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Qingdao is a major sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, China. Located on the western shore of Yellow Sea coast, Qingdao is a major nodal city on the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road arm of the Belt and Road Initiative that connects East Asia with Europe, has the highest GDP of any city in the province, it has jurisdiction over six districts and four county-level cities, As of 2014 has a population of 9,046,200 with an urban population of 6,188,100. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula and looking out to the Yellow Sea to its south, it borders the prefectural cities of Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southwest. Qingdao is naval base and industrial centre; the world's longest sea bridge, the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, links the main urban area of Qingdao with Huangdao district, straddling the Jiaozhou Bay sea areas. It is the site of the Tsingtao Brewery, the second largest brewery in China. In 2018, Qingdao ranked 31st in the Global Financial Centres Index published by the Z/Yen Group and China Development Institute, the other Chinese cities on the list being Hong Kong, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Dalian.

In 2007, Qingdao was named as one of China's top ten cities by the Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, released at the 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum. In 2009, Qingdao was named China's most livable city by the Chinese Institute of City Competitiveness. In 2018, Qingdao held the Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit. Jiāo'ào:: former name during the Qing dynasty. Qindao:: additional modern name for the area, refers according to locals to the shape of the coastline. Tsingtao: Postal romanisation Tsingtau: German name during their concession period, written in German romanisation of Chinese. Jiaozhou: a historical name which refers to the Jiaozhou Bay. Kiaochow, Kiautschou: romanisations of Jiaozhou. Human settlement in the area dates back 6,000 years; the Dongyi nationality, one of the important origins of the Chinese nation, lived here and created the Dawenkou and Dongyeshi cultures. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the town of Jimo was established, the second largest one in the Shandong region.

The area in which Qingdao is located today was named Jiao'ao when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty on 14 June 1891. In 1891, the Qing Empire decided to make coastal Tsingtao a defense base against naval attack and began to improve its fortifications. Imperial German naval officials observed and reported on this activity during a formal survey of Jiaozhou Bay in May 1897. Subsequently, German troops occupied the fortification; the unmodernised and ineffective Qing Empire was forced to concede the area to Germany the following year, the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known, existed from 1898 to 1914. With an area of 552 square kilometres, it was located in the imperial province of Shandong on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in northern China. Jiaozhou was romanised as Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English and Kiautschou in German. Qingdao was its administrative center. "The so-called Marktstrasse was nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of Tsingtao, the buildings lining it were the former homes of fishermen and farmers.

Having sold their property, they resettled their homes and fields in the villages further east." Upon gaining control of the area, the Germans outfitted the impoverished fishing village of Tsingtao with wide streets, solid housing areas, government buildings, electrification throughout, a sewer system and a safe drinking water supply, a rarity in large parts of Asia at that time and later. The area had the highest school density and the highest per capita student enrollment in all of China, with primary and vocational schools funded by the Imperial German treasury and Protestant and Roman Catholic missions. Commercial interests established the Germania Brewery in 1903, which became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery. German cultural and commercial influences extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of diverse commercial enterprises. Identified by the German authorities as a strategically important port, Qingdao was administered by the Imperial Department of the Navy rather than the Imperial Colonial Office.

The growing Imperial German Navy based their Far East Squadron there, allowing the warships to conduct operations throughout the western Pacific. Beginning January 1898, the marines of III. Seebataillon were based at Tsingtao. Construction of the Jiaoji Railway began on September 23, 1899, was completed in 1904. Before the outbreak of World War I, ships of the German naval forces under Admiral Count von Spee were located at central Pacific colonies on routine missions; the fleet rendezvoused in the Marianas Islands to plan a transit back to Germany rather than be trapped in the Pacific by more powerful and numerous Allied fleets. After a minor British naval attack on the German concession in Shandong in 1914, Japanese Empire troops occupied the city and the surrounding province during the Siege of Tsingtao after Japan's declaration of war on Germany in accordance with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. China protested Japan's violation of her neutrality but was not able to interfere in the military operations.

