Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which they use for killing prey, for defense, to assist with digestion of their prey. The venom is delivered by injection using hollow or grooved fangs, although some venomous snakes lack well-developed fangs. Common venomous snakes include the families Elapidae, Viperidae and some of the Colubridae; the toxicity of venom is indicated by murine LD50, while multiple factors are considered to judge the potential danger to humans. Other important factors for risk assessment include the likelihood that a snake will bite, the quantity of venom delivered with the bite, the efficiency of the delivery mechanism, the location of a bite on the body of the victim. Snake venom may have both hemotoxic properties; the evolutionary history of venomous snakes can be traced back to as far as 25 million years ago. Snake venom is modified saliva used for prey immobilization and self-defense and is delivered through specialized teeth, hollow fangs, directly into the bloodstream or tissue of the target.
Evidence has been presented for the Toxicofera hypothesis, but venom was present in the ancestors of all snakes as "toxic saliva" and evolved to extremes in those snake families classified as venomous by parallel evolution. The Toxicofera hypothesis further implies that "nonvenomous" snake lineages have either lost the ability to produce venom, or do produce venom in small quantities sufficient to help capture small prey but causing no harm to humans when bitten. There is not a single or special taxonomic group for venomous snakes that comprise species from different families; this has been interpreted to mean venom in snakes originated more than once as the result of convergent evolution. Around a quarter of all snake species are identified as being venomous. Venomous snakes are said to be poisonous, but poison and venom are not the same thing. Poisons must be ingested, inhaled or absorbed, while venom must be injected into the body by mechanical means. While unusual, there are a few species of snake which are poisonous.
Rhabdophis keelback snakes are both venomous and poisonous – their poisons are stored in nuchal glands and are acquired by sequestering toxins from poisonous toads the snakes eat. Certain garter snakes from Oregon can retain toxins in their livers from ingesting rough-skinned newts. LD50, Mostly on Rodents, is a common indicator of snakes' toxicity with a smaller resultant value indicating a higher level of toxicity. There have been numerous studies on snake venom with a variability of potency estimates. There are four methods in which the LD50 test is conducted, which are injections to subcutis, vein and peritoneum; the former is most applicable to actual bites as only vipers with large fangs, such as large Bitis, Crotalus, or Daboia specimens, would be able to deliver a bite, intramuscular, snakebites cause IV envenomation. Testing using dry venom mixed with 0.1% bovine serum albumin in saline, gives more consistent results than just saline alone. Belcher's sea snake, which many times is mistakenly called the hook-nosed Sea Snake, has been erroneously popularized as the most venomous snake in the world, due to the first edition of Ernst and Zug's book, Snakes in Question: The Smithsonian Answer Book, published in 1996.
Prominent venom expert Associate Professor Bryan Grieg Fry has clarified the error: "The hook nosed myth was due to a fundamental error in a book called Snakes in Question. In there, all the toxicity testing results were lumped in together, regardless of the mode of testing; as the mode can influence the relative number, venoms can only be compared within a mode. Otherwise, it's apples and rocks." Belcher's sea snake's actual LD50 is 0.155 mg/kg. Studies on mice and human cardiac cell culture show that venom of the inland taipan, drop by drop, is the most toxic among all snakes; the toxicity of snake venom is sometimes used to gauge the extent of danger to humans, but this is not enough. Many venomous snakes are specialized predators whose venom may be adapted to incapacitate their preferred prey. A number of other factors are critical in determining the potential hazard of any given venomous snake to humans, including their distribution and behavior. For example, while the inland taipan is regarded as the world's most venomous snake based on LD50 tests on mice, it is a shy species and strikes, has not caused any known human fatalities.
On the other hand, India's Big Four, while less venomous than the inland taipan, are found in closer proximity to human settlements and are more confrontational, thus leading to more deaths from snakebite. In addition, some species, such as the black mamba and coastal taipan show some aggression when alarmed or in self-defence, may deliver fatal doses of venom, resulting in high human mortality rates. Snakebite Snake venom Venomoid Big Four List of venomous animals Venomous fish Venomous mammals Poisonous amphibians Toxic birds Venomous snakes and outdoor workers Bite-prevention and treatment information for outdoor workers
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, in a ring species. Among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, each clone is a microspecies. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial"; the first part of a binomial is the genus.
