VHS is a standard for consumer-level analog video recording on tape cassettes. Developed by Victor Company of Japan in the early 1970s, it was released in Japan on September 9, 1976 and in the United States on August 23, 1977. From the 1950s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders. At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging. In the 1970s, videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses; the television industry viewed videocassette recorders as having the power to disrupt their business, while television users viewed the VCR as the means to take control of their hobby. In the 1970s and early 1980s, there was a format war in the home video industry. Two of the standards, VHS and Betamax, received the most media exposure. VHS won the war, dominating 60 percent of the North American market by 1980 and emerging as the dominant home video format throughout the tape media period.
Optical disc formats began to offer better quality than analog consumer video tape such as VHS and S-VHS. The earliest of these formats, LaserDisc, was not adopted. However, after the introduction of the DVD format in 1997, VHS's market share began to decline. By 2008, DVD had replaced VHS as the preferred low-end method of distribution; the last known company in the world to manufacture VHS equipment, Funai of Japan, ceased production in July 2016. After several attempts by other companies, the first commercially successful VTR, the Ampex VRX-1000, was introduced in 1956 by Ampex Corporation. At a price of US$50,000 in 1956, US$300 for a 90-minute reel of tape, it was intended only for the professional market. Kenjiro Takayanagi, a television broadcasting pioneer working for JVC as its vice president, saw the need for his company to produce VTRs for the Japan market, at a more affordable price. In 1959, JVC developed a two-head video tape recorder, by 1960 a color version for professional broadcasting.
In 1964, JVC released the DV220. In 1969, JVC collaborated with Sony Corporation and Matsushita Electric in building a video recording standard for the Japanese consumer; the effort produced the U-matic format in 1971, the first format to become a unified standard. U-matic was successful in business and some broadcast applications, but due to cost and limited recording time few of the machines were sold for home use. Soon after and Matsushita broke away from the collaboration effort, in order to work on video recording formats of their own. Sony started working on Betamax, while Matsushita started working on VX. JVC released the CR-6060 in 1975, based on the U-matic format. Sony and Matsushita produced U-matic systems of their own. In 1971, JVC engineers Yuma Shiraishi and Shizuo Takano put together a team to develop a consumer-based VTR. By the end of 1971 they created an internal diagram titled "VHS Development Matrix", which established twelve objectives for JVC's new VTR; these included: The system must be compatible with any ordinary television set.
Picture quality must be similar to a normal air broadcast. The tape must have at least a two-hour recording capacity. Tapes must be interchangeable between machines; the overall system should be versatile, meaning it can be scaled and expanded, such as connecting a video camera, or dub between two recorders. Recorders should be affordable, easy to have low maintenance costs. Recorders must be capable of being produced in high volume, their parts must be interchangeable, they must be easy to service. In early 1972, the commercial video recording industry in Japan took a financial hit. JVC restructured its video division, shelving the VHS project. However, despite the lack of funding and Shiraishi continued to work on the project in secret. By 1973 the two engineers had produced a functional prototype. In 1974, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, desiring to avoid consumer confusion, attempted to force the Japanese video industry to standardize on just one home video recording format.
Sony had a functional prototype of the Betamax format, was close to releasing a finished product. With this prototype, Sony persuaded the MITI to adopt Betamax as the standard, allow it to license the technology to other companies. JVC believed that an open standard, with the format shared among competitors without licensing the technology, was better for the consumer. To prevent the MITI from adopting Betamax, JVC worked to convince other companies, in particular Matsushita, to accept VHS, thereby work against Sony and the MITI. Matsushita agreed out of concern that Sony might become the leader in the field if its proprietary Betamax format was the only one allowed to be manufactured. Matsushita regarded Betamax's one-hour recording time limit as a disadvantage. Matsushita's backing of JVC persuaded Hitachi and Sharp to back the VHS standard as well. Sony's release of its Betamax unit to the Japanese market in 1975 placed further pressure on the MITI to side with the company. However, the collaboration of
Time Out Group
Time Out Group is a global media and entertainment company. Its digital and physical presence comprises websites, mobile editions, live events and markets. Time Out covers events and culture in cities across the world. Time Out Group provides entertainment and drink recommendations to an international audience through print and digital platforms. Time Out was established in 1968, by founder Tony Elliott and has developed into a global platform across 315 cities and in 58 countries, it provides original editorial content for users to find things to do in the city as well as curated lists of the best films, attractions, culture and nightlife activities. Time Out Market, launched in 2014 in Lisbon, enables people to discover, book and share their experiences on one platform. New Time Out Markets are set to open in Miami, New York, Boston and Montreal in 2019 and in London-Waterloo and in Prague in 2021 – all bringing the best of the city under one roof; the original Time Out magazine was first published in 1968 by Tony Elliott with Bob Harris as co-editor, has since developed into a global platform across 315 cities and 58 countries.
