British currency in the Middle East
British involvement in the Middle East began with the Aden Settlement in 1839. The British East India Company established an anti-piracy station in Aden to protect British shipping, sailing to and from India; the Trucial States were brought into the British Empire as a base for suppressing sea piracy in the Persian Gulf. Involvement in the region expanded to Egypt because of the Suez canal, as well as to Bahrain and Muscat. Kuwait was added in 1899 because of fears about the proposed Berlin-Baghdad Railway. There was a growing fear in the United Kingdom that Germany was a rising power, there was concern about the implications of access to the Persian Gulf that would arise from the Berlin-Baghdad Railway. After the First World War the British influence in the Middle East reached its maximum extent with the inclusion of Palestine and Iraq. At first, Indian rupees were introduced to Aden and the Gulf States, during the First World War to Mesopotamia. After the First World War, the Indian rupee in British East Africa was replaced by a florin and a shilling, which replaced the Indian Rupee in Aden by 1951.
Meanwhile, in 1927 a new Palestine pound at par with the pound sterling was introduced in the mandated territories of Palestine and Transjordan to replace the Turkish and Egyptian currencies. The East African Shilling in Aden was replaced in 1965 with the South Arabian Dinar at par with the pound sterling. For nearly four hundred years, silver Spanish dollars had served as the international currency, most of these coins were minted in Mexico City and Potosi in the New World; the policy of introducing the sterling currency into all of the British colonies began with an imperial order-in-council dated 1825. The timing of the British imperial order-in-council corresponded to the drying up of the source of the Spanish dollars following revolutions in Latin America, the introduction of a successful gold standard into the United Kingdom in 1821, based on the gold sovereign. In 1825, the British Empire had not as yet taken on its widest extent. Following the American revolution, Britain's attention switched to India, but British India was controlled by the British East India Company.
The British government did not take direct control over India until after the Indian mutiny of 1857. Hence the imperial-order-of-council of 1825 did not apply to India; as such, the circulating silver rupee continued to be the currency of India for the entire duration of the British Raj, afterwards into independence. The Indian rupee was not only the currency of India but the currency of an extended region beyond, which stretched across the Indian Ocean to the east coast of Africa, up through the horn of Africa, through Aden and Muscat in Southern Arabia and Eastern Arabia, along the Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf, extending as far inland as Mesopotamia; these middle eastern territories did not become a part of the British Empire until a period ranging from the 1840s until after the first world war. The Middle East was the last major addition to the British Empire, therefore just like India, was unaffected by the 1825 imperial order-in-council; the 1825 order-in-council was limited to the remnants of the old Empire in North America and the West Indies, along with New South Wales and some spoils of the Napoleonic wars such as the Cape of Good Hope and Mauritius.
It is said that the British Empire had three currency zones, that the three currencies were the pound sterling, the dollar, the rupee. The situation in the British territories of the Middle East was however somewhat complicated, because it involved a situation in which Indian rupees, Turkish piastres, Egyptian piastres gave way to systems based on units of the sterling system, but without involving the introduction of the full sterling coinage; the situation as regards currency in the British territories in the Middle East was quite different from the situation as regards the currencies of the British West Indies. East Africa and the Middle East were late additions to the British Empire, by the British government had learned from experience in Canada and Hong Kong that it is impractical to impose a new currency in the place of existing practices. In the history of Britain's involvement in the Middle East region, the sterling coinage never formed a part of the circulating currency; the sterling unit of account, entered the region through Palestine in 1927, in the form of the Palestine pound.
The Palestine pound was introduced into Palestine in 1927 to end the confusion that had arisen as a result of the twin circulation of Turkish and Egyptian money in the territory. The Palestine pound was created at par with the pound sterling, but it was not used in conjunction with the pounds and pence coinage, it was used in conjunction with a decimal system. That was in contrast to the situation in the Eastern Caribbean, where sterling coinage was used in conjunction with a Spanish dollar unit of account; the Palestine pound was used in Transjordan where it became referred to as the dinar. The name dinar became the preferred name for the pound sterling unit of account as it spread to other middle eastern territories. Iraq adopted the dinar in 1931 to replace the Indian rupee, introduced by the British during the first world war. Meanwhile, after the first world war, the price of silver rose dramatically. In British East Africa, at the moment when the silver rupee rose to the value of two shillings sterling, the authorities opportunistically introduced a florin system to replace the rupee, with the florin being equal to the rupee at two shillings.
