The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids known as Buwaihids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was a Shia Iranian dynasty of Daylamite origin. Coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, the approximate century of Buyid rule represents the period in Iranian history sometimes called the'Iranian Intermezzo' since, after the Muslim conquest of Persia, it was an interlude between the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate and the Seljuk Empire; the Buyid dynasty was founded by'Ali ibn Buya, who in 934 conquered Fars and made Shiraz his capital. His younger brother Hasan ibn Buya conquered parts of Jibal in the late 930s, by 943 managed to capture Ray, which he made his capital. In 945, the youngest brother, Ahmad ibn Buya, made Baghdad his capital, he received the honorific title of Mu'izz al-Dawla. The eldest,'Ali, was given the title of'Imad al-Dawla, Hasan was given the title of Rukn al-Dawla; as Daylamite Iranians, the Buyids consciously revived symbols and practices of Iran's Sasanian Empire. Beginning with'Adud al-Dawla, they used the ancient Sasanian title Shahanshah "king of kings".
At its greatest extent, the Buyid dynasty encompassed territory of most of today's Iran, Iraq and Syria, along with parts of Oman, the UAE, Turkey and Pakistan. During the 10th and 11th centuries, just prior to the invasion of the Seljuq Turks, the Buyids were the most influential dynasty in the Middle East. Under king'Adud al-Dawla, it became the most powerful dynasty in the Middle East; the word Būya is a Middle Persian name ending in the diminutive ـویه. The Buyids were descendants of a Zoroastrian from Daylam, he had a son named Buya, a fisherman from Lahijan, left Zoroastrianism and converted to Islam. Buya had three sons, named Ahmad,'Ali, Hasan, who would carve the Buyid kingdom together. Most historians agree; the Buyids claimed royal lineage from 15th king of the Sasanian Empire. The founder of the dynasty,'Ali ibn Buya, was a soldier in the service of the Daylamite warlord Makan ibn Kaki, but changed his adherence to the Iranian ruler Mardavij, who had established the Ziyarid dynasty, was himself related to the ruling dynasty of Gilan, a region bordering Dailam.'Ali was joined by his two younger brothers, Hasan ibn Buya and Ahmad ibn Buya.
In 932,'Ali was given Karaj as his fief, thus was able to enlist other Daylamites into his own army. However,'Ali's independent actions made Mardavij plan to have him killed,'Ali was informed of Mardavij's plan by the latter's own vizier; the Buyids brother, with 400 of their Daylamite supporters fled to Fars, where they managed to take control of Arrajan. However, the Buyids and the Abbasid general Yaqut shortly came into a struggle for the control of Fars, which the Buyids emerged victorious in; this victory opened the way for the conquest of the capital of Fars, Shiraz.'Ali made an alliance with the landowners of Fars, which included the Fasanjas family, which would produce many prominent statesmen for the Buyids. Furthermore,'Ali to enlist more soldiers, which included the Turks, who were made part of cavalry.'Ali sent his brother Ahmad on an expedition to Kirman, but was forced to withdraw from them after opposition from the Baloch people and the Qafs. However, who sought to depose the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad and recreate a Zoroastrian Iranian Empire, shortly wrested Khuzestan from the Abbasids and forced'Ali to recognize him as his suzerain.
Luckily for the Buyids, Mardavij was shortly assassinated in 935, which caused chaos in the Ziyarid territories, a perfect situation for the Buyid brothers. In 945, Ahmad entered Iraq and made the Abbasid Caliph his vassal, at the same receiving the laqab Mu'izz ad-Dawla, while'Ali was given the laqab Imād al-Dawla, Hasan was given the laqab Rukn al-Dawla. In addition to the other territories the Buyids had conquered, Kirman was conquered in 967, the Jazira and Gorgan. After this, the Buyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent; the death of Adud al-Dawla is considered the starting point of the decline of the Buyid dynasty. When he made the death of his father public, he was given the title of "Samsam al-Dawla". However, Adud's other son, Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris, challenged the authority of Samsam al-Dawla, resulting in a civil war. Meanwhile, a Marwanid chieftain named Badh, seized Diyabakr and forced Samsam al-Dawla to recognize him as the vassal ruler of the region.
