Kansas /ˈkænzəs/ is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribes name is said to mean people of the wind or people of the south wind. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous, tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided. The abolitionists eventually prevailed, and on January 29,1861, after the Civil War, the population of Kansas grew rapidly when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into farmland. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th largest state by area and is the 34th most populous of the 50 United States with a population of 2,911,641, residents of Kansas are called Kansans, officially.
Mount Sunflower is Kansass highest point at 4,041 feet, for a millennia, the land that is currently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, in 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain, from 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state, the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30,1854, establishing the U. S. territories of Nebraska and Kansas, and opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border.
These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery, the secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas, Kansas was admitted to the United States as a free state on January 29,1861, making it the 34th state to enter the Union. He was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature and his application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record
Collin County, Texas
Collin County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 782,341, making it the seventh-most populous county in Texas. Collin County is part of the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area, a small portion of the city of Dallas is in the county. Both the county and the county seat were named after Collin McKinney, one of the five men who drafted the Texas Declaration of Independence and the oldest of the 59 men who signed it. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 886 square miles, the population density was 580 people per square mile. There were 194,892 housing units at a density of 230 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 81. 39% White,4. 79% Black or African American,0. 47% Native American,6. 92% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,4. 26% from other races, and 2. 11% from two or more races. 10. 27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,22. 10% of all households were made up of individuals and 3. 10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.68 and the family size was 3.18. As of the 2010 census, there were about 4.4 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was out with 28. 70% under the age of 18,7. 40% from 18 to 24,37. 90% from 25 to 44,20. 70% from 45 to 64. The median age was 33 years, for every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males, the median income for a household in the county was $70,835, and the median income for a family was $81,856. Males had an income of $57,392 versus $36,604 for females. The per capita income for the county was $33,345, about 3. 30% of families and 4. 90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5. 10% of those under age 18 and 7. 10% of those age 65 or over. Based on median household income, as of 2006, Collin County is the second richest county in Texas after Fort Bend, Collin - like other Texas counties - has one of the nations highest property tax rates.
In 2007, it was #21 for property taxes as percentage of the value on owner occupied housing. It ranked in the Top 100 for amount of property taxes paid, part of this is due to the Robin Hood plan school financing system in Texas
For the Texas politician, see James Frank. Alexander Franklin Frank James was a Confederate soldier, and he was the older brother of outlaw Jesse James and was part of the James–Younger Gang. James was born Alexander Franklin James in Kearney, Missouri, to Baptist minister Reverend Robert Sallee James and his wife Zerelda James and he was the oldest of three children. His father died in 1851 and his mother remarried Benjamin Simms in 1852, after his death she married a third time to Dr. Reuben Samuel in 1855 when Frank was 13 years old. As a child, James showed interest in his fathers sizable library. Census records show that James attended school regularly, and he wanted to become a teacher. The American Civil War began in 1861, when James was eighteen years old, the secessionists in Missouri, including Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson, attempted to drive the Union army out of the state but were eventually defeated. The James family was from the heavily Confederate western portion of the state, on September 13,1861, the Missouri State Guard, including private Frank James, besieged Lexington, Missouri.
James fell ill and was left behind when the Confederate forces retreated and he surrendered to the Union troops, was paroled, and was allowed to return home. On his arrival, however, he was arrested by the local militia and was forced to sign an oath of allegiance to the Union. After the withdrawal of regular Confederate troops in the fall of 1864, by early 1863, ignoring his parole and oath of allegiance, had joined the guerrilla band of Fernando Scott, a former saddler. He soon switched to the active command led by William Clarke Quantrill. Union militiamen searching for Fernando Scott raided the Samuel farm and hanged Dr. Reuben Samuel, Franks stepfather, shortly afterward, Frank took part with Quantrills company in the August 21,1863 Lawrence Massacre where approximately 200 mostly unarmed civilians were killed. Frank James was paroled July 27,1865 in Nelson County, there is a report that after his parole, Frank was involved in a gunfight in Brandenburg, Kentucky with four soldiers that resulted in two soldiers killed, one wounded, and Frank wounded in the hip.
For the career of the James brothers after the Civil War, during his years as a bandit, James was involved in at least four robberies between 1868 and 1876 that resulted in the deaths of bank employees or citizens. The most famous incident was the disastrous Northfield, raid on September 7,1876, that ended with the death or capture of most of the gang. Five months after the killing of his brother Jesse in 1882, Frank James boarded a train to Jefferson City, where he had an appointment with the governor in the state capitol. Placing his holster in Governor Crittendens hands, he explained, I have been hunted for twenty-one years, have lived in the saddle, have never known a day of perfect peace
William Clarke Quantrill was a Confederate leader during the American Civil War. After a knockabout youth, he joined a group of bandits who roamed Missouri and Kansas and this apparently confirmed his pro-slavery views, and his group became Confederate bushwhackers, feared for their terror tactics, which used effective Native American field skills. They included Jesse James and his brother, in August 1863, the bandits murdered nearly 200 civilians in Lawrence, Kansas, a stronghold of anti-slavery sentiment. In May 1865, Quantrill was mortally wounded by Union troops in Western Kentucky, Quantrill was the oldest of twelve children, four of whom died in infancy. He was born at Canal Dover, Ohio, on July 31,1837 and his father was Thomas Henry Quantrill, formerly of Hagerstown, Maryland. His mother, Caroline Cornelia Clark, was a native of Chambersburg and they were married on October 11,1836 and moved to Canal Dover the following December. Quantrill was well-educated and followed in his fathers footsteps, becoming a schoolteacher at the age of sixteen, in 1854, his abusive father died of tuberculosis, leaving the family with a huge financial debt.
