Gonbad-e Kavus is the Iranian city known as Gorgan/Hyrcania. The modern name, meaning "the tower of Kavus", is a reference to the most imposing ancient monument in the city; the historic name cannot now be restored, as it was oddly and carelessly assigned to the neighboring historical city of Astarabad in the 1930s by the Iranian government. At one point, it was known as the city of Dashte Gorgan, meaning "the Plains of Gorgan", it is the capital of Gonbad-e Kavus County, in the province of Golestān in the northeast of Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 127,167, in 30,710 families. In the historical times, the city's populations were made up of various Iranic peoples such as the ancient and eponymous Hyrcanians and the Khurasani Persians. Today, there are no reliable figures for the ethnic make of the city. However, it is agreed that the city has a plurality of its inhabitants being ethnic Turkmen, Turkmen who speak a western Turkmen language; the remaining population are made Khorasani Turks, Baluch, Mazandaranis as well as Persians and other smaller Iranic peoples.
The city is famous for its historic brick tower of the same name. Iranian footballer Sardar Azmoun is from this city; the "Divar-i Iskandar" is a gigantic defensive wall built in the Sasanian period of Iranian history. The visible remains are about 155 km long and 6–10 m wide, it is one of the most outstanding and gigantic architectural monuments in northeast Iran and the most impressive in the Golestan Province. This wall, the largest defensive wall in the world after the Great Wall of China, starts from the Caspian sea coast, circles north of the city of Gonbad-e Kāvus, continues towards the northeast, vanishes into the Pishkamar Mountains. At certain points, the Divar is 6 m wide and in other parts the width is 10 m, depending on the nature of the land and the soil type. Watch towers and forts had been built at different distances; the longest distance between forts is 50 km and the shortest is 10 km. The 40 identified forts vary in dimension and shape but the majority are square fortresses.
Due to many difficulties in development and agricultural projects, archaeologists have been assigned to mark the boundary of the historical find by laying cement blocks. The Divar defensive wall has been known variously as Alexander Dam, Anushirvân Dam, Firuz Dam and Golestan's Defense Wall in various historical texts. Dr. Kiani, who led the archaeological team in 1971, believes that the wall was built during the Parthian dynasty with the construction of the Great Wall of China, that it was restored during the Sassanid era. During the Neolithic period, this area had many populated settlements. For example, Yarim Tepe; the Jeitun culture started before 6000 BC. Aji gol Lake Ala gol lake Alma Gol Lake Chehelchay Forest Golestan Forest Gonbad Horse Racing Center Gonbad Kavous University Islamic Azad University of Gonbad Payamnoor University of Gonbad Sardar Azmoun Farhad Ghaemi Magtymguly Pyragy Shahpour Turkian Mohsen Yeganeh Decagon Iranian Turkmen Media related to Gonbad-e Qabus at Wikimedia Commons Iran plans to begin preservation work on the tower
Gorgan is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies 400 km to the north east of Tehran, some 30 km away from the Caspian Sea. In the 2006 census. There are several archaeological sites near Gorgan, including Tureng Tepe and Shah Tepe, in which there are remains dating from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras; some other important Neolithic sites in the area are Yarim Tepe and Sange Chaxmaq. The nearby Shahroud Plain has many such sites; the number of conﬁrmed Neolithic sites on the Gorgan Plain now totals more than fifty. According to the Greek historian Arrian, Zadracarta was the largest city of Hyrcania and site of the "royal palace"; the term means "the yellow city", it was given to it from the great number of oranges and other fruit trees which grew in the outskirts of that city. Hyrcania became part of the Achaemenid Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great, its founder, or his successor Cambyses; the Great Wall of Gorgan, the second biggest defensive wall in the world, was built in the Parthian and Sassanian periods.
At the time of the Sassanids, "Gurgan" appeared as the name of a city, province capital, province. Gorgan maintained its independence as a Zoroastrian state after Persia was conquered by the invading Arab Muslims in 8th century. In 1210, the city was invaded and sacked by the army of Kingdom of Georgia under command of the brothers Mkhargrdzeli."Old Gorgan" was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, the center of the region was moved to what was called "Astarabad", called "Gorgan". Gorgan with its surrounding regions was sometimes considered as part of the Parthia or the Tabaristan regions. Astarabad was an important religious city during the Qajar dynasty; the wide Dasht-e Gorgan are located north of the city and geographically bounded by 37°00' - 37°30' north latitude and 54°00' - 54°30' east longitude, covering an area of about 170 square kilometres. Some 150 km east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park, home to a large portion of the fauna of Iran. Gorgan has a mediterranean climate.