Shortly after that in 1922, the monet
The Indian rupee is the official currency of India. The rupee is subdivided into 100 paise, though as of 2018, coins of denomination of 50 paise or half rupee is the lowest value in use; the issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. The Reserve Bank manages currency in India and derives its role in currency management on the basis of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. In 2012, a new rupee symbol'₹', was adopted, it was designed by D. Udaya Kumar, it was derived from the combination of the Devanagari consonant "र" and the Latin capital letter "R" without its vertical bar. The parallel lines at the top are said to make an allusion to the tricolour Indian flag, depict an equality sign that symbolises the nation's desire to reduce economic disparity; the first series of coins with the new rupee symbol started in circulation on 8 July 2011. Before this India used to use Rs for Re to depict one rupee. On 8 November 2016 the Government of India announced the demonetisation of ₹500 and ₹1000 banknotes with effect from midnight of the same day, making these notes invalid.
A newly redesigned series of ₹500 banknote, in addition to a new denomination of ₹2000 banknote is in circulation since 10 November 2016. ₹1000 has been suspended. On 25 August 2017, a new denomination of ₹200 banknote was added to Indian currency to fill the gap of notes due to high demand for this note after demonetisation. In July 2018, the Reserve Bank of India released the ₹100 banknote; the word "rupee" was derived from Hindustani rupaya. Panini characterised rūpya as a stamped rūpa. Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya, mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa. Other types of coins including gold coins, copper coins and lead coins are mentioned; the history of the Indian rupee traces back to Ancient India in circa 6th century BCE, ancient India was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters. Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya, mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa, other types including gold coins, copper coins and lead coins are mentioned.
Rūpa means example, rūpyarūpa, rūpya -- wrought silver, rūpa -- form. During his five-year rule from 1540 to 1545, Sultan Sher Shah Suri issued a coin of silver, weighing 178 grains, termed the Rupiya. During Babar's time, the brass to silver exchange ratio was 50:2; the silver coin remained in use during Maratha era as well as in British India. Among the earliest issues of paper rupees include; the rupee was a silver coin. This had severe consequences in the nineteenth century when the strongest economies in the world were on the gold standard; the discovery of large quantities of silver in the United States and several European colonies resulted in a decline in the value of silver relative to gold, devaluing India's standard currency. This event was known as "the fall of the rupee." India was unaffected by the imperial order-in-council of 1825, which attempted to introduce British sterling coinage to the British colonies. British India, at that time, was controlled by the British East India Company.
The silver rupee continued as the currency of India through the British Raj and beyond. In 1835, British India adopted a mono-metallic silver standard based on the rupee. Following the First war of Independence in 1857, the British government took direct control of British India. Since 1851, gold sovereigns were produced en masse at the Royal Mint in New South Wales. In an 1864 attempt to make the British gold sovereign the "imperial coin", the treasuries in Bombay and Calcutta were instructed to receive gold sovereigns; as the British government gave up hope of replacing the rupee in India with the pound sterling, it realised for the same reason it could not replace the silver dollar in the Straits Settlements with the Indian rupee. Since the silver crisis of 1873, a number of nations adopted the gold standard. Around 1875, Britain started paying India for exported goods in India Council Bills. "If, the India Council in London should not step in to sell bills on India, the merchants and bankers would have to send silver to make good the balances.
