The Pyramid Texts are the oldest known corpus of ancient Egyptian religious texts dating to the Old Kingdom. Written in Old Egyptian, the pyramid texts were carved onto the subterranean walls and sarcophagi of pyramids at Saqqara from the end of the Fifth Dynasty, throughout the Sixth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, into the Eighth Dynasty of the First Intermediate Period; the oldest of the texts have been dated to c. 2400–2300 BC. Unlike the Coffin Texts and Book of the Dead, the pyramid texts were reserved only for the pharaoh and were not illustrated. Following the earlier Palermo Stone, the pyramid texts mark the next-oldest known mention of Osiris, who would become the most important deity associated with afterlife in the Ancient Egyptian religion; the use and occurrence of pyramid texts changed between the Old and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt. During the Old Kingdom, pyramid texts could be found in the pyramids of kings as well as three queens named Wedjebten and Iput. During the Middle Kingdom, pyramid texts were not written in the pyramids of the pharaohs, but the traditions of the pyramid spells continued to be practiced.
In the New Kingdom, pyramid texts could now be found on tombs of officials. French archaeologist and Egyptologist Gaston Maspero, director of the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology in Cairo, arrived in Egypt in 1880, he chose a site in South Saqqara, a hill, mapped by the Prussian Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius in the prior decades, for his first archaeological dig. There, Maspero found the ruins of a large structure, which he concluded must be the pyramid of Pepi I of the Sixth Dynasty. During the excavations he was able to gain access to the subterranean rooms, discovered that the walls of the structure were covered in hieroglyphic text. Maspero contacted the then'director of the excavations' in Egypt, Auguste Mariette, to inform him of the discovery, though Mariette concluded that the structure must be a mastaba as no writing had been discovered in a pyramid. Maspero continued his excavations at a second structure, around one kilometre south-west of the first, in search of more evidence.
This second structure was determined to be the pyramid of Pepi I's successor. In it, Maspero discovered the same hieroglyphic text on the walls he'd found in Pepi I's pyramid, the mummy of a man in the sarcophagus of the burial chamber; this time, he visited Mariette though he rejected the findings, stating on his deathbed that "n thirty years of Egyptian excavations I have never seen a pyramid whose underground rooms had hieroglyphs written on their walls." Throughout 1881, Maspero continued to direct investigations of other sites in Saqqara, more texts were found in each of the pyramids of Unas and Pepi II. Maspero began publishing his findings in the Recueil des Travaux from 1882 and continued to be involved in the excavations of the pyramid in which the texts had been found until 1886. Maspero published the first corpora of the text in 1894 in French under the title Les inscriptions des pyramides de Saqqarah. Translations were made by German Egyptologist Kurt Heinrich Sethe to German in 1908–1910 in Die altägyptischen Pyramidentexte.
The concordance that Sethe published is considered to be the standard version of the texts. Samuel A. B. Mercer published a translation into English of Sethe's work in 1952. British Egyptologist Raymond O. Faulkner presented the texts in English in 1969 in The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Gustave Jéquier conducted the first systematic investigations of Pepi II and his wives' pyramids – Neith, Iput II, Wedjebetni – between 1926 and 1932. Jéquier conducted the excavations of Qakare Ibi's pyramid, he published the complete corpus of texts found in these five pyramids. Since 1958, expeditions under the directions of Jean-Philippe Lauer, Jean Sainte-Fare Garnot, Jean Leclant have undertaken a major restoration project of the pyramids belonging to Teti, Pepi I, Merenre I, as well as the pyramid of Unas. By 1999, the pyramid of Pepi had been opened to the public, the debris cleared away from the pyramid while research continued under the direction of Audran Labrousse; the corpus of pyramid texts in Pepi I's pyramid were published in 2001.
In 2010, the texts were discovered in Behenu's tomb. To date, the Pyramid Texts have been discovered in the pyramids of these pharaohs and queens: The spells, or utterances, of the Pyramid Texts were concerned with enabling the transformation of the deceased into an Akh; the spells of the Pyramid Texts are divided into two broad categories: Sacerdotal texts and Personal texts. The sacerdotal texts are ritual in nature, were conducted by the lector priest addressing the deceased in the second person, they consist of offering spells, short spells recited in the presentation of an offering, recitations which are predominantly instructional. These texts appear in the Offering and Insignia Rituals, the Resurrection Ritual, in the four pyramids containing the Morning Ritual; the writing in these texts indicates that they originated around the time of the Second and Third Dynasties. The remaining texts are personal, are broadly concerned with guiding the spirit out of the tomb, into new life, they consist of provisioning and apotropaic – or protective – texts.
