Hokkien or Minnan language, is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China, spoken there. It is spoken in Taiwan and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, by other overseas Chinese all over the world, it is the mainstream form of Southern Min. It is related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Putian dialect and Leizhou dialect due to historical influences. Hokkien served as the lingua franca amongst overseas Chinese communities of all dialects and subgroups in Southeast Asia, remains today as the most spoken variety of Chinese in the region, including in Singapore, Indonesia and some parts of Indochina; the Betawi Malay language, spoken by some five million people in and around the Indonesian capital Jakarta, includes numerous Hokkien loanwords due to the significant influence of the Chinese Indonesian diaspora, most of whom are of Hokkien ancestry and origin.
Chinese speakers of the Quanzhang variety of Southern Min refer to the mainstream Southern Min language as Bân-lâm-gú / Bân-lâm-ōe in Mainland China and Taiwan. Tâi-gí in Taiwan. Hok-kiàn-ōe in Burma, Singapore and Indonesia. Lán-lâng-ōe in the Philippines. In parts of Southeast Asia and in the English-speaking communities, the term Hokkien is etymologically derived from the Southern Min pronunciation for Fujian, the province from which the language hails. In Southeast Asia and the English press, Hokkien is used in common parlance to refer to the Southern Min dialects of southern Fujian, does not include reference to dialects of other Sinitic branches present in Fujian such as the Fuzhou dialect, Putian dialect, Northern Min, Gan Chinese or Hakka. In Chinese linguistics, these dialects are known by their classification under the Quanzhang division of Min Nan, which comes from the first characters of the two main Hokkien urban centers of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. Hokkien originated in the southern area of Fujian province, an important center for trade and migration, has since become one of the most common Chinese varieties overseas.
The major pole of Hokkien varieties outside of Fujian is Taiwan, during the 200 years of Qing dynasty rule, thousands of immigrants from Fujian arrived yearly. The Taiwanese dialect has origins with the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou variants, but since the Amoy dialect known as the Xiamen dialect, is becoming the modern prestige standard for the language in Mainland China. Both Amoy and Xiamen come from the Chinese name of the city. There are many Minnan speakers among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia as well as in the United States. Many ethnic Han Chinese emigrants to the region were Hoklo from southern Fujian, brought the language to what is now Burma and present day Malaysia and Singapore. Many of the Minnan dialects of this region are similar to Xiamen dialect and Taiwanese Hokkien with the exception of foreign loanwords. Hokkien is the native language of up to 80% of the Chinese people in the Philippines, among, known locally as Lan-nang or Lán-lâng-oē. Hokkien speakers form the largest group of overseas Chinese in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines.
Southern Fujian is home to three principal Minnan Proper dialects: Chinchew, Chiangchew, originating from the cities of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. Traditionally speaking, Quanzhou dialect spoken in Quanzhou is the Traditional Standard Minnan, it is the dialect, used in and Liyuan Opera and Nanying music. Being the Traditional Standard Minnan, Quanzhou dialect is considered to have the purest accent and the most conservative Minnan dialect. In the late 18th to the early 19th century, Xiamen became the principal city of southern Fujian. Xiamen dialect is adopted as the Modern Standard Minnan, it is a hybrid of the Zhangzhou dialects. It has played an influential role in history in the relations of Western nations with China, was one of the most learnt dialect of Quanzhang variety by Westerners during the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century; the Modern Standard form of Quanzhang accent spoken around the city of Tainan in Taiwan is a hybrid of the Quanzhou and Zhangzhou dialects, in the same way as the Amoy dialect.