The magazine was a one-sheet pamphlet with listings for London. It started as a counter-culture publication that had an alternative viewpoint on issues such as gay rights, racial equality, police harassment. Early issues had a print run of around 5,000 and evolved to a weekly circulation of 110,000. One of the editors in the 1970s was Roger Hutchinson; the brand was expanded to North America with Time Out New York magazine known as TONY in 1995 followed by Time Out New York Kids in 1996. The success of taking the Time Out brand abroad led to the expansion of the magazine worldwide; the brand grew to include travel magazines, city guides, books. Time Out was able to withstand print competition; when Time Out New York launched it did not have a website and was competing against well-established online publications such as Citysearch and The Village Voice. The company. Financial loss and the necessity to expand the Time Out brand led Tony Elliott to sell half of Time Out London and 66 percent of TONY to private equity group Oakley Capital in May 2011.
Under new ownership, the company expanded the brand digitally through partnerships with software companies to develop a common online platform for the brand and to create multi-city mobile applications. The company continued to grow digitally and launched an iPad app for New York and London in July 2012; the iPad app was sponsored by MasterCard. In July 2015, Time Out Group announced a £7 million investment in Flypay, a pay-at-table mobile app that will integrate its technology into Time Out's media platform. In June 2016, Time Out Group underwent an initial public offering and trades under the symbol TMO on London's AIM stock exchange. Time Out magazine is available in 40 cities around the world including Lisbon, Porto, L. A. Miami, Sydney, Hong Kong, Barcelona, Beijing, Tel Aviv, Mexico City, Tokyo and Istanbul among others. Time Out London magazine is a free weekly publication based in London. Time Out provides event listings and editorial on film and the arts in London to inform readers of the availability of entertainment in the city.
Time Out New York was the brand's first magazine launch in North America and debuted in 1995. Time Out New York is now available for free every other Wednesday in vending boxes and newsstands across New York City and there are copies inside cultural establishments and other locations; the web audience is estimated to 4.5 million unique visitors a month. Time Out Media publishes guides written by locals aimed at providing tourists with tips in urban "nooks" around the world. Mobile apps have been integrated with city guides to allow mobile users to use GPS to pinpoint their location on Time Out maps and search for dining and event recommendations along with a list of editors picks and other options. In April 2014 Time Out Lisbon launched the Time Out Mercado da Ribeira; the market hosts 35 small restaurant and artisan kiosks from the best chefs offering local specialties and has been recognised as one of the top tourist attractions in Lisbon. New Time Out Markets are set to open in Miami. In August 2011, Time Out acquired the personalisation business LikeCube.
Kelkoo, a daily-offers business, was acquired by Time Out in December 2011. The Time Out brand license was acquired for the Chicago publication March 2013; the acquisition was part of a strategy to build an international media organisation in 50 cities. Changes included moving from print publication to digital format as only a limited few cities still have a printed Time Out magazine edition including London and New York. Time Out acquired the event discovery platform Huge City in May 2014. In April 2016, Time Out acquired the geo-mapping start-up Hallstreet. In October 2016, Time Out acquired the event discovery and booking service YPlan
Janusz Zygmunt Kamiński is a Polish cinematographer and film director who started his career in the United States. He rose to fame in the 1990s with his work on Schindler's List, he has established a partnership with Steven Spielberg, working as a cinematographer on his movies since 1993. He won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography for his work on Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan. In recent years, Kamiński has moved into the field of directing, first with the horror film Lost Souls, television series like The Event and The Divide. In 2019, the American Society of Cinematographers included Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan, both shot by Kamiński, on the list of the best-photographed films of the 20th century. Kamiński was born in Ziębice, the son of mother, Jadwiga Celner, father, Marian Kaminski. In 1981, he emigrated to the United States at the age of 21 after Prime Minister Jaruzelski imposed martial law, he attended Columbia College in Chicago from 1982 to 1987, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree, taking up filmmaking as a profession before attending to the AFI Conservatory, where he graduated with a Master of Fine Arts degree.