Thus a channel for the outflow of silver was stopped, in 1875, by the India Council in London.""The great importance of these Bills, however, is the effect they have on the Market Price of Silver: and they have in fact been one of the most potent factors in recent years in causing the diminution in the Value of Silver'as compared to Gold.""The Indian and Chinese products for which silver is paid were and are, since 1873–74 low in price, it there fore takes less silver to purchase a larger quantity of Eastern commodities. Now, on taking the several agents into united consideration, it will not seem mysterious why silv
Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species. Falcons are distributed on all continents of the world except Antarctica, though related raptors did occur there in the Eocene. Adult falcons have thin, tapered wings, which enable them to fly at high speed and change direction rapidly. Fledgling falcons, in their first year of flying, have longer flight feathers, which make their configuration more like that of a general-purpose bird such as a broad-wing; this makes flying easier while learning the exceptional skills required to be effective hunters as adults. There are many different types of falcon; the falcons are the largest genus in the Falconinae subfamily of Falconidae, which itself includes another subfamily comprising caracaras and a few other species. All these birds kill with their beaks, using a "tooth" on the side of their beaks—unlike the hawks and other birds of prey in the Accipitridae, which use their feet; the largest falcon is the gyrfalcon at up to 65 cm in length.
The smallest falcons are the kestrels. As with hawks and owls, falcons exhibit sexual dimorphism, with the females larger than the males, thus allowing a wider range of prey species; some small falcons with long, narrow wings are called "hobbies" and some which hover while hunting are called "kestrels". As is the case with many birds of prey, falcons have exceptional powers of vision. Peregrine falcons have been recorded diving at speeds of 200 miles per hour, making them the fastest-moving creatures on Earth; the fastest recorded dive for one is 390 km/h. The Late Latin falco is believed to derive from falx as meaning a sickle, referencing the claws of the bird. In Middle English and Old French, the term faucon refers generically to several captive raptor species; the traditional term for a male falcon is tercel or tiercel, from the Latin tertius because of the belief that only one in three eggs hatched a male bird. Some sources give the etymology as deriving from the fact that a male falcon is about one-third smaller than a female.
A falcon chick one reared for falconry, still in its downy stage, is known as an eyas. The word arose from Latin presumed nidiscus from nidus; the technique of hunting with trained captive birds of prey is known as falconry. Compared to other birds of prey, the fossil record of the falcons is not well distributed in time; the oldest fossils tentatively assigned to this genus are from the Late Miocene, less than 10 million years ago. This coincides with a period in which many modern genera of birds became recognizable in the fossil record; the falcon lineage may, however, be somewhat older than this, given the distribution of fossil and living Falco taxa, is of North American, African, or Middle Eastern or European origin. Falcons are divisible into three or four groups; the first contains the kestrels. Kestrels feed chiefly on terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates of appropriate size, such as rodents, reptiles, or insects; the second group contains larger species, the hobbies and relatives. These birds are characterized by considerable amounts of dark slate-gray in their plumage.
They feed on smaller birds. Third are the peregrine falcon and its relatives, variably sized powerful birds that have a black malar area, a black cap, as well. Otherwise, they are somewhat intermediate between the other groups, being chiefly medium gray with some lighter or brownish colors on their upper sides, they are, on average, more delicately patterned than the hobbies and, if the hierofalcons are excluded, this group contains species with horizontal barring on their undersides. As opposed to the other groups, where tail color varies much in general but little according to evolutionary relatedness, the fox and greater kestrels can be told apart at first glance by their tail colors, but not by much else; the tails of the large falcons are quite uniformly dark gray with inconspicuous black banding and small, white tips, though this is plesiomorphic. These large Falco species feed on terrestrial vertebrates. Similar to these, sometimes included therein, are the four or so species of hierofalcons.
They represent taxa with more phaeomelanins, which impart reddish or brown colors, more patterned plumage reminiscent of hawks. Their undersides have a lengthwise pattern of lines, or arrowhead marks. While these three or four groups, loosely circumscribed, are an informal arrangement, they contain several distinct clades in their entirety. A study of mtDNA cytochrome b sequence data of some kestrels identified a clade containing the common kestrel and related "malar-striped" species, to the exclusion of such taxa as the greater kestrel, the lesser kestrel, the American kestrel, which has a malar stripe, but its color pattern–apart from the brownish back–and the
2017–19 Qatar diplomatic crisis
The 2017–19 Qatar diplomatic crisis began in June 2017, when Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, the Maldives, Senegal, the Comoros, the Tobruk-based Libyan government, the Hadi-led Yemeni government severed diplomatic relations with Qatar and banned Qatari airplanes and ships from entering their airspace and sea routes along with Saudi Arabia blocking the only land crossing. The Saudi-led coalition cited Qatar's alleged support for terrorism as the main reason for their actions, insisting that Qatar has violated a 2014 agreement with the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council. Saudi Arabia and other countries have criticized Al Qatar's relations with Iran. Qatar acknowledges that it has provided assistance to some Islamist groups, but denies aiding militant groups linked to al-Qaeda or the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Qatar claims that it has assisted the United States in the War on Terror and the ongoing military intervention against ISIL. Initial supply disruptions were mitigated by additional imports from Iran and Turkey, Qatar did not agree to any of the Saudi-led coalition's demands.