All Quanzhang dialects spoken throughout the whole of Taiwan are collectively known as Taiwanese Hokkien or just the Taiwanese language. Used by a majority of the population, it bears much importance from a socio-political perspective, forming the second major pole of the language due to the popularity of Taiwanese-language media; the varieties of Hokkien in Southeast Asia originate from these dialects. The Singaporeans, Southern Malaysians and people in Indonesia's Riau and surrounding islands variant is from the Quanzh
Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture
Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture known as Aba, is an autonomous prefecture of northwestern Sichuan, bordering Gansu to the north and northeast and Qinghai to the northwest. Its seat is in Barkam, it has an area of 83,201 km2; the population was 919,987 in late 2013. The county of Wenchuan in Ngawa is the site of the epicenter of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, in which over 20,000 of its residents died and 40,000 injured. In the 8th century the Gyalrong area was visited by Vairotsana. In 1410 Je Tsongkhapa's student Tshakho Ngawang Tapa established the first Gelug monastery in the area called "Gyalrong". In contemporary history, most of Ngawa was under the 16th Administrative Prefecture of Szechwan, established by the Republic of China; the People's Republic of China defeated ROC troops in this area and established a Tibetan autonomous prefecture by late 1952. It was renamed Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in 1956 and Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture in 1987. On May 12, 2008, a major earthquake occurred in Wenchuan County, a county in the southeastern part of this autonomous prefecture.
20,258 people were killed, 45,079 injured, 7,696 missing in the prefecture as of June 6, 2008. Internet access in the prefecture has been restricted. Most of the prefecture lies in the Tibetan cultural and historical region of Amdo, the southern part in Kham; the west, part of Kardze, is known as Gyalrong. Tribes in the Gyalrong area use a Qiangic language known as Gyalrong language; the source of the Min River and its tributary Dadu River are to be found in Ngawa. As of 2013, the prefecture's population was 919,987 inhabitants at a density of 10.91 per km²: Major languages spoken in Aba Prefecture include Khams Tibetan, Mandarin Chinese and many vernaculars of the Qiangic languages which vary from county to county: Barkam: rGyalrong Li County: Southern Qiang, rGyalrong Mao County: Northern Qiang, Southern Qiang Jiuzhaigou County: Baima Jinchuan County: Khroskyabs, rGyalrong Xiaojin County: rGyalrong Heishui County: Northern Qiang, rGyalrong Zamtang County: rGyalrong The region is composed of one county-level city and twelve counties: Though situated within Wenchuan County, Wolong National Nature Reserve and Wolong Special Administrative Region are administered separately by the Forestry Department of Sichuan.
The prefecture is served by Jiuzhai Huanglong Airport in the east. Private taxis can be hired from these airports. Jiuzhaigou Train Station is under construction 55 km north-west of Jiuzhaigou County's town; the railway is to run between Lanzhou. Tourism produced 71.0% of the GDP of the prefecture in 2006. There are many places of interest in the prefecture, including Wolong National Nature Reserve in Wenchuan County, a well-known giant panda reserve where the China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda was established in 1980 Kirti Gompa, a 15th-century Tibetan Buddhism monastery Nangzhik Gompa monastery, founded in the 12th century Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area in Songpan County Jiuzhaigou, Jiuzhaigou County, a nature reserve known for its many multi-level waterfalls and colorful lakes, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992 Mount Siguniang, the highest point of the Qionglai Mountains, on the border between Xiaojin County and Wenchuan County. A. Gruschke: The Cultural Monuments of Tibet’s Outer Provinces: Amdo - Volume 2.
The Gansu and Sichuan Parts of Amdo, White Lotus Press, Bangkok 2001. ISBN 974-480-049-6 Tsering Shakya: The Dragon in the Land of Snows. A History of Modern Tibet Since 1947, London 1999, ISBN 0-14-019615-3 Aba, China - Official website of Prefectural Government
Hakka rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, in overseas Chinese communities around the world. Due to its primary usage in scattered isolated regions where communication is limited to the local area, Hakka has developed numerous varieties or dialects, spoken in different provinces, such as Guangdong, Hainan, Sichuan, Hunan and Guizhou, as well as in Hong Kong, Singapore and Indonesia. Hakka is not mutually intelligible with Yue, Wu, Southern Min, Mandarin or other branches of Chinese, itself contains a few mutually unintelligible varieties, it is most related to Gan and is sometimes classified as a variety of Gan, with a few northern Hakka varieties being mutually intelligible with southern Gan. There is a possibility that the similarities are just a result of shared areal features. Taiwan, where Hakka is the native language of a significant minority of the island's residents, is a center for the study and preservation of the language.
