is a 2009, Indian romantic drama film directed by Lawrence D'Souza and starring Saif Ali Khan, Pooja Bhatt, Atul Agnihotri and Sheeba Akashdeep. The film was released in 2009, although it was produced in 1994. A long legal battle delayed its release for the fifteen years, from 1994 to 2009; the film was titled Sambandh and Yeh Pyar Hi To Hai. The audio cassettes were released as Sambandh. Vijay Verma is a rich and selfish playboy who enjoys playing with women by giving a fake name to every girl, his friend, tells him several times to stop this act otherwise he will regret it. One day, Vijay meets a lovely tourist and falls in love with her after a few meetings. During a separation, Seema sends Vijay a letter about her father agreeing to marriage with Vijay, he replies saying that he will leave to get to her place. Saif Ali Khan as Vijay Verma Atul Agnihotri as Gopal Pooja Bhatt as Seema Khanna Sheeba Akashdeep as Dr. Renu Mahinder Nath Vikas Anand as Ramdin Kaka Saeed Jaffrey as Vikram Verma Alok Nath as Khanna Sanam Teri Kasam on IMDb

Stephen P. Murray

Stephen "Steve" P. Murray was a private equity investor and philanthropist, he was president and chief executive officer of CCMP Capital, a private equity firm which focuses on buyout and growth equity transactions. Murray graduated from Boston College in 1984 with a degree in economics. In 1989 he earned his master's degree in business administration from Columbia Business School. In 1984, Murray became part of the credit analyst training program at Manufacturers Hanover Corporation. In 1989, he joined MH Equity Corporation, which combined Manufacturers Hanover's private equity group with its leveraged finance unit. Manufacturers Hanovers was purchased by Chemical Bank in 1991, MH Equity merged with Chemical Venture Partners. Chemical Bank merged with Chase Manhattan Corporation in 1996 and Chemical Venture Partners became Chase Capital Partners. In 2005, Murray became head of buyout business at JP Morgan Partners. Murray co-founded CCMP Capital, a spinout of JP Morgan Chase which contained the buyout and growth equity team of its private equity group, in August 2006.

In 2007, he was named CEO of CCMP. Murray served on the board of major companies including Aramark, Generac Power Systems, AMC Entertainment, Warner Chilcott, The Vitamin Shoppe, Cabela’s, Pinnacle Foods, Legacy Hospital Partners. Murray supported the Make-A-Wish Foundation of Metro New York, Boston College, the Food Bank of Lower Fairfield County, Stamford Museum, Columbia Business School, he was vice chairman of the board of trustees at Boston College and a member on the chairman's council of the Make a Wish Foundation of Metro New York

Dava Way

The Dava Way is a 38-kilometre long-distance path that follows the route of the former Highland Railway between Grantown and Forres. The railway line, built as a route between Inverness and Perth, opened in 1863 and closed in 1965; the route was reopened as a long distance path in 2005. It is listed as one of Scotland's Great Trails by Scottish Natural Heritage, links directly to two further Great Trails: the Moray Coast Trail and the Speyside Way, it is the shortest of the Great Trails, but can be combined with sections of the Moray Coast Trail and Speyside Way to form a 153-kilometre circular route known as the Moray Way. About 3,000 people use the path every year. Although in 1860 Inverness had a rail link to the south via Aberdeen, this was circuitous and involved a change between two railway stations in the town. A more direct route south bypassing Aberdeen was planned leaving the Inverness to Aberdeen Line at Forres and heading south to Grantown and via the Pass of Drumochter to Perth. Work started in 1861, with the line between Forres and Aviemore opening on 3 August before the complete line opened on 9 September 1863.

The line was built and operated by Inverness & Perth Junction Railway, which became part of the Highland Railway in 1865. The line north of Aviemore was bypassed by the current more direct route via the Nairn Viaduct in 1898. In his 1963 report "The Reshaping of British Railways" Dr Beeching recommending closing the network's least used stations and lines, which included the line between Aviemore and Forres and this subsequently closed in 1965; the Dava Way Association was formed in 1997 to create a walking and cycling path along the former railway. Negotiations and purchase of the former alignment were necessary before the clearing could start in 2003; the way was opened in 2005. The 38.25-kilometre long route from Grantown-on-Spey in the Cairngorms National Park to Forres in Moray follows the old railway line. Starting from Grantown and heading north, the path crosses Dava Moor where it reaches its summit of 321 metres. Continuing to Dunphail, the River Divie is crossed by the old railway viaduct, used today as the symbol of the Dava Way.

Between Dunphail and Forres a new bridge was installed in 2004 to cross the Altyre Burn. Formartine and Buchan Way Deeside Way Vallance, H. A.. R.. The Highland Railway. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-330-02720-5. Vallance, H. A.. Great North of Scotland railway; the History of the Railways of the Scottish Highlands vol 3. David St John Thomas. ISBN 978-0-946537-60-0. Bardwell, Sandra. Moray Coast Trail: With Dava Way and Moray Way. Rucksack Readers. ISBN 978-1-898481-40-9. Castle, Alan; the Speyside Way. Cicerone Press Limited. ISBN 978-1-85284-606-0. Retrieved 30 July 2013. Thomson, Norman. A Dava Way Companion; the Moray Way Association. ISBN 978-0956534910. Dava Way Website Dava Way Association Dava Way Leaflet Dava Way Association