Furthermore, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla died during this period, he was succeeded by Fakhr al-Dawla, who with the aid of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's vizier Sahib ibn'Abbad became the ruler of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's possessions. Another son of Adud al-Dawla, Abu Tahir Firuzshah, established himself as the ruler of Basra and took the title of "Diya' al-Dawla", while another son, Abu'l-Husain Ahmad, established himself as the ruler of Khuzistan, taking the title of "Taj al-Dawla". Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris seize
Amol is a city and the administrative center of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. In the 2006 census, the surveyed population of the city was 197,470, in 55,183 families. Amol is located on the Haraz river bank, it is less than 20 kilometres south of the Caspian sea and less than 10 kilometres north of the Alborz mountains. It is 180 kilometres from Tehran, 60 kilometres west of the provincial capital, Sari. Amol is a historic city, with its foundation dating back to the Amard. Ammianus Marcellinus says the name; some historians have attributed it to the rise of the city during Tahmuras and casual meeting Fereydun. In fact, Amol is one of the most ancient cities of Iran. A number of historians and geographers believe it was established in 1st millennium BC; some historians have attributed the rise of the city during Tahmuras. Some past historians have associated this ancient city with the periods of the Pishdadian dynasty and the Kayanian dynasty. Amol is an old city, with a history dating back to the Amards.
Amards were the people inhabiting the area before the arrival of Aryans, who had migrated to and settled on the Iranian Plateau from the late 2nd millennium BCE to early 1st millennium BCE. Many scholars believe. According to historical literature, Amol was the capital of Mazandaran, at least in the period starting from Sassanid Empire to the Ilkhanate dynasty of Mongol Empire. Though they are a Median tribe, Herodotus names a tribe called Mardians as one of the ten to fifteen Persian tribes in Persis, it is now known that the only distinction between the Median Amardians and the Persian Mardians is the'a' in the beginning of Amardians, which would mean they are two different tribes. Elsewhere he says, one of the peoples who have trusted Darius IIgor M. Diakonoff says, Amardian lived in the coasts of the Caspian Sea, in the distance of the Alban and Otia from the north and the Hyrcanian from the east. Strabo says about Amard people, the Mard wore black robes, had long everyone was braver, he was allowed to marry any women.
In the history of the Persian Empire, the Mard were handsome and brave persons presented in the heart of the army and were responsible to defense the commander. The Amard helped Achaemenid in several battles including the invasion of Greece, the occupation of Sardis, the attack of Medes and at the Battle of Opis; the other theory about Amol via Ibn Isfandiyar says, at the request of wife Firoz Shah, he created a large and flourishing city named Amele. Further evidence of the power of the Amol people is their fighting in the Battle of Thermopylae, Battle of Gaugamela and other Sardis forces in the Achaemenid Empire. During the age of the Parthian Empire, Amol was one of the centers of Iran, it seems that Amol's reputation in the time of Alexander the Great and the Parthian period dominated the political-administrative Satrap was Hyrcanian. According to historical literature, Amol was the capital of Mazandaran during the period starting from the 3rd century CE under the Sassanian Empire to the 13/14th century CE under the Ilkhanate dynasty of Mongol Empire.
Based on evidences, including the coins found during excavations in addition to Muslim historical books, Amol was the capital of Mazandaran province during the Sassanid Era. According to historical literature, Amol was the capital of Mazandaran during the period starting from the 3rd century under Sassanian Empire to the 13/14th century under the Ilkhanate dynasty of Mongol Empire. On Sasanian coins, coin cities where there has been abbreviated name is known. During the Bahram V Amol were Central of Iran and at during the Khosrow II and Dabuyid dynasty capital Mazandaran. Amu Darya Sasanian mid pers river about 2,500 km long, regarded in ancient times as the boundary between Iran and Turan, the modern name may be derived from Amol. In city during this period has Temple, fireplace there was. Amol, in the era of the Alid dynasties and Marashis dynasty, was the capital of Northern Iran; the inhabitants of Amol embraced Islam during the reign of the Abbasid Caliph. Amol was the capital city of the Bavand dynasty and Ziyarid dynasty.