Pronunciation differences exist between the Taiwanese Hakka dialects and Mainland China's Hakka dialects. The Meixian dialect of northeast Guangdong in China has been taken as the "standard" dialect by the People's Republic of China; the Guangdong Provincial Education Department created an official romanization of Moiyen in 1960, one of four languages receiving this status in Guangdong. The name of the Hakka people who are the predominant original native speakers of the variety means "guest families" or "guest people": Hak 客 means "guest", ka 家 means "family". Among themselves, Hakka people variously called their language Hak-ka-fa 客家話, Hak-fa 客話, Tu-gong-dung-fa 土廣東話 "Native Guangdong language", Ngai-fa 我話, "My/our language". In Tonggu county, Jiangxi province, people call their language Huai-yuan-fa 怀远話, it is believed that Hakka people have their origins in several episodes of migration from northern China into southern China during periods of war and civil unrest dating back as far as the end of Western Jin.
The forebears of the Hakka came from present-day Central Plains provinces of Henan and Shaanxi, brought with them features of Chinese varieties spoken in those areas during that time.. The presence of many archaic features occur in modern Hakka, including final consonants -p -t -k, as are found in other modern southern Chinese varieties, but which have been lost in Mandarin. Laurent Sagart considers Hakka and southern Gan Chinese to be sister dialects that descended from a single common ancestral language spoken in central Jiangxi during the Song Dynasty. In Hakka and southern Gan, Sagart identifies a non-Chinese substratum, Hmong-Mien, an archaic layer, a more recent Late Middle Chinese layer. Lexical connections between Hakka, Kra-Dai, Hmong-Mien have been suggested by Deng. Due to the migration of its speakers, Hakka may have been influenced by other language areas through which the Hakka-speaking forebears migrated. For instance, common vocabulary is found in Hakka and the She languages.
Today, most She people in Fujian and Zhejiang speak Shehua, related to Hakka. A regular pattern of sound change can be detected in Hakka, as in most Chinese varieties, of the derivation of phonemes from earlier forms of Chinese; some examples: Characters such as 武 or 屋, are pronounced mwio and uk in Early Middle Chinese, have an initial v phoneme in Hakka, being vu and vuk in Hakka respectively. Like in Mandarin, labiodentalisation process changed mj- to a w-like sound in Hakka before grave vowels, while Cantonese retained the original distinction. Middle Chinese initial phonemes /ɲ/ of the characters 人 and 日, among others, merged with ng- /ŋ/ initials in Hakka. For comparison, in Mandarin, /ɲ/ became r-, while in Cantonese, it merged with initial /j/; the initial consonant phoneme exhibited by the character 話 is pronounced f or v in Hakka. The initial consonant of 學 hɔk corresponds with an h approximant in Hakka and a voiceless alveo-palatal fricative in Mandarin. Hakka has as many regional dialects.
Some of these Hakka dialects are not mutually intelligible with each other. Surrounding Meixian are the counties of Pingyuan, Jiaoling, Xingning and Fengshun; each is said to have its own special phonological points of interest. For instance, Xingning lacks the codas and; these have merged into and, respectively. Further away from Meixian, the Hong Kong dialect lacks the medial, so, whereas Meixian pronounces the character 光 as, Hong Kong Hakka dialect pronounces it as, similar to the Hakka spoken in neighbouring Shenzhen; as much as endings and vowels are important, the tones vary across the dialects of Hakka. The majority of Hakka dialects have six tones. However, there are dialects which have lost all of their checked tone, the characters of this tone class are distributed across the non-Ru tones; such a dialect is Changting, situated in
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia. It derives from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism and preserves "the Tantric status quo of eighth-century India." It has been spread outside of Tibet due to the Mongol power of the Yuan dynasty, founded by Kublai Khan, that ruled China. Tibetan Buddhism applies Tantric practices deity yoga, aspires to Buddhahood or the rainbow body. Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet has four major schools, namely Nyingma, Kagyu and Gelug; the Jonang is a smaller school, the Rimé movement is an eclectic movement involving the Sakya and Nyingma schools. Among the prominent proponents of Tibetan Buddhism are the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, the leaders of Gelug school in Tibet. Westerners unfamiliar with Tibetan Buddhism turned to China for an understanding. There the term used; the term was taken up by western scholars including Hegel, as early as 1822.