He worked under cinematographer Phedon Papamichael, first as a gaffer as chief lighting technician, second unit director of photography. He shot numerous B-movies for directors Roger Corman and Katt Shea, as well as the romantic musical comedy Cool as Ice, starring Vanilla Ice. Kamiński was first discovered by Steven Spielberg in 1991. After seeing the television film Wildflower, Spielberg hired Kamiński to shoot Class of'61, a television film in which Spielberg served as producer, he twice won the Academy Award for Best Cinematography in the 1990s, for Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan. He has been nominated four additional times for Amistad, The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, War Horse and Lincoln. In 2010, he was awarded the Franklin J. Schaffner Alumni Medal by the AFI Conservatory. Kamiński became a member of the American Society of Cinematographers in 1994, but resigned in 2006. Kamiński was married to actress Holly Hunter from 1995 until 2001, he married ABC reporter Rebecca Rankin in 2004.
They divorced in 2010. Cinema of Poland List of Polish Academy Award winners and nominees List of Poles Janusz Kamiński on IMDb Janusz Kamiński at culture.pl
Clifford David was an American actor and coach. His career began in the 1950s with early live television appearances leading to roles in Broadway musicals, he played character roles in television series, feature films, theatre. He is most recognized for his singing performances on several original Broadway cast albums. David was born in Toledo, the youngest son of Farris and Lily, his uncle was Metropolitan archdiocese Samuel David of Toledo, the archbishop of a diocese of Syrian Orthodox parishes. Samuel David's chanting of the Byzantine mass was world-renowned, Clifford, inspired by his uncle's voice, went to New York to pursue music and theater. A protégé of Lee Strasberg, David made his Broadway debut as Scipio in Albert Camus' Caligula directed by Sidney Lumet, he played Pasquale in The Aspern Papers directed by Margaret Webster, Antipholus in the 1963 Off-Broadway revival The Boys from Syracuse, Laertes in Joseph Papp's Hamlet, Lord Byron in the Lincoln Center production of Tennessee Williams' Camino Real with Al Pacino.
A member of the Motion Picture Academy of Arts and Sciences, Clifford's filmography includes Invitation to a Gunfighter, M. Night Shyamalan's Signs; as an accomplished pianist, he was cast as Beethoven in Ted's Excellent Adventure. A member of the Actors Studio from 1962, David worked with many of the greats of American theater and television, he told stories of shopping with Marilyn Monroe. He was working with Monroe on a play entitled The Cat, adapted from a Colette novel by Arthur Miller, when she died. David was featured in the principal casts and on the original studio albums of such Broadway musicals as Wildcat with Lucille Ball, 1776, with William Daniels, Alan Jay Lerner's On a Clear Day You Can See Forever, Andrew Lloyd Webber's Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat. Other feature film credits include The Last Mile, The Party's Over with Oliver Reed, The Betsy, with Laurence Olivier, Fort Apache, The Bronx with Paul Newman, The Exorcist III, he was seen on television in the miniseries Blind Ambition as well as in political dramas Fear on Trial and Missiles of October with Martin Sheen.