The demands included reducing diplomatic relations with Iran, stopping military coordination with Turkey, closing Al-Jazeera. On 27 July 2017, Qatari foreign minister Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al Thani told reporters that Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Bahrain were showing "stubbornness" to Qatar and had not taken any steps to solve the crisis. Al Thani added that the Security Council, the General Assembly and "all the United Nations mechanisms" could play a role in resolving the situation. On 24 August 2017, Qatar announced. Since he took power in 1995, Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani believed Qatar could find security only by transforming itself from a Saudi appendage to a rival of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia withdrew its ambassador to Doha from 2002 to 2008 to try to pressure Qatar to curb its individualistic tendencies; this approach broadly failed. The Arab Spring left a power vacuum which both Saudi Arabia and Qatar sought to fill, with Qatar being supportive of the revolutionary wave and Saudi Arabia opposing it.
Qatar has had differences with other Arab governments on a number of issues: it broadcasts Al Jazeera. Qatar has been accused of sponsoring terrorism; some countries have faulted Qatar for funding rebel groups in Syria, including al-Qaeda’s affiliate in Syria, the al-Nusra Front, although the Saudis have done the same. Qatar has allowed the Afghan Taliban to set up a political office inside the country. Qatar is a close ally of the United States, hosting the largest American base in the Middle East, Al Udeid Air Base. In March 2014, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar; this severing of relations was the first of its kind since the establishment of the Gulf Cooperation Council. The disagreement that sparked the ambassadors’ withdrawal was among the most serious in recent years, threatened to undermine relations between the GCC states; the crisis affected the GCC negatively at first – raising questions among member states, revealing shifts in their political agendas, changing the balance of power in the region to some extent.
It set the stage for the 2017 GCC crisis. The exact reasons for the diplomatic break-offs are unclear, but contemporary news coverage attributes this to several events in April and May 2017. In April 2017, Qatar was involved in a deal with both Sunni and Shi'ite militants in Syria; the deal had two goals. The immediate goal was to secure the return of 26 Qatari hostages, kidnapped by Shi'ite militants while falcon hunting in Southern Iraq and kept in captivity for more than 16 months; the second goal was to get both Sunni and Shi'ite militants in Syria to allow humanitarian aid to pass through and allow the safe evacuation of civilians. According to the New York Times, this deal allowed the evacuation of at least 2,000 civilians from the Syrian village of Madaya alone. What outraged Saudi Arabia and the UAE is the amount of money Qatar had to pay to secure the deal. According to the Financial Times Qatar paid $700 million to Iranian-backed Shi'a militias in Iraq, $120–140 million to Tahrir al-Sham, $80 million to Ahrar al-Sham.
As part of the Riyadh Summit in late May 2017, many world leaders, including US President Donald Trump visited the region. Trump gave strong support for Saudi Arabia's efforts in fighting against states and groups allied with Iran and the Muslim Brotherhood, leading to an arms deal between the countries; the Business Insider reported. The Saudi-led move was at once an opportunity for the GCC partners and Egypt to punish their adversaries in Doha, please their allies in Washington, remove attention from their own shortcomings and challenges. Acc
Dubai is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. On the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf, it is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, one of the seven emirates that make up the country. Dubai is a global business hub of the Middle East, it is a major global transport hub for passengers and cargo. Oil revenue helped accelerate the development of the city, a major mercantile hub, but Dubai's oil reserves are limited and production levels are low: today, less than 5% of the emirate's revenue comes from oil. A growing centre for regional and international trade since the early 20th century, Dubai's economy today relies on revenues from trade, aviation, real estate, financial services. Dubai has attracted world attention through large construction projects and sports events, in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa; as of 2012, Dubai was the most expensive city in the Middle East. In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world.
Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word "Dubai". One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, similar to the souq in Ba. An Arabic proverb says "Daba Dubai", meaning "They came with a lot of money." According to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAE's history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba, referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, but to its alternative meaning of "baby locust" due to the abundant nature of locusts in the area before settlement; the history of human settlement in the area now defined by the United Arab Emirates is rich and complex, points to extensive trading links between the civilisations of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia, but as far afield as the Levant. Archaeological finds in the emirate of Dubai at Al-Ashoosh, Al Sufouh and the notably rich trove from Saruq Al Hadid show settlement through the Ubaid and Hafit periods, the Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq periods and the three Iron Ages in the UAE.
The area was known to the Sumerians as Magan, was a source for metallic goods, notably copper and bronze. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city's present coastline. Pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 4th centuries. Prior to the introduction of Islam to the area, the people in this region worshiped Bajir. After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph of the eastern Islamic world invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations by the Dubai Museum in the region of Al-Jumayra found several artefacts from the Umayyad period; the earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095 in the Book of Geography by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. The Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai for its pearling industry. Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century and was, by 1822, a town of some 7–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi.
In 1833, following tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasah tribe seceded from Abu Dhabi and established themselves in Dubai. The exodus from Abu Dhabi was led by Obeid bin Saeed and Maktoum bin Butti, who became joint leaders of Dubai until Ubaid died in 1836, leaving Maktum to establish the Maktoum dynasty. Dubai signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 along with other Trucial States, following the British punitive expedition against Ras Al Khaimah of 1819, which led to the bombardment of the coastal communities of the Persian Gulf; this led to the 1853 Perpetual Maritime Truce. Dubai – like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast – entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate's security in 1892. In 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira. In 1896, fire broke out in Dubai, a disastrous occurrence in a town where many family homes were still constructed from barasti - palm fronds.
The conflagration consumed half the houses of Bur Dubai, while the district of Deira was said to have been destroyed. The following year, more fires broke out. A female slave was subsequently put to death. In 1901, Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum established Dubai as a free port with no taxation on imports or exports and gave merchants parcels of land and guarantees of protection and tolerance; these policies saw a movement of merchants not only directly from Lingeh, but those who had settled in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah to Dubai. An indicator of the growing importance of the port of Dubai can be gained from the movements of the steamer of the Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Company, which from 1899 to 1901 paid five visits annually to Dubai. In 1902 the company's vessels made 21 visits to Dubai and from 1904 on, the steamers called fortnightly – in 1906, trading seventy thousand tonnes of cargo; the frequency of these vessels only helped to accelerate Dubai's role as an emerging port and trading hub of preference.
Lorimer notes the transfer from Lingeh'bids fair to become complete and permanent', that the town had by 1906 supplanted Lingeh as the chief entrepôt of the Trucial States. The'great storm' of 1908 struck the pearling boats of Dubai and the coastal emirates t
Abu Dhabi is the capital and the second most populous city of the United Arab Emirates, capital of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the largest of the UAE's seven emirates. Abu Dhabi lies on a T-shaped island jutting into the Persian Gulf from the central western coast; the city of Abu Dhabi has an estimated population of 1.8 million in 2016. Abu Dhabi houses federal government offices, is the seat of the United Arab Emirates Government, home to the Abu Dhabi Emiri Family and the President of the UAE, from this family. Abu Dhabi's rapid development and urbanisation, coupled with the high average income of its population, has transformed the city into a large and advanced metropolis. Today the city is the country's centre of political and industrial activities, a major cultural and commercial centre, due to its position as the capital. Abu Dhabi accounts for about two-thirds of the $400-billion United Arab Emirates economy; the area surrounding Abu Dhabi is full of archaeological evidence that points to civilisations, such as the Umm an-Nar Culture, having been located there from the third millennium BCE.