In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate." The effective factors behind such a climate are: Alborz mountain range, direction of the mountains, height of the area, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation surface, local winds and weather fronts. As a result of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate and semi-arid. Gorgan valley has a semi-arid climate; the average annual temperature is 17.7 °C and the annual rainfall is 601 millimetres. House of Karen, an aristocratic feudal family first attested in the Arsacid era, belonged to the region of Hyrcania. Fakhroddin Asaad Gorgani, Persian poet and the composer of Vis and Ramin. Abu Sa'id al-Darir al-Jurjani, 9th century astronomer and mathematician Al-Masihi, 10th century physician and teacher of Avicenna Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī, 11th century grammarian and literary theorist Zayn al-Din al-Jurjani, 12th century royal physician Fazlallah Astarabadi, 14th century mystic and founder of Hurufism Rustam Gorgani, 16th century physician Mir Fendereski, philosopher and mysti Mir Damad, 17th century Islamic scholar and Neoplatonic philosopher Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi, 18th century chief minister to Nader Shah Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi, a notable writer and one of the pioneering figures of the women's movement of Iran Firishta, historian Sardar Rafie Yanehsari, Governor of Astarabad Mohammad Reza Lotfi, Traditional Persian musician Nader Ebrahimi, poet and researcher Maryam Zandi, photographer Gorgan has a world-famous carpet and rug industry, the Turkmen rug, made by Turkmen people.
The patterns of these carpets are derived from the ancient Persian city of Bukhara, now in modern-day Uzbekistan. Islamic Azad University of Gorgan Golestan University of Medical Sciences Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences & Natural Resources Mirdamad Institute of Higher Education Lamei Gorgani Institute of Higher Education Hakeem Jorjani Institute of Higher Education There is an international airport near the city; the main sport in Gorgan is basketball. Shahrdari Gorgan competes in the Iranian Basketball Super League; the main football team of Gorgan is Etka Gorgan F. C. which competes in the Azadegan League. Aktau, Kazakhstan Samsun, Turkey Gorgan International Airport al-Jurjani Gorgan-rud River Gurganj
Abu Mansur Buya, better known his honorific title of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla was the Buyid amir of Hamadan, Jibal and Gorgan. He was the third son of Rukn al-Dawla. Abu Mansur Buya was the son of Rukn al-Dawla and a daughter of the Daylamite Firuzanid nobleman Al-Hasan ibn al-Fairuzan, the cousin of the famous military leader Makan ibn Kaki. Abu Mansur Buya lived in Isfahan during his youth. In 955, a Daylamite military officer named Muhammad ibn Makan, attacked Isfahan. Abu Mansur Buya, along with family and followers, were forced to leave the city; the eldest son of Rukn al-Dawla,'Adud al-Dawla, along with Rukn al-Dawla's vizier Abu'l-Fadl ibn al-'Amid marched towards Isfahan and defeated Muhammad ibn Makan. After Isfahan was under safe Buyid hands once again, Abu Mansur Buya along with his family and followers returned to the city. In ca. 958, Abu Mansur Buya went to Baghdad, married Mu'izz al-Dawla's daughter Zubayda. After the marriage, he along with her returned to Isfahan. In 966, Abu Mansur Buya was given the honorific title of "Mu'ayyad al-Dawla" As part of the settlement between Rukn al-Dawla and his eldest son'Adud al-Dawla in early 976, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla was to receive Hamadan upon his father's death, in exchange for recognizing'Adud al-Dawla as senior amir.
Only a year Rukn al-Dawla's second son Fakhr al-Dawla, who ruled in Ray, rebelled against'Adud al-Dawla's authority. Mu'ayyad al-Dawla mobilized in support of'Adud al-Dawla, forcing Fakhr al-Dawla to flee to the Ziyarids of Gorgan and Tabaristan; this did not stop the two Buyids. Mu'ayyad al-Dawla was entrusted with the newly captured provinces as'Adud al-Dawla's subordinate.'Adud al-Dawla died in March 983, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla followed him shortly afterwards. His vizier, Sahib ibn'Abbad, summoned a gathering of the army and convinced its leaders to proclaim Fakhr al-Dawla as his successor. Bosworth, C. E.. "Iran under the Buyids". In Frye, R. N; the Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 250–305. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. Nagel, Tilman. "BUYIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. 6. London u.a.: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Pp. 578–586. Amedroz, Henry F.. The Eclipse of the ‘Abbasid Caliphate. Original Chronicles of the Fourth Islamic Century, Vol. V: The concluding portion of The Experiences of Nations by Miskawaihi, Vol. II: Reigns of Muttaqi, Muti and Ta'i.
Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Madelung, W.. The Assumption of the Title Shāhānshāh by the Būyids and "The Reign of the Daylam". Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 28, no. 2. Pp. 84–108. ISBN 0857731815. JSTOR 543315
Bastam is a city in and capital of the Bastam District of Shahrud County, Semnan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 7,382, in 1,997 families. Bastam was founded in the 6th century in the Greater Khorasan, it is 6 kilometres north of Shahrud. The town is known for its Islamic monuments from the Ilkhanid period and its association with the mystic Bayazid Bastami; the Alborz are to the north of the town. The 19th-century poet, Abbas Foroughi Bastami, lived in Bastam for a time and thence acquired its name as his own; the early Bábí leader and martyr Mullá'Alíy-i-Bastámí was raised in Bastam, was a significant figure in the Shaykhi movement and became the first person known to have died for their allegiance to Bábism. A tradition says that the town was founded by Vistahm, uncle of the Sasanian king Khosrau II. Bayazid Shrine Complex at ArchNet. Friday Mosque at ArchNet. Tomb Tower at ArchNet
Tabaristan known as Tapuria, was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran. Although the natives of the region knew it as Mazandaran, the region was called Tabaristan from the Arab conquests to the Seljuk period; the Amardians are believed to have been the earliest inhabitants of the region where modern day Mazanderan and Gilan are located. The establishment of the early great kingdom dates back to about the first millennium BCE when the Hyrcanian kingdom was founded with Sadracarta as its capital, its extent was so large. The first known dynasty were the Faratatians. During the rise of the Parthians, many of the Amerdians were forced into exile to the southern slopes of the Alborz mountains known today as Varamin and Garmsar, the Tabaris replaced them in the region. During the indigenous Gushnaspian dynasty, many of the people adopted Christianity. In 418 CE, the Tapurian calendar was designed and its use implemented; the Gashnaspians ruled the region until 528 CE, after a long period of fighting, the Sasanian King Kavadh I defeated the last Gashnaspian king.
When the Sasanian Empire fell, Yazdegerd III ordered Adhar Valash to cede the dominion to spahbed Gil Gavbara in 645 CE, while western and Southern Gilan and other parts of Gil's domain merged under the name of Tapuria. He chose Amol as capital of United Tapuria in 647 CE; the dynasty of Gil was known as Gavbareh in Gilan, as the Dabuyids in eastern Tapuria. Mazandaranis and Gilaks were among the first groups of Iranians to fight against Islam. Tabaristan was one of the last parts of Persia to fall to the Muslim Conquest, maintaining resistance until 761, when local rulers became vassals of the Abassid Caliphate. After this, Tabaristan remained independent of direct control of the Caliphate, underwent numerous power struggles and rebellions. In the early 9th century, for example, a Zoroastrian by the name of Mazyar rebelled, taking control of Tabaristan and persecuting Muslims there before his ultimate execution in 839. After this rebellion, the territory was restored to the control of the Bavand dynasty, who ruled there as vassals of various successive empires, including the Seljuks and Mongols.
The area of Tabaristan gained a large Shi'ite element, by 900, a Zaydi Shi'ite kingdom was established under the Alavids. In 930, a Zoroastrian commander named Mardavij established the Ziyarid dynasty and conquered much of northern Persia before being betrayed and killed in 935 CE; the Ziyarid dynasty continued to rule over much of Tabaristan until its demise in 1090 CE. While the Dabuyids controlled the lowlands, the Sokhrayans governed the mountain regions. Vandad Hormozd ruled the region for about 50 years until 1034 CE. After 1125 CE, an increase in conversion to Islam was achieved, not by the Arab Caliphs, but by the Imam's ambassadors. Tapuria remained independent until 1596, when Shah Abbas I, Mazandarani on his mother's side, incorporated Mazandaran into his Safavid empire, forcing many Armenians, Georgians and Qajar Turks to settle in Mazandaran. Pietro della Valle, who visited a town near Pirouzcow in Mazandaran in 1618, noted that Mazandarani women never wore the veil and didn't hesitate to talk to foreigners.