The second part is called the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa. None of these is satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, to grade into one another. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection; that understanding was extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or impossible to test. Biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts, the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26. Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: agamospecies for asexual organisms biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms ecospecies based on ecological niches evolutionary species based on lineage genetic species based on gene pool morphospecies based on form or phenotype and taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.
A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties, so that pre-literate people recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens would differentiate the species; this method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not different species. Species named in this manner are called morphospecies. In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms, it differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.
Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. In microbiology, genes can move even between distantly related bacteria extending to the whole bacterial domain; as a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%. DNA-DNA hybri
African rock python
The African rock python is a large, nonvenomous snake of sub-Saharan Africa. It is one of 11 living species in the genus Python, it has two subspecies. Africa's largest snake and one of the six largest snake species in the world, specimens may approach or exceed 6 m; the southern subspecies is smaller than its northern relative. The snake is found in a variety of habitats, from forests to near deserts, although near sources of water; the snake becomes dormant during the dry season. The African rock python kills its prey by constriction and eats animals up to the size of antelope even crocodiles; the snake reproduces by egg-laying. Unlike most snakes, the female protects her nest and sometimes her hatchlings; the snake is feared, though it rarely kills humans. Although the snake is not endangered, it does face threats from habitat hunting; the African rock python is in the genus Python, large constricting snakes found in the moist tropics of Asia and Africa. The species P. sebae is divided into P. s. sebae and P. s. natalensis.
Some consider the more southerly population of this snake to be a separate species, Python natalensis, while others consider this population to be a subspecies. P. Sebae was first described by Johann Friedrich Gmelin, a German naturalist, in 1788. Therefore, he is the taxon author of the nominate subspecies; the southern subspecies was first identified by South African zoologist Sir Andrew Smith, in 1833. The generic name, Python, is a Greek word referring to the enormous serpent at Delphi slain by Apollo in Greek mythology; the specific name, sebae, is a latinization of the surname of Albertus Seba. The subspecific name, refers to the Natal region of South Africa. Common name usage varies with both the species and northern subspecies referred to as African rock python or rock python; the southern African rock python is sometimes referred to as the Natal rock python or the African python. Africa's largest snake species and one of the world's largest, the typical African rock python adult measures 3 to 3.53 m in total length, with only unusually large specimens to exceed 4.8 m.
Reports of specimens over 6 m are considered reliable, although larger specimens have never been confirmed. Weights are in the range of 44 to 55 kg, per one study adults are expected to weigh only up to 32.2 kg. Exceptionally large specimens may weigh 91 kg or more. On average, large adults of African rock pythons are quite built more so than most specimens of the somewhat longer reticulated as well as Indian and Burmese pythons and far more so than the Amethystine python, although the species is on average less built than the green anaconda; the African species may be the second heaviest living snake with some authors agreeing that it can exceptionally exceed 90 kg. One specimen 7 m in length, was killed by K. H. Kroft in 1958 and was claimed to have had a 1.5 m juvenile Nile crocodile in its stomach. An larger specimen considered authentic was shot in The Gambia and measured 7.5 m. The snake varies in body size between different areas. In general, it is smaller in populated regions, such as in southern Nigeria, only reaching its maximum length in areas such as Sierra Leone, where the human population density is lower.
Males are smaller than females. The African rock python's body is thick and covered with colored blotches joining up in a broad, irregular stripe. Body markings vary between brown, olive and yellow, but fade to white on the underside; the head is marked on top with a dark brown "spear-head" outlined in buffy yellow. Teeth are many and backwardly curved. Under the eye, there is a distinctive triangular marking, the subocular mark. Like all pythons, the scales of the African rock python are smooth; those around the lips possess heat-sensitive pits, which are used to detect warm-blooded prey in the dark. Pythons possess two functioning lungs, unlike more advanced snakes which have only one, have small, visible pelvic spurs, believed to be the vestiges of hind limbs; the southern subspecies is distinguished by its smaller size, smaller scales on top of the head, a smaller or absent subocular mark. The African rock python is found throughout the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal east to Ethiopia and Somalia and south to Namibia and South Africa.
