In architecture, a quadrangle is a space or a courtyard rectangular in plan, the sides of which are or occupied by parts of a large building. The word is most associated with college or university campus architecture, but quadrangles are found in other buildings such as palaces. Most quadrangles are open-air, though a few have been roofed over, to provide additional space for social meeting areas or coffee shops for students; the word quadrangle was synonymous with quadrilateral, but this usage is now uncommon. Some modern quadrangles resemble cloister gardens of medieval monasteries, called garths, which were square or rectangular, enclosed by covered arcades or cloisters. However, it is clear from the oldest examples which are plain and unadorned with arcades, that the medieval colleges at Oxford and Cambridge were creating practical accommodation for college members. Grander quadrangles that look like cloisters came once the idea of a college was well established and benefactors or founders wished to create more monumental buildings.
Although architectonically analogous, for historical reasons quads in the colleges of the University of Cambridge are always referred to as courts. In North America, Thomas Jefferson's design for the University of Virginia centered the housing and academic buildings in a Palladian form around three sides of the Lawn, a huge grassy expanse; some American college and university planners imitated the Jeffersonian plan, the Oxbridge idea, Beaux-Arts forms, other models. The University of Chicago's Gothic campus is notable for its innovative use of quadrangles. All five barracks at The Citadel feature quadrangles with red-and-white squares, which are used for formations by the Corps of Cadets. Quadrangles are found in traditional Kerala houses and is known as the Nadumittam. Main Quad, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Woodburn Circle, West Virginia University Blue Boar Quadrangle, Christ Church, Oxford Francis Quadrangle, University of Missouri Memorial Quadrangle, Yale University Mob Quad, Merton College, Oxford is one of the oldest quads in existence.
Peckwater Quadrangle, Christ Church, Oxford The Quad, Harvard University Harvard Yard, Harvard University The Green, Dartmouth College King's College Quad, University of Aberdeen Main Quadrangles, University of Chicago The Quadrangle, Massachusetts Radcliffe Quadrangle, University College, Oxford Schenley Quadrangle, University of Pittsburgh Bascom Hill, University of Wisconsin–Madison Tom Quad, Christ Church, Oxford University University of Alabama Quad The Quad, University College London Founder's Building, Royal Holloway College, London The Diag, University of Michigan Sunken Garden, College of William & Mary The Lawn, University of Virginia McKeldin Mall, University of Maryland Old College, University of Edinburgh Dahlgren Quadrangle, Georgetown University Academic Quadrangle, Simon Fraser University Old Campus, Yale University Main Quad, Stanford University Liberal Arts Quadrangle, University of Washington The Quadrangle, University of Pennsylvania Siheyuan Nalukettu Haveli, a form of classical architecture from South Asia & Persia, which incorporates a quad for cooling ventilation in the hot climate, the private enjoyment of the open sky by residents, in a modest culture
Minolops arata is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Solariellidae. The height of the shell attains its diameter 9.5 mm. The unibilicate, rather thin shell has a turbinate shape, its colour is pale yellow, with purple disposed in dots on stripes on the base. The five whorls are tabulate above, angled at the shoulder, thence rounded, last in slight contact with its predecessor; the sutures are impressed. Sculpture: the flat sutural shelf of the upper whorls is ornamented by fine regular radial riblets. Obliquely descending the slope, these riblets crenulate the upper spirals and vanish on the body whorl into faint irregularly spaced growth lines. On the upper whorls are five spiral cords, between which are smaller threads, in their turn separating still finer lines; the body whorl is encircled by ten strong keels whose interstices are occupied by small and smaller threads as before. The apex is consists of two small and glossy whorls; the umbilicus is wide and deep, penetrated by five elevated spiral ridges beaded by longitudinal sculpture.
The aperture is circular oblique. The peristome is entire and sharp, within brilliantly nacreous, nacre edged with a thin brown and a broader yellow non-nacreous margin; this marine species is endemic to Australia and occurs from Queensland to Victoria Iredale, T.. Mollusca from the continental shelf of eastern Australia. Records of the Australian Museum. 17: 157-189, pls 38-41 Iredale, T. & McMichael, D. F.. A reference list of the marine Mollusca of New South Wales. Memoirs of the Australian Museum. 11: 1-109 Wilson, B.. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Kallaroo, WA: Odyssey Publishing. Vol.1 1st Edn pp. 1�408. To World Register of Marine Species "Minolops arata". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019
Adrienne Elizabeth Clarke is Professor Emeritus of Botany at the University of Melbourne, where she ran the Plant Cell Biology Research Centre from 1982–1999. She is a former chairman of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, former Lieutenant Governor of Victoria and former Chancellor of La Trobe University. Born in Melbourne, Clarke reports, she attended Ruyton Girls' School and entered the University of Melbourne in 1955 where she was a resident of Janet Clarke Hall reading Science. She graduated with an Honours degree in Biological Sciences in 1959, gained her PhD in 1963, she married Charles Peter Clarke on 14 August 1959. In 1964 she became a research fellow at the United Dental Hospital of Sydney moved to Baylor University in Houston and the University of Michigan teaching at the University of Auckland, she worked at the University of Melbourne as Research Fellow lecturer, senior lecturer and reader before being appointed Professor of Botany in 1985 and Laureate Professor in 1999.
She retired from the University in 2005. Clarke is a former Lieutenant Governor of Victoria, she is a Fellow of Janet Clarke Hall at the University of Melbourne. In 2010 she joined the La Trobe University Council, succeeded Sylvia Walton as Chancellor of La Trobe University on 26 February 2011, she has been involved in the commercial sector. She was a member of the Australian Advisory Board of the Global Nature Conservancy. In 1998, in association with three University of Melbourne colleagues, she founded the agribusiness Hexima. Clarke's scientific work provided critical insight to the biochemistry and genetics of flowering plants, their reproduction, their growth, it led to industrial applications for next-generation controls of insect pests and fungal disease of crops. Her team was the first to clone the gene which regulates self-compatibility in plants and the first to clone the "c" DNA of an Arabinogelactan Protein, she describes her expertise as: The molecular basis of self-incompatibility The chemistry and biology of a class of proteoglycans, the arabinogalactan-proteins Proteinase Inhibitors and their use in control of insect development She is author of four major scientific books dealing with chemistry, cell biology and genetics.
Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering 1991 Officer of the Order of Australia 1992 ANZAAS Mueller Medal 1993 Outstanding Achievers Award, National Australia Day Council 2001 Centenary Medal 2001 Victorian Honour Roll of Women 2004 Companion of the Order of Australia Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences Foreign Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Laurence Muir Professor Adrienne Clarke, pp17–20 of: "Some Inspirational People" – 15 inspirational Australians profiled by Sir Laurence MacDonald Muir