Today, Amol is a thriving modern metropolis. In the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth century, Amol was one of the largest cities in Iran. Khalid ibn Barmak ruled for years. People from the Qarinvand dynasty arrived a couple of years and fought with the Abbasid Caliphate to win the kingdom. In Hudud al - ` Alam, Amol is regarded as a great city with active trading ventures. However, resentment with the Tahirids rule increased due to the oppressive activities of their officials. People of the provinces pledged alliance to Hasan ibn Zayd. Zayd became the founder of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan Alavids government in Tabaristan established and its with Amol centered and 106 year domination of the Abbasids in the territory ended. Yaqub ibn Layth the was geostrategy in Amol. Hasan al-Utrush with trip to Amol who re-established Zaydid rule over the province Tabaristan in northern Iran in 914, after fourteen years of Samanid rule. After the Alid dynasty, the Ziyarid dynasty ruled Tabaristan. At this time Amol was developed in such a way that geographers have written articles about the industry and its silk.
The subsequent Afrasiyab dynasty flourished in the late pre-Safavid period. It was founded by Kiya Afrasiyab, who conquered the Bavand kingdom in 1349 and made himself king of the region, in Amol. In time of the Safavid rulers of Mazandaran, Amol experienced a period of growth; the city was the fav
Rudsar is a city and capital of Rudsar County, Gilan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 33,321, in 9,741 families. Rudsar is located on the Caspian Sea It is located on a verdant coastal plain with a moderate climate, 326 kilometres from Tehran. Ghassem Abad is a village near Rudsar; the economy of the city is based on agriculture. The major products of Roudsar are rice, citrus fruits, silk; the word Rudsar comes from the word Rud, the Persian word for river, sar, the Persian word for head, since Rudsar has rivers running along each side of the city. According to valid historical documents, the ancient name of Roodsar was "Koutum", a small city in Rankooh; the other name of Roodsar was "Hoosem" that had a thriving bazaar and big mosque in the year 375 AH. On this city was ruined due to unknown reasons, was reconstructed by Seyed Reza Kiya during the years 789-831 AH, it was occupied by Russian forces along with the rest of northern Iran in the early 1900s. Tourism Info
Clifford Edmund Bosworth
Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies. Bosworth was born in Yorkshire, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Oxford and MA and PhD degrees from the University of Edinburgh. He held permanent posts at the University of St Andrews, University of Manchester, at the Center for the Humanities at Princeton University, he was a visiting professor at the University of Exeter, where he held the post since 2004. Bosworth died on 28 February 2015, Somerset, he is the author of hundreds of articles in composite volumes. His other contributions include nearly 200 articles in the Encyclopaedia of Islam and some 100 articles in the Encyclopædia Iranica, as well as articles for Encyclopædia Britannica and Encyclopedia Americana, he was the chief editor of the Encyclopaedia of Islam and a consulting editor of Encyclopædia Iranica. His book The Islamic Dynasties has been translated to Persian; the Ghaznavids, their empire in Afghanistan and Eastern Iran 994–1040, Edinburgh University Press 1963, 2nd ed. Beirut 1973, repr.
New Delhi 1992. The Islamic dynasties, a chronological and genealogical handbook, Edinburgh University Press 1967, revised ed. 1980. Sistan under the Arabs, from the Islamic conquest to the rise of the Saffarids, IsMEO, Rome 1968; the Book of curious and entertaining information, the Lata'if al-ma'arif of Tha'ālibī translated into English, Edinburgh University Press 1968. Iran and Islam, in memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky, Edinburgh University Press 1971; the legacy of Islam, new edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1974. The mediaeval Islamic underworld, the Banu Sasan in Arabic society and literature, 2 vols. Brill, Leiden 1976; the medieval history of Iran and Central Asia, Collected Studies Series, London 1977. The Ghaznavids and decay: the dynasty in Afghanistan and northern India 1040–1186, Edinburgh University Press 1977, repr. New Delhi 1992 Al-Maqrizi's "Book of contention and strife concerning the relations between the Banu Umayya and the Banu Hashim" translated into English, Journal of Semitic Studies Monographs, 3, Manchester 1981.