Python sebae sebae ranges across central and western Africa, while P. s. natalensis has a more eastern and southerly range, from southern Kenya to South Africa. In 2009, an African rock python was found in the Florida Everglades, it is feared to be establishing itself as an invasive species alongside the already-established Burmese python. Feral rock pythons were noted in the 1990s in the Everglades; the African rock python inhabits a wide range of habitats, including forest, grassland and rocky areas. It is associated with areas of permanent water, is found on the edges of swamps and rivers; the snake readily adapts to disturbed habitats, so is found around human habitation cane fields. Like all pythons, the African rock python kills its prey by constriction. After gripping the prey, the snake
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
The Torres Strait is a strait which lies between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea. It is 150 km wide at its narrowest extent. To the south is Cape York Peninsula, the northernmost extremity of the Australian mainland. To the north is the Western Province of Papua New Guinea, it is named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres, who passed through the Strait in 1606. The strait links the Coral Sea to Gulf of Carpentaria in the west. Although it is an important international sea lane, it is shallow, the maze of reefs and islands can make it hazardous to navigate. In the south the Endeavour Strait is located between Prince of the mainland. Shipping enters Torres Strait via the Adolphus Channel which joins to the Great Barrier Reef lagoon to the southeast. Strong tidal currents occur in the narrow channels between islands and reefs, large submarine sand dunes migrate across the seafloor; some 580 coral reefs, including the Warrior Reefs and Eastern Patch Reefs, cover a total area of 2,400 km2 in the region, as well as some of the most extensive seagrass beds in the world.
Several clusters of islands lie in the Strait, collectively called the Torres Strait Islands. There are at least 274 of these islands. Over 6,800 Torres Strait Islanders live on the Islands and 42,000 live on the mainland; these islands have a variety of topographies and formation history. Several of those closest to the New Guinea coastline are low-lying, formed by alluvial sedimentary deposits borne by the outflow of the local rivers into the sea. Many of the western islands are hilly and steep, formed of granite, are peaks of the northernmost extension of the Great Dividing Range now turned into islands when sea levels rose at the end of the last ice age; the central islands are predominantly coral cays, those of the east are of volcanic origins. The islands are administered from Thursday Island. There are several major policy and institutional frameworks in the Torres Strait region that support the sustainable use and management of marine resources while protecting habitats and the traditional islander way of life.
Most important of these is the Torres Strait Treaty entered into by Australia and Papua New Guinea in February 1985. The Treaty defines maritime boundaries in the area between the two countries, it guides decision makers on protecting the way of life and livelihood of traditional inhabitants, on managing the protection of habitats, on sharing the commercial and traditional fisheries resources. The Treaty established a Torres Strait Protected Zone within which both nations manage access to fisheries resources; each country exercises sovereign jurisdiction for resources on either side of the agreed jurisdiction lines. The islands' indigenous inhabitants are the Torres Strait Islanders, who are distinct from both the Papuans of adjoining New Guinea and from Aboriginal groups on the nearby Australian mainland but related to both; the various Torres Strait Islander communities have a unique culture and long-standing history with the islands and nearby coastlines. Their maritime-based trade and interactions with the Papuans to the north and the Australian Aboriginal communities have maintained a steady cultural diffusion between the three societal groups, dating back thousands of years at least.
Two indigenous languages are spoken on the Torres Strait Islands: Kala Lagaw Ya/Kalaw Kawaw Ya/Kawalgau Ya/Muwalgau Ya/Kulkalgau Ya, Miriam Mir, as well as Brokan, otherwise called Torres Strait Creole. In the 2001 Australian national census, the population of the islands was recorded as 8,089, though many more live outside of Torres Strait in Australia. Environmental issues facing the region include the risk of mining waste from the Fly River in southern Papua New Guinea, the impacts of global climate change and the sustainable management of natural resources; the islands of the Torres Strait have been inhabited for at least 2,500 years and much longer. The first recorded European navigation of the strait was by Luís Vaz de Torres, a pilot, second-in-command on the Spanish expedition led by navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós who sailed from Peru to the South Pacific in 1605. After Queirós's ship returned to Mexico, Torres resumed the intended voyage to Manila via the Maluku Islands, he sailed along the south coast of New Guinea, may have sighted the northernmost extremity of the Australian mainland, however no specific records exist that indicate he did so.