Settlements were found farther outside the modern city of Abu Dhabi, including in the eastern and western regions of the Emirate. "Dhabi" is the Arabic word for Gazelle, so Abu Dhabi means "Father of Gazelle". It is thought that this name came about because of the abundance of Gazelles in the area and a folk tale involving Shakhbut bin Dhiyab al Nahyan; the Bani Yas bedouin were centred on the Liwa Oasis in the Western region of the Emirate. This tribe was the most significant in the area, having over 20 subsections. In 1793, Al Bu Falah subsection migrated to the island of Abu Dhabi on the coast of the Persian Gulf due to the discovery of fresh water there. One family within this section was the Nahyan family; this family makes up the rulers of Abu Dhabi today. Abu Dhabi traded with others. According to a source about pearling, the Persian Gulf was the best location for pearls. Pearl divers dove for one to one-and-a-half minutes, would have dived up to thirty times per day. There were no air tanks and any other sort of mechanical device was forbidden.
The divers had a leather nose clip and leather coverings on their fingers and big toes to protect them while they searched for oysters. The divers received a portion of the season's earnings. In the 19th century, as a result of treaties entered into between Great Britain and the sheikhs of the Arab States of the Persian Gulf, Britain became the predominant influence in the area; the main purpose of British interest was to protect the trade route to India from pirates, hence the earlier name for the area, the "Pirate Coast". After piracy was suppressed, other considerations came into play, such as a strategic need of the British to exclude other powers from the region. Following their withdrawal from India in 1947, the British maintained their influence in Abu Dhabi as interest in the oil potential of the Persian Gulf grew. In the 1930s, as the pearl trade declined, interest grew in the oil possibilities of the region. On 5 January 1936, Petroleum Development Ltd, an associate company of the Iraq Petroleum Company, entered into a concession agreement with the ruler, Sheikh Shakhbut bin Sultan Al Nahyan, to explore for oil.
This was followed by a seventy-five-year concession signed in January 1939. However, owing to the desert terrain, inland exploration was fraught with difficulties. In 1953, D'Arcy Exploration Company, the exploration arm of BP, obtained an offshore concession, transferred to a company created to operate the concession: Abu Dhabi Marine Areas was a joint venture between BP and Compagnie Française des Pétroles. In 1958, using a marine drilling platform, the ADMA Enterprise, oil was struck in the Umm Shaif field at a depth of about 2,669 metres; this was followed in 1959 by PDTC's onshore discovery well at Murban No.3. In 1962, the company discovered the Bu Hasa field and ADMA followed in 1965 with the discovery of the Zakum offshore field. Today, in addition to the oil fields mentioned, the main producing fields onshore are Asab and Shah, offshore are al-Bunduq, Abu al-Bukhoosh. In 1904, German explorer, Hermann Burchardt, took many photographs of historical sites in Abu Dhabi, photos that are now held at the Ethnological Museum of Berlin.
The city of Abu Dhabi is on the southeastern side of the Arabian Peninsula, adjoining the Persian Gulf. It is on an island less than 250 metres from the mainland and is joined to the mainland by the Maqta and Mussafah Bridges. A third, Sheikh Zayed Bridge, designed by Zaha Hadid, opened in late 2010. Abu Dhabi Island is connected to Saadiyat Island by a five-lane motorway bridge. Al-Mafraq bridge connects the city to Reem Island and was completed in early 2011; this is a multilayer interchange bridge and it has 27 lanes which allow 25,000 automobiles to move per hour. There are three major bridges of the project, the largest has eight lanes, four leaving Abu Dhabi city and four coming in. Most of Abu Dhabi city is located on the island itself, but it has many suburban districts on the mainland, for example: Khalifa City A, B, C. Gulf waters of Abu Dhabi holds the world's largest population of Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphins. To the east of the island are mangroves, located on Al Qurm Corniche.