He appeared in episodes of Bonanza, The Big Valley, Charlie's Angels, Mary Tyler Moore, Murphy Brown, Party of Five, She Wrote, Will & Grace and Law & Order. Clifford David at the Internet Broadway Database Clifford David at Internet Off-Broadway Database Clifford David at the University of Wisconsin's Actors Studio audio collection
Vestron Video was the main subsidiary of Vestron, Inc. a home video company based in Stamford, Connecticut, active from 1981 to 1992, was considered to have been a pioneer in the home video market. Vestron was founded in 1981 by Austin Owen Furst, Jr. an executive at HBO, hired to dismantle the assets of Time-Life Films. Furst bought the video rights of the film library for himself and decided to form a home entertainment company with these assets. Furst's daughter suggested the moniker "Vestron," a portmanteau combining the name of Roman goddess Vesta and "Tron", which means "instrument" in Greek; the company held on to its Time-Life Video library, was responsible for releases on Video Home System videocassette as well as CED Videodisc of B movies and films from the Cannon Films' library. They distributed films under The Movie Store banner; the most notable titles Vestron released were Dirty Dancing, Monster Squad, An American Werewolf in London. In years, the company began to shift towards mainstream films, including films released through their Vestron Pictures subsidiary, most notably Dirty Dancing.
Vestron was the first company to release National Geographic and PBS' Nova videos in the late 1980s distributed by Image Entertainment, was the first to market with a pro wrestling video, Pro Wrestling Illustrated Presents Lords of the Ring. They released a 3-volume series called How to Beat Home Video Games, which contains strategies for video games of the time, they handled exclusive US distribution and sales of VidAmerica releases beginning in 1983. Starting in 1985, they handed these duties to Lightning Video. Vestron went public on the New York Stock Exchange in 1985 with what was, at the time, a large market cap initial public offering of $440 million, oversubscribed; the company enjoyed success for several years, at one point exceeding 10% of the US video movie market. At its high point sales approximated $350 million annually, the company sold video movies in over 30 countries either directly or through sub-licensing agreements; this was a rights business, built by people who saw the value in video rights to films before the major studios did.
They recognized the market potential and film products became harder for Vestron to acquire. Independent producers increased the price of what was available; the company started to make its own films, but when the market's preferences matured, shifted from watching any film to just watching "A" titles, the majors' specialty, Vestron was committed to about 20 "B" to low-"A" projects. The company's financing fell through and it filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11, was bought out on January 11, 1991, by Los Angeles-based LIVE Entertainment, a home video and music company, for $27.3 million. LIVE acquired Vestron's extensive film library; the International branches were split up and sold off after the bankruptcy during 1991, the UK branch was sold a year prior to Welsh ITV franchise holder HTV and renamed to First Independent Films. Their international divisions itself were the second largest after Warner Bros. Vestron had many direct theatrical, video and TV distribution offices around the world in major markets, owned a video manufacturing plant in the Netherlands to supply European markets.
Today, most Vestron Video's holdings are owned by Lions Gate Entertainment, which merged with LIVE's forerunner company, Artisan Entertainment, in 2003. Vestron, Inc.'s subsidiaries included: Vestron Video Vestron Pictures Vestron Music Video Vestron International Group Vestron Television, whose most notable production was a television series based on Dirty Dancing. Vestron Video International Children's Video Library: Children's/family video sub-label. Lightning Video: genre sub-label. Lightning Pictures Interaccess Film Distribution: Overseas distribution unit entitled Producers Distribution Organization. Many of its staff were hired from Producers Sales Organization after its bankruptcy. On August 1, 2016, Lionsgate Home Entertainment announced its resurrection of the Vestron Video brand as a Blu-ray and DVD reissue label for Vestron and other Lionsgate-owned horror films, similar to boutique labels like Scream Factory and Blue Underground; this line, dubbed the Vestron Video Collector's Series, is branded with an updated version of the first Vestron Video logo from 1982–1986 and began with Blu-ray releases of the cult films Chopping Mall and Blood Diner on September 27, 2016.
Vestron Video on IMDb Dirty Dancing, The E! True Hollywood Story, first aired September 3, 2000
Pyrokinesis is the purported psychic ability allowing a person to create and control fire with the mind. There is no conclusive evidence. Alleged cases are the result of trickery; the word'pyrokinesis' was coined by horror novelist Stephen King in his 1980 novel Firestarter to describe the ability to create and control fire with the mind. The word is intended to be parallel to telekinesis, with S. T. Joshi describing it as a "singularly unfortunate coinage" and noting that the correct analogy to telekinesis would "not be “pyrokinesis” but “telepyrosis”". King is the first person to give the idea a name as neither the term pyrokinesis nor any other term describing the idea have been found in prior works. Parapsychologists describe pyrokinesis as the ability to excite the atoms within an object until they generate enough energy to burst into flame. Science fiction works define pyrokinesis as speeding up the movement of molecules in order to increase temperature. A. W. Underwood, a 19th-century African-American, achieved minor celebrity status with the purported ability to set items ablaze.