He noted the large amount of Circassians and Georgians in the region, that he had never encountered people with as much civility as the Mazandaranis. Today, Persia proper, Mazanderan on the Caspian Sea and many other lands of this empire are all full of Georgian and Circassian inhabitants. Most of them remain Christian to this day, but in a crude manner, since they have neither priest nor minister to tend them. After the Safavid period, the Qajars began to campaign south from Mazandaran with Agha Mohammad Khan who incorporated Mazandaran into his empire in 1782. On 21 March 1782, Agha Mohammad Shah proclaimed Sari as his imperial capital. Sari was the site of local wars in those years, which led to the transfer of the capital from Sari to Tehran by Fath Ali Shah. Inostranzev, M. Iranian Influence on Moslem Literature – Appendix I: Independent Zoroastrian Princes of Tabaristan. Khalifa Uthman bin Ghani. Islamic Conquests Muhammad B. Al-Hasan B. Isfandiyár. History of Tabaristán. Leiden, The Netherlands: E.
History of Iran
The history of Iran, known until the mid-20th century as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 7000 BC; the south-western and western part of the Iranian Plateau participated in the traditional Ancient Near East with Elam, from the Early Bronze Age, with various other peoples, such as the Kassites and Gutians. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel calls the Persians the "first Historical People"; the Medes unified Iran as a nation and empire in 625 BC. The Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great, was the first true global superpower state and it ruled from the Balkans to North Africa and Central Asia, spanning three continents, from their seat of power in Persis.
It was the first world empire. The Achaemenid Empire was the only civilization in all of history to connect over 40% of the global population, accounting for 49.4 million of the world's 112.4 million people in around 480 BC. They were succeeded by the Seleucid and Sasanian Empires, who successively governed Iran for 1,000 years and made Iran once again as a leading power in the world. Persia's arch-rival was its successor, the Byzantine Empire; the Iranian Empire proper begins following the influx of Iranian peoples. Iranian people gave rise to the Medes, the Achaemenid and Sasanian Empires of classical antiquity. Once a major empire, Iran has endured invasions too, by the Greeks, Arabs and the Mongols. Iran has continually reasserted its national identity throughout the centuries and has developed as a distinct political and cultural entity; the Muslim conquest of Persia is a turning point in Iranian history. Islamization of Iran took place during the eighth to tenth centuries, leading to the eventual decline of Zoroastrianism in Iran as well as many of its dependencies.
However, the achievements of the previous Persian civilizations were not lost, but were to a great extent absorbed by the new Islamic polity and civilization.* Iran, with its long history of early cultures and empires, had suffered hard during the late Middle Ages and the early modern period. Many invasions of nomadic tribes, whose leaders became rulers in this country, affected it negatively. Iran was reunified as an independent state in 1501 by the Safavid dynasty, which set Shia Islam as the empire's official religion, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam. Functioning again as a leading world power, this time amongst the neighboring Ottoman Empire, its arch-rival for centuries, Iran had been a monarchy ruled by an emperor without interruption from 1501 until the 1979 Iranian Revolution, when Iran became an Islamic republic on April 1, 1979. Over the course of the first half of the 19th century, Iran lost many of its territories in the Caucasus, a part of Iran for centuries, comprising modern-day Eastern Georgia, Republic of Azerbaijan, Armenia, to its expanding and emerged neighboring rival, the Russian Empire, following the Russo-Persian Wars between 1804–13 and 1826–8.
The earliest archaeological artifacts in Iran were found in the Kashafrud and Ganj Par sites that are thought to date back to 100,000 years ago in the Middle Paleolithic. Mousterian stone tools made by Neandertals have been found. There are more cultural remains of Neandertals dating back to the Middle Paleolithic period, which have been found in the Zagros region and fewer in central Iran at sites such as Kobeh, Bisitun Cave, Tamtama and Yafteh Cave. In 1949, a Neanderthal radius was discovered by Carleton S. Coon in Bisitun Cave. Evidence for Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic periods are known from the Zagros Mountains in the caves of Kermanshah and Khorramabad and a few number of sites in the Alborz and Central Iran. During this time, people began creating rock art. Early agricultural communities such as Chogha Golan in 10,000 BC along with settlements such as Chogha Bonut in 8000 BC, began to flourish in and around the Zagros Mountains region in western Iran. Around about the same time, the earliest-known clay vessels and modeled human and animal terracotta figurines were produced at Ganj Dareh in western Iran.