The decision of the Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty negotiations not to restore Chinese rule over the previous foreign c

Massachusetts Horticultural Society

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society, sometimes abbreviated to MassHort, is an American horticultural society based in Massachusetts. It describes itself as the oldest formally organized horticultural institution in the United States. In its mission statement, the society dedicates itself to encouraging the science and practice of horticulture and developing the public's enjoyment and understanding of plants and the environment; as of 2014, it had some 5,000 members. The society was established in 1829 in Boston as the Boston Horticultural Society, promptly began weekly exhibits of locally grown fruit and vegetables, teaching the newest horticultural techniques and breeds, including the local Concord grape in 1853, it continued this tradition from 1871 through 2008 with its annual New England Spring Flower Show. In 1831 the society bought a 72-acre estate called "Sweet Auburn" for an arboretum and cemetery. Although the horticultural garden never materialized, in 1835 the site was incorporated as Mount Auburn Cemetery.

Until 1976, the society received one-fourth of the proceeds from the sale of Mount Auburn's cemetery lots. In its early years, the Society met in various locations in Boston. Starting in 1845, the society has built for itself three successive exhibit halls, each named "Horticultural Hall." The first was located on School Street. Since 2001 the society's headquarters have been at the Elm Bank Horticulture Center in Wellesley; the 36 acres encompass multiple gardens including an acre-sized one designed by prominent UK plantsman Adrian Bloom. Other gardens include the Weezie's Children's Garden, an Italianate Garden, a floral and vegetable trial gardens run as part of the All-America Selection group, specialty gardens built around rhododendron, daylilies and natrive plants. In 2008 the society found itself in financial difficulty. Following revelation that then-new executive director Bob Feige had spent three days in jail the year before for failing to pay employees at a former business he owned, the trustees began a detailed review of the books which revealed the organization to be "essentially broke and facing a stack of bills with no way to pay them."

Feige resigned after the trustees presented the facts, but it was apparent that problems were building over a number of years due to overspending. In 2002 the society sold $5.25 million of rare books and prints to raise cash, at which time the Massachusetts Attorney General advised the society to educate its trustees on sound financial practices. In order to conserve cash the society decided to not hold the New England Spring Flower Show in 2009 for the first time since 1871, opting instead for a truncated event in downtown Boston called'Blooms". In September 2009, MassHort announced that it would incorporate "Blooms" as part of the Boston Flower & Garden Show, produced by the Paragon Group, Inc. a held events marketing group. That show took place in March 2010 at the Seaport World Trade Center. MassHort took responsibility for two floral design competitions, amateur horticulture competition, Ikebana displays, plant society displays and one day of lectures. In its May 2010 newsletter,'The Leaflet', MassHort described the venture as'financially successful'.

In its May 2010 newsletter, MassHort reported it had reached agreement with the bulk of its remaining creditors by selling off an additional group of books from its collection. In January 2011 the Board of Trustees hired Katherine K. Macdonald as Executive Director/President of the Society after the Board stabilized the organization's financials. During the period from 2011 to the writing of this note Massachusetts Horticultural Society has expanded it programming, delivering its educational mission of promoting horticulture and the understanding of the natural world. Contemporary programs, include: The Garden to Table Program, which offers the public an opportunity to come together in a beautiful and welcoming setting to learn about growing and preserving healthy food; the Society continues it 116-year-old tradition of Honorary Medals in October, where we recognize the outstanding contributions of horticulturalists, plant innovators, those who have made significant contributions to the enjoyment and appreciation of plants and the environment.

In November and December, the Festival of Trees provides an enjoyable family event to celebrate the holidays. The Gardens at Elm Bank include twelve display gardens. In 2011, a new vegetable garden was designed to support the Garden to Table program. By 2013, this vegetable garden was producing over 4000 pounds of produce, donated to two food pantries; the Welcome Garden near the parking lot entrance was added in 2012, designed by Paul Miskovsky. Improvements to the Italianate Garden included the restoration of the fountain, a central element to the garden. In January 2014 the Italianate Garden was featured on This Old House. Since 2011, over $250,000 in capital investments have been made to the property, thanks to the generosity of foundation grants. A small staff and hundreds of volunteers, including Master Gardeners, work together to make the Gardens at Elm Bank a wonderful destination for visitors. Garden group tours are available Tuesdays at 10am from April 30 to October 1. Mass Hort at the Flower Show provides the management of the amateur horticulture, floral design and photography for Paragon Group, the owners of the

33DD destroyer

The 33DD is a Japanese destroyer in development for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. The first concept model of the destroyer was shown in Defense Technology Symposium 2010 by Kawasaki Heavy Industries; the project was mentioned in the FY2011 defense budget request, only mentioning that research on new integrated antenna system and sonar system for next generation destroyers is to be carried out around 2018. A second model was shown in Defense Technology Symposium 2012. Procurement of the destroyer is to begin in the FY 2021 budget and the lead ship will be launched in 2024; the destroyers will follow after the Asahi-class and be constructed in conjunction with the 30DX frigate. The destroyer will feature an integrated mast, a Carbon fiber reinforced plastic hull and will have a higher displacement than the Asahi-class destroyer; the CFRP hull reduces the ship's electromagnetic signature and its structural elasticity provides protection against torpedoes and mines. The hull will be made of high strength stainless steel due to its superior protection from air and underwater explosion compared to high tensile steel.