Magicians and scientists have suggested concealed pieces of phosphorus may have instead been responsible. The phosphorus could be ignited by breath or rubbing. Skeptical investigator Joe Nickell has written that Underwood may have used a "chemical-combustion technique, still other means. Whatever the exact method — and the phosphorus trick might be the most — the possibilities of deception far outweigh any occult powers hinted at by Charles Fort or others."The medium Daniel Dunglas Home was known for performing fire feats and handling a heated lump of coal taken from a fire. The magician Henry R. Evans wrote that the coal handling was a juggling trick, performed by Home using a hidden piece of platinum. Hereward Carrington described Evans hypothesis as "certainly ingenious" but pointed out William Crookes, an experienced chemist, was present at a séance whilst Home performed the feat and would have known how to distinguish the difference between coal and platinum. Frank Podmore wrote that most of the fire feats could have be performed by conjuring tricks and sleight of hand but hallucination and sense-deception may have explained Crookes' claim about observing flames from Home's fingers.
Joseph McCabe has written that Home's alleged feats of pyrokinesis were weak and unsatisfactory, he noted that they were performed in dark conditions amongst unreliable witnesses. McCabe suggested the coal handling was a "piece of asbestos from Home's pocket". In March 2011, a three-year-old girl in Antique Province, Philippines gained media attention for the supposed supernatural power to predict or create fires; the town mayor said he witnessed a pillow ignite after the girl said "fire... pillow." Others claimed to have witnessed the girl either predicting or causing fire without any physical contact with the objects. Sometimes claims of pyrokinesis are published in the context of fire ghosts, such as Canneto di Caronia fires and earlier Italian case of young nanny, Carole Compton. There is no scientifically plausible method for the brain to trigger fires. Fire Firewalking Gordon Stein.. Encyclopedia of Hoaxes. Gale Research. ISBN 0-8103-8414-0 John G. Taylor.. Science and the Supernatural: An Investigation of Paranormal Phenomena Including Psychic Healing, Clairvoyance and Precognition by a Distinguished Physicist and Mathematician.
Temple Smith. ISBN 0-85117-191-5
Peter Himmelman is an American singer-songwriter and film and television composer from Minnesota, who played in the Minneapolis indie rock band Sussman Lawrence before pursuing an extensive solo career. Himmelman is the founder of Big Muse, a company which helps individuals and organizations unlock their creative potential, he is married to a lawyer and adopted daughter of Bob Dylan. They have four children. Himmelman garnered his first solo deal on Island Records in 1985 after a video for the song "Eleventh Confession" made its way onto regular rotation on MTV, his first release entitled This Father’s Day was composed for Himmelman's father David. In the early'90s, he achieved significant alternative radio play with songs including "The Woman With The Strength of 10000 Men", from his From Strength To Strength release, he was nominated for an Emmy Award in 2002 for his song "Best Kind Of Answer" which appeared in the CBS series Judging Amy, for which Himmelman composed the score. He was the composer for the FOX television show Bones through the fourth season.
He was nominated for a Grammy Award for My Green Kite. USA Today has called Himmelman "one of rock's most wildly imaginative performers" for his highly improvisational stage shows. In 2011 Himmelman began working with organizations and brands such as McDonald's, Gap Inc. and Banana Republic to help them achieve better communication and leadership skills with a company he started called Big Muse. The methodology Himmelman created is designed to help organizations increase innovative thinking, team building and leadership ability, its main metaphor for teaching these skills is songwriting. Solo studio albums1986: This Father's Day 1987: Gematria 1989: Synesthesia 1991: From Strength to Strength 1992: Flown This Acid World 1994: Skin 1999: Love Thinketh No Evil 2004: Unstoppable Forces 2005: Imperfect World 2007: Pigeons Couldn't Sleep 2010: The Mystery and the Hum 2014: The Boat That Carries Us 2017: There Is No CalamityBand albums1978: Shangoya - "Get a Grip" - 7" single 1979: Sussman Lawrence - Hail to the Modern Hero 1984: Sussman Lawrence - Pop City 2004: The Complete Sussman Lawrence 2013: Minnesota – Are You There?