Insofar as it implies a discontinuity between Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, the term has been discredited. Another term, "Vajrayāna" is used mistakenly for Tibetan Buddhism. More it signifies a certain subset of practices included in, not only Tibetan Buddhism, but other forms of Buddhism as well; the native Tibetan term for all Buddhism is "doctrine of the internalists". In the west, the term "Indo-Tibetan Buddhism" has become current, in acknowledgement of its derivation from the latest stages of Buddhist development in northern India. Buddhism was formally introduced into Tibet during the Tibetan Empire. Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures from India were first translated into Tibetan under the reign of the Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo, In the 8th century King Trisong Detsen established it as the official religion of the state. Trisong Detsen invited Indian Buddhist scholars to his court, including Padmasambhāva and Śāntarakṣita ), who founded the Nyingma, The Ancient Ones, the oldest school of Tibetan Buddhism.
There was influence from the Sarvāstivādins from Kashmir to the southwest and Khotan to the northwest. Trisong Detsen invited the Chan master Moheyan to transmit the Dharma at Samye Monastery. According to Tibetan sources, Moheyan lost the socalled council of Lhasa, a debate sponsored by Trisong Detsen on the nature of emptiness with the Indian master Kamalaśīla, the king declared Kamalaśīlas philosophy should form the basis for Tibetan Buddhism. A reversal in Buddhist influence began under King Langdarma, his death was followed by the socalled Era of Fragmentation, a period of Tibetan history in the 9th and 10th centuries. During this era, the political centralization of the earlier Tibetan Empire collapsed; the late 10th and 11th century saw a revival of Buddhism in Tibet. Coinciding with the early discoveries of "hidden treasures", the 11th century saw a revival of Buddhist influence originating in the far east and far west of Tibet. In the west, Rinchen Zangpo founded temples and monasteries.
Prominent scholars and teachers were again invited from India. In 1042 Atiśa arrived in Tibet at the invitation of a west Tibetan king; this renowned exponent of the Pāla form of Buddhism from the Indian university of Vikramashila moved to central Tibet. There his chief disciple, Dromtonpa founded the Kadampa school of Tibetan Buddhism, under whose influence the New Translation schools of today evolved; the Sakya, the Grey Earth school, was founded by Khön Könchok Gyelpo, a disciple of the great Lotsawa, Drogmi Shākya. It is headed by the Sakya Trizin, traces its lineage to the mahasiddha Virūpa, represents the scholarly tradition. A renowned exponent, Sakya Pandita, was the great-grandson of Khön Könchok Gyelpo. Other seminal Indian teachers were his student Naropa; the Kagyu, the Lineage of the Word, is an oral tradition, much concerned with the experiential dimension of meditation. Its most famous exponent was an 11th-century mystic, it contains one major and one minor subsect. The first, the Dagpo Kagyu, encompasses those Kagyu schools that trace back to the Indian master Naropa via Marpa Lotsawa and Gampopa Tibetan Buddhism exerted a strong influence from the 11th century CE among the peoples of Inner Asia the Mongols.
