SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Putney

Putney is a district in southwest London, England in the London Borough of Wandsworth. It is centred 6.1 miles southwest of Charing Cross. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Putney is an ancient parish which covered 9.11 square kilometres and was until 1889 in the Hundred of Brixton in the county of Surrey. Its area has been reduced by the loss of Roehampton to the south-west, an offshoot hamlet that conserved more of its own clustered historic core. In 1855 the parish was included in the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works and was grouped into the Wandsworth District. In 1889 the area became part of the County of London; the Wandsworth District became the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth in 1900. Since 1965 Putney has formed part of the London Borough of Wandsworth in Greater London; the benefice of the parish remains a perpetual curacy whose patron is the Dean and Chapter of Worcester. The church, founded in the medieval period as a chapel of ease to Wimbledon, was rebuilt in the early Tudor period and in 1836 was again rebuilt, the old tower restored, at an expense of £7000 defrayed by subscription, a rate, a grant of £400 from the Incorporated Society.

It has a small chantry chapel removed from the east end of the south aisle, rebuilt at the east end of the north side, preserving the old style. In 1684, Thomas Martyn bequeathed lands for the foundation and support of a charity school for 20 boys, sons of watermen. A charitable almshouse for 12 men and women, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was erected by Sir Abraham Dawes, who provided it with an endowment. Putney was the birthplace of Thomas Cromwell, made Earl of Essex by Henry VIII and of Edward Gibbon, author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, born in 1737. John Toland, a noted free-thinker and was buried at Putney in 1722. Robert Wood, under-Secretary of State for the Southern Department, who published The Ruins of Palmyra about the Roman ruins he visited at Baalbek in Syria, other archæological works lies here. William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, died at a house on Putney Heath. In the 1840s Putney was still a part-wooded, part-agricultural village focussed closest to the Thames, opposite to Fulham, with which it was connected by a wooden bridge.

It was street-lit with gas paved, well supplied with water. At that time Putney took on London's premier role in civil engineering; the College for Civil Engineers relocated to Putney in 1840, for the purpose of affording sound instruction in the theory and practice of civil engineering and architecture, in all those branches of science and learning which are adapted to the advanced state of society, constitute an education that fits the student for any pursuit or profession. Putney had a second place of worship for Independents, Roehampton was in the process of achieving separate parish status; the proprietors of the bridge distributed £31 per annum to watermen, watermen's widows and children, the parish received benefit from Henry Smith's and other charities. Putney in 1887 covered 9 square kilometres. Putney appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Putelei, it was noted that it did not fall into the category of local jurisdictions known as a manor, but obtained 20 shillings from the ferry or market toll at Putney belonging to the manor of Mortlake.

The ferry was mentioned in the household accounts of Edward I: Robert the Ferryman of Putney and other sailors received 3/6d for carrying a great part of the royal family across the Thames and for taking the king and his family to Westminster. One famous crossing at Putney was that of Cardinal Wolsey in 1529 upon his'disgrace' in falling out of favour with Henry VIII and on ceasing to be the holder of the Great Seal of England; as he was riding up Putney Hill he was overtaken by one of the royal chamberlains who presented him with a ring as a token of the continuance of his majesty's favour. When the Cardinal had heard these words of the king, he lighted from his mule and knelt down in the dirt upon both knees, holding up his hands for joy, said "When I consider the joyful news that you have brought to me, I could do no less than rejoice; every word pierces so my heart, that the sudden joy surmounted my memory, having no regard or respect to the place. The first bridge of any kind between the two parishes of Fulham and Putney was built during the Civil War: after the Battle of Brentford in 1642, the Parliamentary forces built a bridge of boats between Fulham and Putney.

