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Pythagoras

Pythagoras of Samos was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, and, through them, Western philosophy. Knowledge of his life is clouded by legend, but he appears to have been the son of Mnesarchus, a gem-engraver on the island of Samos. Modern scholars disagree regarding Pythagoras's education and influences, but they do agree that, around 530 BC, he travelled to Croton, in what is now southern Italy, where he founded a school in which initiates were sworn to secrecy and lived a communal, ascetic lifestyle; this lifestyle entailed a number of dietary prohibitions, traditionally said to have included vegetarianism, although modern scholars doubt that he advocated for complete vegetarianism. The teaching most securely identified with Pythagoras is metempsychosis, or the "transmigration of souls", which holds that every soul is immortal and, upon death, enters into a new body.

He may have devised the doctrine of musica universalis, which holds that the planets move according to mathematical equations and thus resonate to produce an inaudible symphony of music. Scholars debate whether Pythagoras developed the numerological and musical teachings attributed to him, or if those teachings were developed by his followers Philolaus of Croton. Following Croton's decisive victory over Sybaris in around 510 BC, Pythagoras's followers came into conflict with supporters of democracy and Pythagorean meeting houses were burned. Pythagoras may have been killed during this persecution, or escaped to Metapontum, where he died. In antiquity, Pythagoras was credited with many mathematical and scientific discoveries, including the Pythagorean theorem, Pythagorean tuning, the five regular solids, the Theory of Proportions, the sphericity of the Earth, the identity of the morning and evening stars as the planet Venus, it was said that he was the first man to call himself a philosopher and that he was the first to divide the globe into five climatic zones.

Classical historians debate whether Pythagoras made these discoveries, many of the accomplishments credited to him originated earlier or were made by his colleagues or successors. Some accounts mention that the philosophy associated with Pythagoras was related to mathematics and that numbers were important, but it is debated to what extent, if at all, he contributed to mathematics or natural philosophy. Pythagoras influenced Plato, whose dialogues his Timaeus, exhibit Pythagorean teachings. Pythagorean ideas on mathematical perfection impacted ancient Greek art, his teachings underwent a major revival in the first century BC among Middle Platonists, coinciding with the rise of Neopythagoreanism. Pythagoras continued to be regarded as a great philosopher throughout the Middle Ages and his philosophy had a major impact on scientists such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, Isaac Newton. Pythagorean symbolism was used throughout early modern European esotericism and his teachings as portrayed in Ovid's Metamorphoses influenced the modern vegetarian movement.

No authentic writings of Pythagoras have survived, nothing is known for certain about his life. The earliest sources on Pythagoras's life are brief and satirical; the earliest source on Pythagoras's teachings is a satirical poem written after his death by Xenophanes of Colophon, one of his contemporaries. In the poem, Xenophanes describes Pythagoras interceding on behalf of a dog, being beaten, professing to recognize in its cries the voice of a departed friend. Alcmaeon of Croton, a doctor who lived in Croton at around the same time Pythagoras lived there, incorporates many Pythagorean teachings into his writings and alludes to having known Pythagoras personally; the poet Heraclitus of Ephesus, born across a few miles of sea away from Samos and may have lived within Pythagoras's lifetime, mocked Pythagoras as a clever charlatan, remarking that "Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchus, practiced inquiry more than any other man, selecting from these writings he manufactured a wisdom for himself—much learning, artful knavery."The Greek poets Ion of Chios and Empedocles of Acragas both express admiration for Pythagoras in their poems.

The first concise description of Pythagoras comes from the historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus, who describes him as "not the most insignificant" of Greek sages and states that Pythagoras taught his followers how to attain immortality. The writings attributed to the Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus of Croton, who lived in the late fifth century BC, are the earliest texts to describe the numerological and musical theories that were ascribed to Pythagoras; the Athenian rhetorician Isocrates was the first to describe Pythagoras as having visited Egypt. Aristotle wrote a treatise On the Pythagoreans, no longer extant; some of it may be preserved in the Protrepticus. Aristotle's disciples Dicaearchus and Heraclides Ponticus wrote on the same subject. Most of the major sources on Pythagoras's life are from the Roman period, by which point, according to the German classicist Walter Burkert, "the history of Pythagoreanism was already... the laborious reconstruction of something lost and gone." Three lives of Pythagoras have survived from late antiquity, all of which are filled with myths and legends.

The earliest and most respectable of these is the one from Diogenes Laërtius's Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. The two lives were written by the Neoplatonist philosophers Porphyry and Iamblichus and

Hank Williams, You Wrote My Life (song)

"Hank Williams, You Wrote My Life " is a song written by Paul Craft, recorded by American country music artist Moe Bandy. It was released in late 1975 as the title track from his fourth album, was his first single after signing with Columbia Records. Bandy had become a critically acclaimed artist and performing in the honky-tonk style, during the previous two years while under contract with GRC Records. Songs such as ""I Just Started Hatin' Cheatin' Songs Today," "Honky-Tonk Amnesia," "It Was Always So Easy" and "Bandy the Rodeo Clown" became big country hits in 1974-1975, his star power and reputation was increasing. By the fall of 1975, Bandy had signed a contract with Columbia Records, one of the first songs he recorded was "Hank Williams, You Wrote My Life." Bandy's earlier songs and method of putting across themes of heartbreak, lost love and use of alcohol as solace showed his being influenced by Hank Williams, and, furthered by "Hank Williams, You Wrote My Life." The song makes use of a number of Williams-penned-and-recorded song titles in the lyrics to express deep sorrow and sadness following a bitter breakup of a relationship.

In addition to "Your Cheatin' Heart" and "Moanin' the Blues," song titles listed or referenced in the lyrics included "Cold, Cold Heart," "Half as Much," "I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry," " Lonesome Whistle," and "The Blues Come Around." "Hank Williams... " would become Bandy's biggest hit yet, peaking at No. 2 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart in February 1976

Wim Esajas

Siegfried Willem "Wim" Esajas was a middle-distance runner from Suriname, who qualified for the Athletics at the Men's 800 m event at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome and was supposed to be the first Surinamese Olympian. Esajas missed the event, it was alleged that he overslept it, whereas he was given a wrong starting time by Fred Glans, the head of Suriname's Olympic delegation. Esajas was a multiple national record holder in the 800 m, 1500 m and 3000 m events in the 1950s, was selected as the Surinamese Sportman of the Year 1956, he retired from sport after the 1960 Olympics, graduated in horticulture from a college in Deventer, the Netherlands, returned to Suriname to grow flowers. In 2005, Suriname's Olympic Committee presented Esajas with a plaque honoring him as Suriname's first Olympian and with a letter of apology for the mistake made by its official in 1960. Esajas died two weeks of an uncertain illness, he was survived by his son Werner