Medieval Arabic culture and administration, Collected Studies Series, London 1982. Qajar Iran, political and cultural change 1800–1925, Edinburgh University Press 1984; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. XXXII; the reunification of the Abbasid Caliphate. The caliphate of al-Ma'mun A. D. 812-833/A. H. 198–213, translated and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1987; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. XXX; the Abbasid Caliphate in equilibrium. The caliphates of Musa al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid A. D. 785-809/A. H. 169–193, translated and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1989. Baha' al-Din al-Amili and his literary anthologies, Journal of Semitic Studies Monographs 10, Manchester 1989; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. XXXIII. Storm and stress along the northern frontiers of the Abbasid Caliphate; the caliphate of al-Mu'tas'im A. D. 833-842/A. H. 218–227, translated and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1991. Richard Bell, A commentary on the Qur'an, University of Manchester 1991, 2 vols.
The History of the Saffarids of Sistan and the Maliks of Nimruz, Columbia Lectures on Iranian Studies no. 7, Costa Mesa, Calif. and New York 1994. The Arabs and Iran. Studies in early Islamic history and culture, Collected Studies Series, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot 1996; the New Islamic dynasties. A chronological and genealogical manual, Edinburgh University Press 1996; the UNESCO history of civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV, The age of achievement. A. D. 750 to the end of the fifteenth century. Part 1, The historical and economic setting, Paris 1998. Part 2, The literary, cultural and scientific achievements, Paris 2000; the History of al-Tabari. Vol. V; the Sasanids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids and Yemen and annotated by C. E. Bosworth, SUNY Press, Albany 1999. A century of British orientalists 1902–2001, Oxford University Press for the British Academy 2001. Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarkh-i Mas'udi translated into English with a historical and linguistic commentary, to appear in the Persian Heritage Series, Columbia University, 3 volumes, New York, 2006.
Some 100 articles in learned journals, composite volumes, etc.. III, IV, V, in The Cambridge History of Arabic Literature, vols. I, III, in UNESCO History of Civilizations of Central Asia, vols. IV, V. UNESCO Avicenna Silver Medal, 1998 Dr Mahmud Afshar Foundation Prize for contributions to Iranian Studies, 2001 Prize by the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, for contributions to Iranian historical studies, 2003 Triennial Award, 2003 Curriculum vitae Works by or about Clifford Edmund Bosworth in libraries (World
Abū al-Husayn Bajkam al-Mākānī, referred to as Bajkam, Badjkam or Bachkam, was a Turkish military commander and official of the Abbasid Caliphate. A former ghulam of the Ziyarid dynasty, Bajkam entered Abbasid service following the assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardavij in 935. During his five-year tenure at the Caliphate's court at Baghdad, he was granted the title of amir al-umara, consolidating his dominance over the Caliphs ar-Radi and al-Muttaqi and giving him absolute power over their domains. Bajkam was challenged throughout his rule by various opponents, including his predecessor as amir al-umara, Muhammad ibn Ra'iq, the Basra-based Baridis, the Buyid dynasty of Iran, but he succeeded in retaining control until his death, he was murdered by a party of Kurds during a hunting excursion in 941, shortly after the accession of al-Muttaqi as Caliph. Bajkam was known both for his firm rule and for his patronage of Baghdad intellectuals, who respected and in some cases befriended him, his death led to a void in central power, resulting in a brief period of instability and fighting in Baghdad.
Details of Bajkam's early life are unknown. He was one of the ghilman of the Daylamite warlord Makan ibn Kaki in northern Iran. Makan took care of the young Bajkam's training and education, something for which the latter showed his gratitude by adopting his patron's name as his nisba. After Makan, Bajkam entered the service of Mardavij, founder of the Ziyarid dynasty, who came to control Daylam and Tabaristan. Mardavij mistreated his ghilman, who murdered him at Isfahan in January 935, an act in which Bajkam may have been complicit. After Mardavij's death, most of the ghilman in Ziyarid service dispersed. Bajkam and his fellow officer Tuzun assumed the leadership of a large group and, after first offering their services to the new governor of Jibal, Hasan ibn Harun, proceeded to the Abbasid court at Baghdad. At first, their offers were rejected by the court, where the Caliph's Hujari bodyguards jealously guarded their prerogatives, but the ghilman were taken into the service of Muhammad ibn Ra'iq, governor of Basra and Wasit in southern Iraq.