The provisioning texts deal with the deceased taking command of his own food-supply, demanding nourishment from the gods. One example of these texts is the king's response in Unas' pyramid; the transition texts – otherwise known as the Sakhu or Glorifications – are predominantly about the transformation of the deceased into an Akh, their ascent, mirroring the motion of th
Zaccheus Collins Lee was a Jurist, who served as U. S. District Attorney. Born into the illustrious Lee Family of Virginia, he was the son of Richard Bland Lee and his wife Elizabeth Collins, he was named for his maternal uncle Zaccheus Collins. His first cousin was his uncle Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, he married Martha Ann Jenkins on June 15, 1837. The couple had three children. Father of 4. Mary Elizabeth Lee. Perine and 2) Bernard John Cooper, a Post-Captain in the British Navy. Mother of 4. Mary Ida Lee, he attended the University of Virginia, studied law under William Wirt. After completing the bar, Lee practiced law in Maryland, he was U. S. District Attorney for Maryland from 1841 to 1845, again from 1850 to 1853, he was served until his death. He died at 5 o'clock in the evening on November 26, 1859, a Saturday, in Baltimore, as a result of an attack of paralysis, which had happened a few days previously.> Lee was a classmate of Edgar Allan Poe, was one of only a few people to attend Poe's funeral, as documented in letters from Neilson Poe.
An address of his was published in 1918 as.
Bradshaw Crandell was an American artist and illustrator. He was known as the "artist of the stars". Among those who posed for Crandell were Carole Lombard, Bette Davis, Judy Garland, Veronica Lake and Lana Turner. In 1921 he began his career with an ad for Lorraine hair nets sold by F. W. Woolworth, his first cover illustration was the May 1921 issue for the humor magazine Judge. In life he went from illustrations to oil-on-canvas paintings which included political figures, he provided poster work for 20th Century Fox. In 2006 he was inducted into the Society of Illustrators hall of fame. In March 2010, an illustration for the 1952 Dutch Treat Club yearbook of Crandell's sold for $17,000. John Bradshaw Crandell was born in Glens Falls, New York in 1896, son of Hubert Lee and Vira Crandell. Hubert's grandfather, born Peter Crandall, thought "the better way to spell the last name was Crandell instead of the original spelling used by the immigrant ancestor, Elder John Crandall. Crandell did not graduate.
Instead he enrolled in Wesleyan University and again did not graduate. His 1918 World War I draft registration card noted; the twelfth general catalog of the Psi Upsilon fraternity lists him under the Xi Chapter for the year 1919. Crandall's career took off in 1921 with a contract for the cover of Judge magazine. Although he began his business as John Bradshaw Crandell Studios in 1925, he dropped his first name by 1935, he was known as a "glamour" artist and not a "pin-up" artist. In the 1950s, Crandall moved from illustrations to oil and portraits. Crandall created art for the Gerlach-Barklow Co. an art calendar factory in Joliet, Illinois. Some of Crandell's work is on display in Vanderbilt Hall, a mansion hotel in Newport, Rhode Island owned by Peter de Savary. Phyllis Brown graced the covers of Cosmopolitan and she was a well sought after model. An incident is told that Gerald Ford suggested the future Mrs. Betty Ford meet with two of his favorite friends when he heard of a trip she made to New York.
Those friends being Mrs. Bradshaw Crandell. Both Crandell and Ford were innocent of any wrongdoing, though, as Phyllis admitted it was all her idea; the following is a partial list of some of Crandell's works and is by no means exhaustive: 1921: F. W. Woolworth's ad for Lorraine hair nets 1921, 1937: Chesterfield ad 1921: Judge cover 1924-7: Collier's cover 1925-6: The Designer cover 1926-8, 1934-5, 1937: Saturday Evening Post cover 1926, 1928: Modern Priscilla cover 1927, 1931-2: Physical Culture cover 1928: Mazola Oil ad 1929: Cudahy's Puritan Bacon ad 1929: The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company ad 1930: College Humor cover 1930: Life cover c 1930: Old Gold cigarette ad 1931: Schrafft's candy ad 1931, 1933: Farmer's Wife cover 1932: Gerlack-Barklow calendars 1933: The American Magazine cover 1933: Palmolive soap ad 1935-1940, 1944-6: Cosmopolitan cover 1936: Buick ad 1938: Coca-Cola serving tray 1939: Lucky Strike calendar ad 1940: Pabst beer ad 1941: American Red Cross poster ad 1941-1944: John Player & Sons Cigarette ads 1943: Pontiac ads 1943: Women's Army Corps recruiting poster 1944: Tangee face powder ad 1948: Edgeworth pipe tobacco ad 1949: Lord Calvert whiskey ad unknown: Redbook only editorial or story illustration per Crandell himself Lana Turner Susan Hayward Judy Garland Veronica Lake Carole Lombard Bette Davis Olivia de Havilland Rosemary Lane, one of the Lane Sisters Gloria Callen Joan Bennett Joan Fontaine Anne Baxter Betty Hutton Jennifer Jones Lucille Ball Helen Twelvetrees W. D.
Hoard Jr. son of governor of Wisconsin Walter J. Kohler Jr. governor of Wisconsin James Montgomery Flagg fellow artist who gave us the popular Uncle Sam poster of "We Want You for US Army" Platnick, Norman I. "Roses of Romance: A Collector's Guide to Bradshaw Crandell", Enchanment Ink, Bay Shore, New York, 2003 American Art Archives Curtis Licensing