According to an account from the period:The Lord General hath caused a bridge to be built upon barges and lighters over the Thames between Fulham and Putney, to convey his army and artillery over into Surrey, to follow the king's forces. The first permanent bridge between Fulham and Putney was completed in 1729, was the second bridge to be built across the Thames in London. One story runs that "in 1720 Sir Robert Walpole was returning from seeing George I at Kingston and being in a hurry to get to the House of Commons rode together with his servant to Putn

WPBA (TV)

WPBA, virtual channel 30, is a Public Broadcasting Service member television station licensed to Atlanta, United States. Owned by Atlanta Public Schools, it is a sister outlet to National Public Radio member station WABE and local educational access cable service APS Cable Channel 22. WPBA and WABE share studios on Bismark Road in the Morningside/Lenox Park neighborhood of Atlanta. On cable, the station is available on Comcast Xfinity and Google Fiber channel 16, AT&T U-verse channel 30. WPBA is the only full-powered public television station in the state of Georgia, licensed to a public educational institution or district, the only educational television station in Georgia, not operated as part of the Georgia Public Broadcasting PBS statewide member network; the station first signed on the air as WETV on February 17, 1958. WETV served as a member station of the National Educational Television and Radio Center, which evolved into National Educational Television in 1963. During its first fourteen years of operation, channel 30 maintained a 20-hour weekly schedule of instructional programming, broadcasting only on Monday through Friday afternoons from August through May.

Programming from NET aired on WETV year-round during prime time for three hours each Monday through Friday. The station gained a competing public television outlet, when the University of Georgia signed on Athens-licensed WGTV on May 23, 1960. On October 5, 1970, WETV and WGTV – which became the flagship of the Georgia Educational Television state network, after the University of Georgia merged the latter into the Georgia Board of Education's four-station statewide programming service five years prior – became member stations of the Public Broadcasting Service, launched as an independent entity to supersede and assume many of the functions of the predecessor NET network. On May 10, 1984, Atlanta Public Schools changed the station's call letters to WPBA. On September 6, 1999, WPBA assumed time-lease rights to Atlanta Public Schools' APS Cable channel, which began carrying programming from the upstart PBS Kids Channel each night from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. with instructional programming acquired by the school district continuing to air during the daytime hours.

In 2005, WPBA reduced its PBS program offerings after Atlanta Public Schools and station management decided to make channel 30 a participant in the service's Program Differentiation Plan. As a result, the station began to carry only 25% of the programming broadcast by PBS' national feed, whilst giving GPB right of first refusal rights and exclusive access to any new programs carried by PBS. To make up for the reduced lineup of PBS shows, WPBA expanded its reliance on syndicated programs from American Public Television and other distributors as well as locally produced news and public affairs programs. At that time, the station changed its on-air branding to "PBA 30". On July 23, 2018, WPBA discontinued the "PBA 30" branding after ten years and changed its moniker to "ATL PBA," removing references to its over-the-air virtual channel; the following day, Atlanta Public Schools reached an agreement with PBS to convert WPBA into a full-service member outlet in order to better compete with Georgia Public Broadcasting and its flagship WGTV for viewers and private monetary contributions and corporate programming underwriters.

The move, which will allow WPBA to carry any content supplied by the service, will result in a $500,000 increase in programming expenditures. The station plans to keep its Monday and Friday lineups – which rely on British programming – unchanged, expand local program production. WPBA and WABE share two adjacent towers in the east side of the city between Edgewood and Kirkwood, with the single transmitter antenna used by local radio stations WSB-FM, WSTR and WVEE. WABE maintained transmitter facilities on Stone Mountain, but was forced to relocate as a result of WGTV needing the space for its digital equipment, in addition to maintaining its analog transmitter, along with the existing use of

Chevrolet C/K

C/K is a series of trucks that were manufactured by General Motors. Marketed under the Chevrolet and GMC brands, the C/K series included a wide range of vehicles. While most associated with pickup trucks, the model line included medium-duty and heavy trucks. "C" denoted a two-wheel drive. Introduced for the 1960 model year, the C/K series was marketed by Chevrolet until 2002 in the United States. In South America, the C/K was marketed by Chevrolet from 1964 to 2001 in Brazil and from 1975 to 1982 in Chile. After 1989, GM ended the use of the C/K series for medium-duty trucks, replaced by the Chevrolet Kodiak/GMC TopKick; the C/K series was produced across four generations, introduced in 1960, 1967, 1973, 1988. In contrast to Chevrolet, GMC marketed only the first three generations as the C/K, with the fourth generation becoming the GMC Sierra. Introduced in 1999, the Chevrolet Silverado became the divisional replacement for the C/K. Launched in the fall of 1959, the 1960 model year introduced a new body style of light pick-up truck that featured many firsts.