The Mongols invaded Tibet in 1240 and 1244. The Mongols had annexed Kham to the east. Sakya Paṇḍita was appointed Viceroy of Central Tibet by the Mongol court in 1249. Tibet was incorporated into the Mongol Empire, retaining nominal power over religious and regional political affairs, while the Mongols managed a structural and administrative rule over the region, reinforced by the rare military intervention. Tibetan Buddhism was adopted as the de facto state religion by the Mongol Yuan dynasty, founded by Kublai Khan, whose capital is Xanadu. With the decline of the Yuan dynansty and the loose administration of the following Ming dynasty, Central Tibet was ruled by successive local families from the 14th to the 17th century, Tibet would gain de facto a high autonomy after the 14th century. Jangchub Gyaltsän became the strongest political family in the mid 14th century. During this period the reformist scholar Je Tso
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong, an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanisation Scheme; the LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name Jyutping is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5 and ping3jam1; the Jyutping system marks a departure from all previous Cantonese romanisation systems by introducing z and c initials and the use of eo and oe in finals, as well as replacing the initial y, used in all previous systems, with j. Only the finals m and ng can be used as standalone nasal syllables. ^ ^ ^ Referring to the colloquial pronunciation of these words. There are nine tones in six distinct tone contours in Cantonese. However, as three of the nine are entering tones, which only appear in syllables ending with p, t, k, they do not have separate tone numbers in Jyutping. Jyutping and the Yale Romanisation of Cantonese represent Cantonese pronunciations with the same letters in: The initials: b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw, w.
The vowel: aa, a, e, i, o, u, yu. The nasal stop: m, ng; the coda: i, u, m, n, ng, p, t, k. But they differ in the following: The vowels eo and oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ in Jyutping, whereas the eu represents both vowels in Yale; the initial j represents / j / in Jyutping. The initial z represents / ts / in Jyutping; the initial c represents / tsʰ / in Jyutping. In Jyutping, if no consonant precedes the vowel yu the initial j is appended before the vowel. In Yale, the corresponding initial y is never appended before yu under any circumstances. Jyutping defines three finals not in Yale: eu /ɛːu/, em /ɛːm/, ep /ɛːp/; these three finals are used in colloquial Cantonese words, such as deu6, lem2, gep6. To represent tones, only tone numbers are used in Jyutping whereas Yale traditionally uses tone marks together with the letter h. Jyutping and Cantonese Pinyin represent Cantonese pronunciations with the same letters in: The initials: b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, ng, h, s, gw, kw, j, w; the vowel: aa, a, e, i, o, u.
The nasal stop: m, ng. The coda: i, u, m, n, ng, p, t, k, but they have some differences: The vowel oe represents both /ɵ/ and /œː/ in Cantonese Pinyin whereas eo and oe represent /ɵ/ and /œː/ in Jyutping. The vowel y represents / y / in Cantonese Pinyin whereas i are used in Jyutping; the initial dz represents / ts / in Cantonese Pinyin. The initial ts represents / tsʰ / in Cantonese Pinyin. To represent tones, the numbers 1 to 9 are used in Cantonese Pinyin, although the use of 1, 3, 6 to replace 7, 8, 9 for the checked tones is acceptable. However, only the numbers 1 to 6 are used in Jyutping. Sample transcription of one of the 300 Tang Poems: The Jyutping method refers to a family of input methods based on the Jyutping romanization system; the Jyutping method allows a user to input Chinese characters by entering the jyutping of a Chinese character and presenting the user with a list of possible characters with that pronunciation. Online Jyutping Input Method MDBG Type Chinese Red Dragonfly LSHK Jyutping for Macintosh Mac OS X and OS 9 Hong Kong Cantonese 2010 Canton Easy Input Cantonese Phonetic IME Cantonese phonology Zee, Eric.
Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 58–60. ISBN 0521652367. Jyutping Pronunciation Guide 粵語拼盤: Learning the phonetic system of Cantonese Chinese Character Database The CantoDict Project is a dedicated Cantonese-Mandarin-English online dictionary which uses Jyutping by default MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary
Sichuan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu; the population of Sichuan stands at 81 million. In antiquity, Sichuan was the home of the ancient states of Shu, their conquest by Qin strengthened it and paved the way for the Qin Shi Huang's unification of China under the Qin dynasty. During the Three Kingdoms era, Liu Bei's Shu was based in Sichuan; the area was devastated in the 17th century by Zhang Xianzhong's rebellion and the area's subsequent Manchu conquest, but recovered to become one of China's most productive areas by the 19th century. During the World War II, Chongqing served as the temporary capital of the Republic of China, making it the focus of Japanese bombing, it was one of the last mainland areas to fall to the Communists during the Chinese Civil War and was divided into four parts from 1949 to 1952, with Chongqing restored two years later.
It suffered gravely during the Great Chinese Famine of 1959–61 but remained China's most populous province until Chongqing Municipality was again separated from it in 1997. The people of Sichuan speak a unique form of Mandarin, which took shape during the area's repopulation under the Ming; the family of dialects is now spoken by about 120 million people, which would make it the 10th most spoken language in the world if counted separately. The area's warm damp climate long caused Chinese medicine to advocate spicy dishes. Many people believe that the name Sichuan means "four rivers", in folk etymology this is taken to mean the province's four major rivers: the Jialing, Jinsha and Tuo. According to historical geographer Tan Qixiang, "four rivers" is an erroneous interpretation of the place name; the name of the province is a contraction of the phrases Sì Chuānlù and Chuānxiá Sìlù, referring to the division of the existing imperial administrative circuit in the area into four during the Northern Song dynasty.
The character Chuan here means "plain" and not "river" as believed. In addition to its postal map and Wade-Giles forms, the name has been irregularly romanized as Szű-chuan and Szechuan. In antiquity, the area of modern Sichuan including the now separated Chongqing Municipality was known to the Chinese as Ba-Shu, in reference to the ancient states of Ba and Shu that once occupied the Sichuan Basin. Shu continued to be used to refer to the Sichuan region all through its history right up to the present day. Both the characters for Shu and Chuan are used as abbreviations for Sichuan; the Sichuan Basin and adjacent areas of the Yangtze watershed were a cradle of indigenous civilizations dating back to at least the 15th century BC, coinciding with the Shang in northern China. The region worldview; the earliest culture found in the region through archaeological investigation is the Baodun culture excavated in the Chengdu Plain. The most important native states were those of Shu. Ba stretched into Sichuan from the Han Valley in Shaanxi and Hubei down the Jialing River as far as its confluence with the Yangtze at Chongqing.
Shu occupied the valley of the Min, including other areas of western Sichuan. The existence of the early state of Shu was poorly recorded in the main historical records of China, it was, referred to in the Book of Documents as an ally of the Zhou. Accounts of Shu exist as a mixture of mythological stories and historical legends recorded in local annals such as the Chronicles of Huayang compiled in the Jin dynasty, the Han dynasty compilation Shuwang benji; these contained folk stories such as that of Emperor Duyu who taught the people agriculture and transformed himself into a cuckoo after his death. The existence of a developed civilization with an independent bronze industry in Sichuan came to light with an archaeological discovery in 1986 at a small village named Sanxingdui in Guanghan, Sichuan; this site, believed to be an ancient city of Shu, was discovered by a local farmer in 1929 who found jade and stone artefacts. Excavations by archaeologists in the area yielded few significant finds until 1986 when two major sacrificial pits were found with spectacular bronze items as well as artefacts in jade, gold and stone.