Solo children's albums1997: My Best Friend is a Salamander 2000: My Fabulous Plum 2004: My Lemonade Stand 2007: My Green Kite 2009: My TrampolineLive albums1996: Stage Diving - Live from The Bottom Line - NY, NY 2008: Pen and InkGreatest hits compilations2004: The Complete Sussman Lawrence 2005: Mission of My Soul, The Best of Peter Himmelman 2007: Songs of Folly and Transcendence 2011: Best of Kids Collection: Songs to Make Boring Days FunRarities releases1998: Himmelvaults, Vol. 1 1999: Himmelman Music for Film 2002: Himmelvaults, Vol. 2 2004: Himmelvaults, Vol. 3 - bundled with Unstoppable Forces 2005: Himmelvaults, Vol. 4 Pristine 2005: Himmelvaults, Vol. 5 When Grace Collides with Sin 2006: Himmelvaults, Vol. 6 2007: Himmelvaults, Vol. 7 2008: Himmelvaults, Vol. 8 2009: Blackout in the Book of Light 2011: Flimsy 2014: Himmelvaults, Vol. 9"Spinoza Bear Project-In the early 1980s Peter Himmelman wrote and produced songs for Spinoza Bear, a therapeutic stuffed animal, used to eliminate the stress of children in hospitals, rape victims, autism sufferers and others.
He was the voice of the bear. 1984: I'm Your Friend And My Name Is Spinoza - Bonding, Opens Communication 1985: You Are All You Need To Be - Encouragement, Self Esteem 1985: Everybody Needs A Little Tenderness - Ease Anxiety 1985: Dream on the Water - Encourage Sleep 1986: Do You Wonder - Curiosity, Learning 1986: Good Friends - Feelings, Relationships 1991: New Beginnings - Relaxation, Healthy Choices 1991: Breathing Healthy, Breathing Free - Positive Attitude, Deep Breathing 1991: Hold On to Me - Grief and Loss Furious World He was the creative force behind Furious World his live Internet show, which broadcast every Tuesday evening at 7pm from his home studio. The innovative show featured original live music with his band, video segments that ranged from philosophical to comedic, special guests from the world of technology and the arts. Rock G-d Film Rock G-d is a documentary about Peter Himmelman directed by Keith Wolf, it is described as "a road epic about the pursuit of an adolescent dream into adult reality that powerfully touches on issues of faith and failure".
TV scoring credits •Bones •Judging Amy - Emmy nominated song "Best Kind of Answer" •Men in Trees •Ex List •Heartland •Freshmen Diaries •The American Embassy •Going to California •Making the Band 4 •Bug Juice •ER - Season 9 - "A Thousand Cranes": "Always in Disguise" from the album Flown This Acid World •Miami Vice - Season 2 "Lend Me an Ear" •How To Rock Film music/scoring credits •Ash Tuesday - Janeane Garofalo •Four Feet •The Souler Opposite - Chris Meloni, Tim Busfield •Bill's Gun Shop •A Slipping-Down Life - Guy Pearce, Lili Taylor •Dinner & Driving - Joey Slotnick, Paula DeVico, Sam Robards, Brigitte Bako •Liar's Poker - Flea•Crossing The Bridge - Jason Gedrick, Stephen Baldwin, David Schwimmer •Pyrates - Kevin Bacon, Kyra Sedgwick •Queen Sized - Nikki Blonsky •Porn'n Chicken •Snow in August •A Face to Kill For - Doug Savant, Crystal Bernard •Long Gone - Dermot Mulroney •Heart of Dixie - Ally Sheedy, Phoebe Cates, Treat Williams •ASCAP - Top TV Series: Judging Amy •ASCAP - Top TV Series: Judging A