There are 10,000-year-old human and animal figurines from Tepe Sarab in Kermanshah Province among many other ancient artifacts. The south-western part of Iran was part of the Fertile Crescent where most of humanity's first major crops were grown, in villages such as Susa and settlements such as Chogha Mish, dating back to 6800 BC; the two main Neolithic Iranian settlements were Ganj Dareh. Parts of what is modern-day northwestern Iran was part of the Kura–Araxes culture, that stretched up into the neighboring regions of the Caucasus and Anatolia. Susa is one of the oldest-known settlements of the world. Based on C14 dating, the time of foundation of the city is as ear
Spāhbed is a Middle Persian title meaning "army chief" used chiefly in the Sasanian Empire. There was a single spāhbed, called the Ērān-spāhbed, who functioned as the generalissimo of the Sasanian army. From the time of Khosrow I on, the office was split in four, with a spāhbed for each of the cardinal directions. After the Muslim conquest of Persia, the spāhbed of the East managed to retain his authority over the inaccessible mountainous region of Tabaristan on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, where the title in its Islamic form ispahbadh, survived as a regnal title until the Mongol conquests of the 13th century. An equivalent title of Persian origin, ispahsālār, gained great currency across the Muslim world in the 10th–15th centuries; the title was adopted by the Armenians and the Georgians, as well as Khotan and the Sogdians in Central Asia. It is attested in Greek sources as aspabedēs; the title was revived in the 20th century by the Pahlavi dynasty, in the Modern Persian form sepahbod, equivalent to a three-star Lieutenant General, ranking below arteshbod.
The title is attested in the Achaemenid Empire in its Old Persian form, spādhapati, signifying the army's commander-in-chief. The title continued in use under the Arsacid Parthian Empire, where it seems to have been a hereditary position in one of the seven great houses of the Parthian nobility; the Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Arsacids, retained the title, attested in a series of inscriptions from the 3rd century. Until the early 6th century, there was a single holder of the title, the Ērān-spāhbed, who according to the list of precedence provided by the 9th-century Muslim historian Ya'qubi occupied the fifth position in the court hierarchy; the Byzantine and Syriac sources record a number of senior officers who might be holders of the rank in the early 6th century. Thus during the Anastasian War of 502–506, a certain Boes, who negotiated with the Byzantine magister officiorum Celer and died in 505, is named in the Syriac sources as an astabid, his unnamed successor in the negotiations bore this title.
Some modern scholars have interpreted astabed as a new office corresponding to the Byzantine magister officiorum instituted by Kavadh I shortly before 503 for the purpose of weakening the authority of the wuzurg framadar. But it is that this Syriac word is a corrupted form of spāhbed, or aspbed, since the Greek sources give the name of the second man as Aspebedes, Aspevedes, or Aspetios. Again, during the Iberian War, a man named Aspebedes, according to the historian Procopius a maternal uncle of Khosrow I, appears. In 527 he took part in negotiations with Byzantine envoys, in 531 he led an invasion of Mesopotamia along with Chanaranges and Mermeroes, he was executed by Khosrow shortly after his accession for plotting with other nobles to overthrow him in favour of his brother Zames. To curb the power of the over-mighty generalissimo, Khosrow I—although this reform may have been planned by his father, Kavadh I —split the office of the Ērān-spāhbed into four regional commands, corresponding to the four traditional cardinal directions: the "army chief of the East", the "army chief of the South", the "army chief of the West", the "army chief of Azerbaijan".
As this reform was mentioned only in literary sources, the historicity of this division, or its survival after Khosrow I's reign, was questioned in the past, but a series of thirteen discovered seals, which provide the names of eight spāhbeds, provide contemporary evidence from the reigns of Khosrow I and his successor, Hormizd IV. The eight known spāhbeds are: Other holders of the rank are difficult to identify from the literary sources, since the office of spāhbed was held in tandem with other offices and titles, such as Shahrwarāz, which are treated as personal names. A further factor of confusion in literary sources is the interchangeable use of the rank with the junior provincial ranks of marzbān and pāygōsbān. During the Muslim conquest of Persia, the spahbed of Khurasan retired to the mountains of Tabaristan. There he invited the last Sasanian shah, Yazdgerd III, to find refuge, but Yazdgerd refused, was killed in 651. Like many other local rulers throughout the former Sasanian domains, including those of the neighbouring provinces of Gurgan and Gilan, the spahbed made terms with the Arabs, which allowed him to remain as the independent ruler of Tabaristan in exchange for an annual tribute.
This marked the foundation of the Dabuyid dynasty, which ruled Tabaristan until 759–761, when it was conquered by the Abbasids and incorporated into the Caliphate as a province. The early rulers of the dynasty are ill attested.