This and other discoveries in Sichuan contest the conventional historiography that the local culture and technology of Sichuan were undeveloped in comparison to the technologically and culturally "advanced" Yellow River valley of north-central China. The rulers of the expansionist state of Qin, based in present-day Gansu and Shaanxi, were the first strategists to realize that the area's military importance matched its commercial and agricultural significance; the Sichuan basin is surrounded by the Hengduan Mountains to the west, the Qin Mountains to the north, Yungui Plateau to the south. Since the Yangtze flows through the basin and through the perilous Three Gorges to eastern and southern China, Sichuan was a staging area for amphibious military forces and a haven for political refugees. Qin armies finished their conquest of the k
The Qing dynasty the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912, it was succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China, it was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing. In an unrelated development, peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng conquered the Ming capital, Beijing, in 1644. Rather than serve them, Ming general Wu Sangui made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Banner Armies led by the regent Prince Dorgon.
He seized the capital. Resistance from the Southern Ming and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories led by Wu Sangui delayed the Qing conquest of China proper by nearly four decades; the conquest was only completed in 1683 under the Kangxi Emperor reign. The Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor from the 1750s to the 1790s extended Qing control into Inner Asia; the early Qing rulers maintained their Manchu customs, while their title was Emperor, they used "Bogd khaan" when dealing with the Mongols and they were patrons of Tibetan Buddhism. They governed using Confucian styles and institutions of bureaucratic government and retained the imperial examinations to recruit Han Chinese to work under or in parallel with Manchus, they adapted the ideals of the tributary system in dealing with neighboring territories. During the Qianlong Emperor reign the dynasty reached its apogee, but began its initial decline in prosperity and imperial control; the population rose to some 400 millions, but taxes and government revenues were fixed at a low rate guaranteeing eventual fiscal crisis.
Corruption set in, rebels tested government legitimacy, ruling elites failed to change their mindsets in the face of changes in the world system. Following the Opium Wars, European powers imposed "unequal treaties", free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control; the Taiping Rebellion and the Dungan Revolt in Central Asia led to the deaths of some 20 million people, most of them due to famines caused by war. In spite of these disasters, in the Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s, Han Chinese elites rallied to the defense of the Confucian order and the Qing rulers; the initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were destroyed in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan. New Armies were organized, but the ambitious Hundred Days' Reform of 1898 was turned back in a coup by the conservative Empress Dowager Cixi; when the Scramble for Concessions by foreign powers triggered the violently anti-foreign "Boxers", the foreign powers invaded China, Cixi declared war on them, leading to defeat and the flight of the Imperial Court to Xi'an.
After agreeing to sign the Boxer Protocol, the government initiated unprecedented fiscal and administrative reforms, including elections, a new legal code, abolition of the examination system. Sun Yat-sen and other revolutionaries competed with constitutional monarchists such as Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao to transform the Qing Empire into a modern nation. After the deaths of Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in 1908, the hardline Manchu court alienated reformers and local elites alike by obstructing social reform; the Wuchang Uprising on 11 October 1911, led to the Xinhai Revolution. General Yuan Shikai negotiated the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor, on 12 February 1912. Nurhaci declared himself the "Bright Khan" of the Later Jin state in honor both of the 12th–13th century Jurchen Jin dynasty and of his Aisin Gioro clan, his son Hong Taiji renamed the dynasty Great Qing in 1636. There are competing explanations on the meaning of Qīng; the name may have been selected in reaction to the name of the Ming dynasty, which consists of the Chinese characters for "sun" and "moon", both associated with the fire element of the Chinese zodiacal system.
The character Qīng is associated with the water element. This association would justify the Qing conquest as defeat of fire by water; the water imagery of the new name may have had Buddhist overtones of perspicacity and enlightenment and connections with the Bodhisattva Manjusri. The Manchu name daicing, which sounds like a phonetic rendering of Dà Qīng or Dai Ching, may in fact have been derived from a Mongolian word "ᠳᠠᠢᠢᠴᠢᠨ, дайчин" that means "warrior". Daicing gurun may therefore have meant "warrior state", a pun, only intelligible to Manchu and Mongol people. In the part of the dynasty, however the Manchus themselves had forgotten this possible meaning. After conquering "China proper", the Manchus identified their state as "China", referred to it as Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu; the emperors equated the lands of the Qing state as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas. The Qing emperors proclaimed that bo