In 1769 the Scottish geographer Alexander Dalrymple, whilst translating some Spanish documents captured in the Philippines in 1762, had found Luís Vaz de Torres' testimony proving a passage south of New Guinea now known as Torres Strait. This discovery led Dalrymple to publish the Historical Collection of the Several Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean in 1770–1771, which aroused widespread interest in his claim of the existence of an unknown continent, it was Dalrymple. Dalrymple was bitterly disappointed that it was James Cook and not he, appointed commander of the expedition that led in 1770 to the British encounter and charting of the eastern coastline of Australia. In 1770 Lieutenant James Cook turned south-west and landed on Possession Island. From the top of a hill, he signalled down to the ship that he could see a navigable passage through the dangerous Strait. In Batavia, where he learnt that the French had preceded him across the Pacific, Cook re-wrote this signalling drill as a possession ceremony, saying he had claimed Austral
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, north and east of Timor; the islands were known as the Spice Islands due to the nutmeg and cloves that were exclusively found there, the presence of which sparked colonial interest from Europe in the sixteenth century. The Maluku Islands formed a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999, when it was split into two provinces. A new province, North Maluku, incorporates the area between Morotai and Sula, with the arc of islands from Buru and Seram to Wetar remaining within the existing Maluku Province. North Maluku is predominantly Muslim, its capital is Sofifi on Halmahera island. Maluku province has a larger Christian population, its capital is Ambon. Though Melanesian, many island populations in the Banda Islands, were massacred in the seventeenth century during the spice wars.
A second influx of immigrants from Java began in the early twentieth century under the Dutch and continues in the Indonesian era. Between 1999 and 2002, conflict between Muslims and Christians killed thousands and displaced half a million people; the name Maluku is thought to have been derived from the term used by Arab traders for the region, Jazirat al-Moluk, from the word malik. However, since the name itself has been mentioned in a fourteenth-century Majapahit eulogy, that predates the arrival of Islam in Maluku at the late fifteenth century, other sources claim that the name comes from a local language with the meaning "the head of a bull" or "the head of something large"; the Maluku Islands were a single province from Indonesian independence until 1999 when they were split into North Maluku and Maluku. North Maluku province includes Ternate, Tidore and Halmahera. Arab merchants began bringing Islam. Peaceful conversion to Islam occurred in many islands in the centres of trade, while aboriginal animism persisted in the hinterlands and more isolated islands.
Archaeological evidence here relies on the occurrence of pigs' teeth, as evidence of pork eating or abstinence therefrom. The most significant lasting effects of the Portuguese presence was the disruption and reorganization of the Southeast Asian trade, in eastern Indonesia—including Maluku—the introduction of Christianity; the Portuguese had conquered the city-state of Malacca in the early sixteenth century and their influence was most felt in Maluku and other parts of eastern Indonesia. After the Portuguese annexed Malacca in August 1511, one Portuguese diary noted'it is thirty years since they became Moors'. Afonso de Albuquerque learned of the route to the Banda Islands and other'Spice Islands', sent an exploratory expedition of three vessels under the command of António de Abreu, Simão Afonso Bisigudo and Francisco Serrão. On the return trip, Francisco Serrão was shipwrecked at Hitu island in 1512. There he established ties with the local ruler, impressed with his martial skills; the rulers of the competing island states of Ternate and Tidore sought Portuguese assistance and the newcomers were welcomed in the area as buyers of supplies and spices during a lull in the regional trade due to the temporary disruption of Javanese and Malay sailings to the area following the 1511 conflict in Malacca.
The spice trade soon revived but the Portuguese would not be able to monopolize nor disrupt this trade. Allying himself with Ternate's ruler, Serrão constructed a fortress on that tiny island and served as the head of a mercenary band of Portuguese seamen under the service of one of the two local feuding sultans who controlled most of the spice trade. Both Serrão and Ferdinand Magellan, perished before they could meet one another; the Portuguese first landed in Ambon in 1513, but it only became the new centre for their activities in Maluku following the expulsion from Ternate. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-European state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah and his son Sultan Said. Following Portuguese missionary work, there have been large Christian communities in eastern Indonesia through to contemporary times, which has contributed to a sense of shared interest with Europeans among the Ambonese; the Dutch competed with the Portuguese in the area for trade.