Most important of these were a drop-center ladder frame, allowing the cab to sit lower, independent front suspension, giving an car-like ride in a truck. New for 1960 was a new designation system for trucks made by GM. Gone were the 3100, 3200, 3600 designations for short 1/2, long 1/2 and 3/4-ton models. Instead, a new scheme assigned a 10, 20, or 30 for 1/2, 3/4, 1-ton models. Since 1957, trucks were available from the factory as four-wheel drive, the new class scheme would make this known. A C in front of the series number designates 2-wheel rear drive. Actual badging on Chevrolet trucks carried the series name system from the previous generation for 1960 and 1961: the 10, 20, 30, 40 series were badged as "Apaches", 50 and 60 series trucks were badged as "Vikings", the largest 70 and 80 series models were marked "Spartans". For 1960, C/K trucks were available in fendered "Stepside" versions. GMC called these "Wide-Side" and "Fenderside". Half-ton models were the C10 and K10 long-bed and short-bed trucks, The 3/4-ton C20 and K20, as well as the one-ton C30, were available.

GMC did not use the "C" nomenclature. GMC model numbers for 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1.5 ton were 1000, 1500, 2500, 3000. The 1.5 ton Chevrolet C40 and GMC 3000, which were using the light-duty cab, were discontinued for the 1963 model year. The 1960, 1961, 1962 models featured torsion bar front suspensions, with trailing arm suspension rears. Trim lines were base and "Custom". Engines included the base GMC 305 in3 V6 for the GMC version, 135 hp 236 in3 and 150 hp 261 in3 straight-6s, a 283 in3 V8 with 185 hp. A coil-spring front suspension came in 1963, along with a new base engine, a 140 hp 230 in3 I6, an optional 165 hp 292 in3 I6; the cab was modified for 1964, with elimination of the "wraparound" windshield and a new front grille design, along with various interior changes, while retaining the original design on the body. Air conditioning and a 220 hp 327 in3 V8 came in 1965. A new base engine finished the model in 1966 with a 155 hp 250 in3 I6. Medium-duty trucks were: 1½-ton Chevrolet C40 / GMC 3000, with the light-duty cab.

Heavy-duty trucks were: Chevrolet C60-H, C70 and C80. A new, more modern look came for 1967, along with a new nickname: "Action Line", it was with this revision of the C/K truck that General Motors began to add comfort and convenience items to a vehicle line, for work purposes alone. The majority of 10 series and some 20 series Chevrolet trucks from 1966 to 1972 were equipped with a coil spring trailing arm rear suspension, which improved the ride over traditional leaf springs. However, the leaf spring rear suspension was still available on those trucks, standard on 30 series trucks. GMC-branded trucks came standard with leaf springs in the rear, with the coil spring/trailing arm design optional. All 2-wheel drive trucks came with independent front suspension, while 4x4's used a conventional solid axle with leaf springs. 1967 was the only model year for the "small rear window". The standard drivetrain was one of two engines. Optional transmissions included a three speed overdrive unit and several different four-speed manuals, the Powerglide 2-speed automatic, or the Turbo-Hydramatic 350 and 400 3-speed automatic.

The 292 six and the 327 in3 V8 were optional engines. 10-series trucks came with a 6 x 5.5–inch bolt pattern, the 3/4 and 1 ton trucks came with an 8 x 6.5–inch bolt pattern. The most visible change in differentiating a 1968 from 1967 models was the addition of side-marker reflectors on all fenders; the small rear window cab was no longer available. The GMC grille was revised, with the letters "GMC" no longer embossed in the horizontal crossbar. Another addition was the Custom Comfort and Convenience interior package that fell between the Stand