The first model unveiled is described to displace 5400 tons and is similar in design to the Asahi-class destroyers. The second concept model features a stealthier design than first; the FCS-3 system and integrated radio wave systems is used to enhance the ship's communication and electronic warfare capabilities

1790 in Norway

Events in the year 1790 in Norway. Monarch: Christian VII March – Norwegian merchants meet Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt as representative of King Gustav III of Sweden to discuss military hjelp from Sweden to end the Danish-Norwegian union, at Eda, Sweden. 4 September – Crown Prince Frederick's and Crown Princess Marie Sophie's arrival at Copenhagen. 1 November - Dominicus Nagell Lemvig Brun, military officer and politician 26 December - Andreas Martin Seip, military officer and politician Melchior Schjelderup Olsson Fuhr, politician Jon Eriksson Helland, Hardanger fiddle maker Even Hansen, civil servant and politician

National Gridiron League (Australia)

The National Gridiron League was a proposed professional American football league in Australia. The inaugural season was scheduled to begin in October 2018, it was to begin in 2016, however it was postponed for two years. The League and its teams was presumed defunct from that date. No game was played; the league was to feature a 14-week regular season, scheduled to run from October to late January. Following the regular season, four teams were compete in the league's playoffs, which culminating in the Grand Final championship game in late January. Eight teams were planned to compete in the inaugural NGL season in 2017/18: The regular season is 14 weeks long, with games scheduled on October and finishing by February following year; the NGL's eight teams are divided into four in New South Wales and four in Queensland. Each team plays two games against each other; the four best teams from the regular season will pass to the playoffs to play the semi-finals. The winners from the semi-finals will be classified to the Grand Final.

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Vodafone M.I.C

Vodafone M. I. C is Fiji's own music reality TV show, similar to the format of American Idol; the show has had five successful seasons. Its sixth season is set for release next year; the show was created by Paul Dominiko. It is broadcast on Fiji TV and airs Tuesdays and Fridays from 7-8 pm The judges and producer travel to places in Fiji where auditions take place. Judges after auditions narrow hopefuls down; the remaining contestants return for a second audition round, here the top 10 finalists are chosen and go on to compete in the live shows. Performance night happens two nights before the elimination night; this is. Voting lines open at close midnight. Here the votes have been counted and the elimination takes place at the start of the show; the host reveals the bottom three and the judges deliver, eliminated. The eliminated contestant sings their swan song and the remaining contestants continue the show and perform for more vote. WINNER Nasoni SalomaRunner up Nina DotonRest of the top 10Elena Baravilala Judges Jon Apted, Abigale Young, Igelese Ete WINNER Ilisavani CavaRunners up Peniette Seru, Sofia Judges Jon Apted, Talei Burns, Igelese Ete WINNER Matereti KoroRunners up Natalie Raikadroka, Pauliasi KoroituicakauRest of the top 10 Lanza Coffin, Suliano Waqabaca, Kathlenn Waqa, Paulini Cava, Tupou Veikoso Judges Jon Apted, Talei Burns Laisa Vulakoro Winner Romulo Leweniqila,Runners-up Ana Silivale, Laisa Bulatale, Trent Leger,Rest of the top 10 Misiko Chute, David Rounds, Viva Dakua, Esther Baleniku, Carlos Powell, Mika,Judges Allan Alo, Laisa Vulakoro, Charles Taylor.

Auditions for this year's show started on the 21st of April. The show premiered in May. Winner Josefa LesiRunners-up Jordeena Punja, Marilyn Mataiasi, Isaia WaqavouTop 10 Isaia Waqavou, Marilyn Mataiasi, Pauline Tuidravu, Josefa Lesi, Sereima Banuve, Ren Slatter, Jordeena Punja, Litia Rosi, Mosese Tikoduadua, Pauliasi Cinavou Judges Charles Taylor, Igelese Ete, Priscilla Williams Vodafone M. I. C @ Fiji TV