Al-Qurm is Arabic for "The Mangrove". Abu Dhabi has a
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa bin Hamad bin Abdullah bin Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani is a member of the ruling Al Thani Qatari royal family. He was the ruling Emir of Qatar from 1995 to 2013; the Qatari government now refers to him as His Highness the Father Emir. Hamad seized power in a bloodless palace coup d'état in 1995. During his 18-year rule, Qatar's natural gas production reached 77 million tonnes, making Qatar the richest country in the world per capita with the average income in the country US$86,440 a year per person. During his reign, several sports and diplomatic events took place in Qatar, including the 2006 Asian Games, 2012 UN Climate Change Conference, Doha Agreement, Fatah–Hamas Doha Agreement, it was decided that the 2022 FIFA World Cup was to be held in the country, he established the Qatar Investment Authority. C. Volkswagen and Royal Dutch Shell. During Hamad's rule, Qatar hosted two US military bases, it maintained close relations with Iran. He supported and funded rebel movements in Libya and Syria during the Arab Spring, while maintaining political stability at home.
The Sheikh founded news media group Al Jazeera, through which he maintained his influence over the Arab world. He played a part in negotiations between the US and the Taliban. In June 2013, Hamad, in a brief televised address, announced that he would hand power to his fourth son, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Hamad was born 1952, his mother died soon after the birth and he was raised by his uncle. He graduated from the British Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst in 1971 and commissioned as a lieutenant colonel. After graduation he was made commander of a mobile brigade, which became a force called "Hamad Brigade". In 1972 Hamad had the rank of general, became army chief of staff. Next he was appointed commander-in-chief of Qatar's armed forces with the rank of major general. In 1977 he was named minister of defense. Hamad was appointed Heir Apparent of Qatar in 1977 and held the post until 1995. In the early 1980s, he led the Supreme Planning Council, which sets Qatar's basic economic and social policies.
From 1992 Hamad had a growing responsibility for the day-to-day running of the country, including the development of Qatar's oil and natural gas resources. On 27 June 1995, after deposing his father in a palace coup, Hamad became Emir of Qatar and was crowned on 20 June 2000. In the early 1980s, Hamad led the Supreme Planning Council, which sets Qatar's basic economic and social policies. Starting in 1992, Hamad's father handed over responsibility for the day-to-day running of the country, including the development of Qatar's oil and natural gas resources, rendering him the effective ruler. However, his father retained control over state finances. With the support of his family, Hamad took control of the country in 1995 while his father was on vacation abroad. While his father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani was in Geneva, Hamad bin Khalifa deposed him in a bloodless coup d'état; the deposition came after a falling out between Hamad bin Khalifa and his father, who had tried regaining some of the authority he bestowed upon Hamad in early 1995.
Thereafter, his father lived in exile in France and Abu Dhabi until he returned to Qatar in 2004. Hamad engaged an American law firm to freeze his father's bank accounts abroad in order to deter a possible countercoup. However, a counter-coup was attempted against Hamad in February 1996 under the leadership of former Economy Minister Hamad bin Jassim bin Hamad Al Thani; the coup failed, several of Qatar's traditional Arab allies were implicated in the plot, namely Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt. In a break with the traditional role, his second wife Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al Missned has been a visible advocate for education and children's causes. A sportsman and an accomplished diver, Hamad has played an active role in promoting and developing athletics in Qatar, his activism has enhanced the country's involvement and performance in a number of international competitions, including: winning an Olympic medal in track and field. Under his rule the Qatari government helped to fund the Al Jazeera news network by an emiri decree.
In an analysis of Al Jazeera, Hugh Miles said that diplomats from other countries know that the Emir is the real power behind Al Jazeera but he quotes a network spokesman denying'countless times' this accusation, adding that many independent news sources have subsidies from their respective governments without this implying editorial dabbling and explaining that trying to coerce the kind of journalists Al Jazeera has would be like trying to'herd cats'. Sheik Hamad is a distant cousin of the network chairman, Hamad bin Thamer Al Thani, Minister of Information in the Emir Al-Thani government. Following the initial US$137 million grant from Emir Al-Thani, Al Jazeera had aimed to become self-sufficient through advertising by 2001, but when this failed to occur, the Emir agreed to several consecutive loans on a year-by-year basis. At a 3 October 2001 press conference, Colin Powell tried to persuade Sheik Hamad to shut down Al Jazeera while the New York-based organization Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting commented that in those efforts, "Powell and other U.
S. officials were upset