With the declaration of a single republic of Indonesia in 1950 to replace the federal state, a Republic of South Maluku was declared and attempted to secede. And led by Chris Soumokil and supported by the Moluccan members of the Netherlands special troops; this movement was defeated by the Indonesian army and by special agreement with the Netherlands the troops were transferred to the Netherlands. Maluku is one of the first provinces of Indonesia, proclaimed in 1945 until 1999, when the Maluku Utara and Halmahera Tengah Regencies were split off as a separate province of North Maluku, its capital used to be Ternate, on a small island to the west of the large island of Halmahera, but has been moved to Sofifi on Halmahera itself. The capital of the remaining part of Maluku province remains at Ambon. Religious conflict erupted across the islands in January 1999; the subsequent 18 months were characterized by fighting between local groups of Muslims and Christians, the destruction of thousands of houses, the displacement of approximately
Python molurus is a large, nonvenomous python species found in many tropical and subtropical areas of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It is known by the common names Indian python, black-tailed python, Indian rock python, it is lighter colored than the Burmese python and reaches 3 m. Common names include Indian python, black-tailed python, Indian rock python, Asian rock python; the subspecies Python molurus pimbura was thought to have stemmed from the alias given in Sri Lanka, but the pimbura, or Ceylonese python, is no longer considered a valid subspecies. The color pattern is whitish or yellowish with the blotched patterns varying from shades of tan to dark brown; this varies with habitat. Specimens from the hill forests of Western Ghats and Assam are darker, while those from the Deccan Plateau and East Coast are lighter. In India, the nominate subspecies grows to 3 m typically; this value is supported by a 1990 study in Keoladeo National Park, where the biggest 25% of the python population was 2.7–3.3 m long.
Only two specimens measured nearly 3.6 m. Because of confusion with the Burmese python and stretched skins in the past, the maximum length of this subspecies is hard to tell; the longest scientifically recorded specimen, which hailed from Pakistan, was 4.6 m in length and weighed 52 kg. In Pakistan, Indian pythons reach a length of 2.4–3.0 m. The nominate subspecies is found in India, southern Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, in the north of Myanmar, they occur in a wide range of habitats, including grasslands, marshes, rocky foothills, woodlands, "open" jungle, river valleys. They depend on a permanent source of water. Sometimes, they can be found in abandoned mammal burrows, hollow trees, dense water reeds, mangrove thickets. Lethargic and slow moving in their native habitat, they exhibit timidity and try to attack when attacked. Locomotion is with the body moving in a straight line, they are excellent are quite at home in water. They can be wholly submerged in water for many minutes if necessary, but prefer to remain near the bank.
Like all snakes, Indian pythons are strict carnivores and feed on mammals and reptiles indiscriminately, but seem to prefer mammals. Roused to activity on sighting prey, the snake advances with a quivering tail and lunges with an open mouth. Live prey is killed. One or two coils are used to hold it in a tight grip; the prey, unable to breathe, is subsequently swallowed head first. After a heavy meal, they are disinclined to move. If forced to, hard parts of the meal may tear through the body. Therefore, if disturbed, some specimens disgorge their meal to escape from potential predators. After a heavy meal, an individual may fast for the longest recorded duration being 2 years; the python can swallow prey bigger than its diameter. Moreover, prey cannot escape from its mouth because of the arrangement of the teeth. Oviparous, up to 100 eggs are laid by the animal, which are incubated by the female. Towards this end, they are capable of raising their body temperature above the ambient level through muscular contractions.
The hatchlings grow quickly. An artificial incubation method using climate-controlled environmental chambers was developed in India for raising hatchlings from abandoned or unattended eggs; the Indian python is classified as lower risk/near threatened on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This listing indicates that it may become threatened with extinction and is in need of frequent reassessment. In the literature, one other subspecies may be encountered: P. m. pimbura Deraniyagala, 1945, found in Sri Lanka. The Burmese python was referred to as a subspecies of the Indian python until 2009, when it was elevated to full species status; the name Python molurus. Kaa, a large and elderly Indian python, is featured in The Jungle Book. List of pythonid species and subspecies. Pythonidae by common name. Pythonidae by taxonomic synonyms. Python molurus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 13 September 2007. Indian Python at Ecology Asia. Accessed 13 September 2007. Indian python at Animal Pictures Archive.
Accessed 13 September 2007. Watch Indian rock python video clips from the BBC archive on Wildlife Finder