Now known as Bajkam Ra'iqi, Bajkam created a large military force under his command consisting of his own followers as well as additional Turks and Daylamites summoned from Jibal. In early November 936, the Caliph al-Radi bestowed the newly created title of amir al-umara on Ibn Ra'iq, granted absolute control over the Caliphate; this provoked the reaction of various provincial governors as well as that of powerful interest groups in Baghdad itself, such as the caliphal bodyguards. Against them, Ibn Ra'iq employed his Turkish supporters. With their aid, he managed to neutralize the Hujari and Saji guard units, after which, in February 937, Bajkam was rewarded with the posts of sahib al-shurta and governor of the eastern provinces. Far more difficult and protracted was the war against the ambitious governor of Ahwaz, Abu Abdallah al-Baridi, who aimed to supplant Ibn Ra'iq. Al-Baridi's family was of Basran origin, had served the Abbasids in various roles as officials before managing to assert a weak hold over Khuzistan.
Ibn Ra'iq himself was defeated and forced to leave Basra to the Baridis, but Bajkam saved the situation by scoring two major victories, despite being outnumbered, that allowed him to take possession of Khuzistan. The hard-pressed al-Baridi now turned to his powerful neighbour, the Buyid ruler of Fars, Ali ibn Buya, for help. Ali's brother Ahmad soon took over Khuzistan, Ibn Ra'iq was forced to offer possession of the province as an independent domain if Bajkam would recover it. Bajkam however was repulsed by the Buyid forces, fell back to Wasit. Ignoring Ibn Ra'iq's orders to retake Khuzistan, Bajkam remained at Wasit, began plotting to depose Ibn Ra'iq himself. To this end, Bajkam began seeking allies: he offered the governorship of Wasit to the Baridis, through the former vizier Ibn Muqla, who wished to avenge himself on Ibn Ra'iq for his own downfall and confiscation of his property, gained the covert support of Caliph al-Radi himself. In September 938, Bajkam led his troops from Wasit to Baghdad.
Ibn Ra'iq tried without success to impede his advance by destroying the great dams of the Nahrawan Canal and flooding the plain, but Bajkam's army entered the Abbasid capital without opposition, al-Radi transferred Ibn Ra'iq's title of amir al-umara to Bajkam. Despite the continued relegation of al-Radi to a ceremonial role, the relationship between the Caliph and Bajkam was strong, with al-Radi praising Bajkam for his harsh discipline and referring to the latter as his "protégé". Al-Radi was appreciative of Bajkam's respect for his position as Caliph, promised his support for the amir al-umara. In October–November 938, Bajkam and the Caliph campaigned against the influential Hamdanid emir of Mosul, Hasan ibn Abdallah, who had taken advantage of the turmoil in Iraq to cease forwarding his province's revenue to Baghdad. Although Bajkam's army captured Mosul, Hasan fled before him to the remotest corners of his domain, where Bajkam's forces pursued him in vain. In the meantime, the local population resented the presence of the caliphal troops and launched guerilla warfare against them, while Ibn Ra'iq used Bajkam's absence to take control of Baghdad at the head of a Carmathian force.
These developments forced Bajkam to negotiate with his rivals: the Hamdanids were restored in their province in exchange for the payment of the tax arrears, Ibn Ra'iq was bought off with the governorship of the provinces of Tariq al-Furat, Diyar
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Bukhara is a city in Uzbekistan. Bukhara is rich in historical sites, with about 140 architectural monuments; the nation's fifth-largest city, it had a population of 247,644 as of 31 August 2016. People have inhabited the region around Bukhara for at least five millennia, the city has existed for half that time; the mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara is Tajik. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long served as a center of trade, scholarship and religion. UNESCO has listed the historic center of Bukhara as a World Heritage Site. Bukhara was known as Bokhara in 19th- and early-20th-century English publications and as Buhe/Puhe（捕喝) in Tang Chinese. According to the Encyclopædia Iranica the name Bukhara is derived from the Sogdian βuxārak Muhammad ibn Jafar Narshakhi in his History of Bukhara mentions: Bukhara has many names. One of its name was Numijkat, it has been called "Bumiskat". It has 2 names in Arabic. One is "Madinat al Sufriya" meaning—"the copper city" and another is "Madinat Al Tujjar" meaning—"The city of Merchants".
But, the name Bukhara is more known than all the other names. In Khorasan, there is no other city with so many names. Since the Middle Ages, the city has been known as Buḫārā / بخارا in Persian sources; the modern Uzbek spelling is Buxoro. The city's name was mythologized as Albracca in the Italian epic poem Orlando Innamorato published in 1483 by Matteo Maria Boiardo; the history of Bukhara stretches back millennia. It is now the capital of Bukhara Region of Uzbekistan. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long been a center of trade, scholarship and religion. During the golden age of the Samanids, Bukhara became a major intellectual center of the Islamic world, second only to Baghdad; the historic center of Bukhara, which contains numerous mosques and madrassas, has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Bukhara has been one of the main centres of world civilisation from its early days in 6th century BCE. From the 6th century CE, Turkic speakers moved in, its architecture and archaeological sites form one of the pillars of Central Asian art.
The region of Bukhara was a part of the Persian Empire for a long time. The origin of many of its current inhabitants goes back to the period of Aryan immigration into the region; the Samanid Empire seized Bukhara, the capital of Greater Khorasan, in 903 CE. Genghis Khan besieged Bukhara for fifteen days in 1220 CE; as an important trading centre, Bukhara was home to a community of medieval Indian merchants from the city of Multan who were noted to own land in the city. Bukhara was the last capital of the Emirate of Bukhara and was besieged by the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. During the Bukhara operation of 1920, an army of well-disciplined and well equipped Red Army troops under the command of Bolshevik general Mikhail Frunze attacked the city of Bukhara. On 31 August 1920, the Emir Alim Khan fled to Dushanbe in Eastern Bukhara. On 2 September 1920, after four days of fighting, the emir's citadel was destroyed, the red flag was raised from the top of Kalyan Minaret. On 14 September 1920, the All-Bukharan Revolutionary Committee was headed by A. Mukhitdinov.
The government—the Council of People's Nazirs —was presided over by Faizullah Khojaev. The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic existed from 1920 to 1925 when the city was integrated into the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. Fitzroy Maclean a young diplomat in the British Embassy in Moscow, made a surreptitious visit to Bokhara in 1938, sight-seeing and sleeping in parks. In his memoir Eastern Approaches, he judged it an "enchanted city" with buildings that rivalled "the finest architecture of the Italian Renaissance". In the latter half of the 20th century, the war in Afghanistan and civil war in Tajikistan brought Dari- and Tajik-speaking refugees into Bukhara and Samarkand. After integrating themselves into the local Tajik population, these cities face a movement for annexation into Tajikistan with which the cities have no common border. Po-i-Kalyan ComplexThe title Po-i Kalan belongs to the architectural complex located at the base of the great minaret Kalân. Kalyan minaret. More properly, Minâra-i Kalân.
Known as the Tower of Death, as according to legend it is the site where criminals were executed by being thrown off the top for centuries. The minaret is most famed part of the ensemble, dominates over historical center of the city; the role of the minaret is for traditional and decorative purposes—its dimension exceeds the bounds of the main function of the minaret, to provide a vantage point from which the muezzin can call out people to prayer. For this purpose it was enough to ascend to a roof of mosque; this practice was common in initial years of Islam. The word "minaret" derives from the Arabic word "minara"; the minarets of the region were possible adaptations of "fire-towers" or lighthouses of previous Zoroastrian eras. The architect, whose name was Bako, designed the minaret in the form of a circular-pillar brick tower, narrowing upwards; the diameter of the base is 9 meters. The tower is 45.6 m high, can be seen from vast distances over the flat plains of Central Asia. There is a brick spiral staircase that twists up inside around the pillar, leading to the landing in sixteen-arched rotunda and skylight, upon which i