Quantrills mother had to turn her home into a house in order to survive. Quantrill helped support the family by working as a schoolteacher but left home a year and headed to Mendota, Quantrill took up a job in the lumberyards, unloading timber from rail cars. One night while working the shift, he shot a man dead. Authorities briefly arrested Quantrill, who claimed self-defense, since there were no eyewitnesses and the victim was a stranger who knew no one in town, William was set free. But police strongly urged him to leave Mendota, Quantrill continued his career as a teacher, moving to Fort Wayne, Indiana in February 1856. And although the district was impressed with Quantrills teaching abilities, the wages remained meager, Quantrill journeyed back home to Canal Dover that fall, with no more money in his pockets than when he had left. Quantrill spent the winter in his familys dumpy shack in the impoverished town and it was around this time that many Ohioans began to migrate to Kansas Territory in search of cheap land and opportunity.
This included Henry Torrey and Harmon Beeson, two local men hoping to build a farm for their families out west. Although they didnt trust the 19-year-old William, Bills mothers pleadings persuaded them to let her son accompany them to Kansas in an effort to get him to turn his life around, the party of three departed in late February 1857. Torrey and Beeson agreed to pay for Quantrills land in exchange for a couple of months worth of work and they settled at Marais des Cygnes, but things did not go as well as planned. After about two months, Quantrill began to slack off when it came to working the land, a dispute arose over the claim, and he went to court with Torrey and Beeson
Battle of Wilson's Creek
The Battle of Wilsons Creek, known as the Battle of Oak Hills, was the first major battle of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. Fought on August 10,1861, near Springfield, Missouri, at the beginning of the war, Missouri maintained an officially neutral status. However, its governor, Claiborne Fox Jackson, began to work with the Confederacy to bring Missouri out of the Union by purchasing arms from, the two sides repeatedly skirmished, most notably in the Camp Jackson affair, the Battle of Boonville, and the Battle of Carthage. Jacksons support for secession resulted in his removal by a convention in July. Jackson refused to accept the maneuver as valid, and continued to act as Governor of Missouri, on August 9, both sides formulated plans to attack the other. At about 5,00 a. m. on August 10, Confederate cavalry received the first blow and retreated from the high ground, referred to as Bloody Hill, and infantry soon rushed up to stabilize their positions. The Confederates attacked the Union forces three times during the day, but failed to break through the Union line, when Lyon was killed during the battle and General Thomas William Sweeny wounded, Major Samuel D.
Sturgis assumed command of the Union forces. Meanwhile, the Confederates routed Sigels column south of Skeggs Branch, following the third Confederate attack, which ended at 11,00 a. m. the Union withdrew. When Sturgis realized that his men were exhausted and lacking ammunition, the Confederates were too disorganized and ill-equipped to pursue the retreating Federal forces. The Confederate victory buoyed Southern sympathizers in Missouri and served as a springboard for a bold thrust north that carried Sterling Price, in late October, a convention organized by Jackson met in Neosho and passed out an ordinance of secession. Although the state remained in the Union for the remainder of the war, the National Park Service operates Wilsons Creek National Battlefield on the site of the original conflict. At the beginning of the American Civil War, Missouri declared that it would be a neutral in the conflict. On April 20,1861, a secessionist mob seized the Liberty Arsenal, the neutrality was put to a major test on May 10,1861, in what became known as the Camp Jackson Affair.
Governor Claiborne F. Jackson had called out the Missouri Volunteer Militia to drill on the edge of St. Louis in Lindell Grove, the governor had clandestinely obtained artillery from the Confederacy and smuggled it into the militia encampment – referred to as Camp Jackson. Nathaniel Lyon was aware of this shipment and was concerned the militia would move on the St. Louis Arsenal. Thomas W. Sweeny was put in command of the arsenals defense, when he marched the prisoners through the streets to the arsenal, some angry members of the crowd began to press against the procession. Taunts and jostling eventually led to gunfire and many deaths, mostly civilians, a day later, the Missouri General Assembly created the Missouri State Guard theoretically to defend the state from attacks from perceived enemies from either side of the war. The governor appointed Sterling Price as the commander with the rank of general of state forces
Sterling Price was a soldier, lawyer and politician from the U. S. state of Missouri, who served as the 11th Governor of the state from 1853 to 1857. He served as a United States Army brigadier general during the Mexican-American War, following the war, Price took his remaining troops to Mexico rather than surrender, unsuccessfully seeking service with the Emperor Maximillian there. He ultimately returned to Missouri, where he died in poverty and was buried in St. Louis, Sterling Old Pap Price was born near Farmville, in Prince Edward County, Virginia on September 14,1809, into a family of Welsh origin. His father was Pugh Price, whose ancestor John Price was born in Brecknock, Wales, in 1584, Price attended Hampden–Sydney College in 1826 and 1827, studying law and working at the courthouse near his home. He was admitted to the Virginia bar and opened a law practice, in the fall of 1831, Price and his family moved to Fayette, Missouri. A year later, they moved to Keytesville, where he ran a hotel, on May 14,1833, he married Martha Head of Randolph County, Missouri.
They had seven children, five surviving to adulthood - Edwin Williamson, Celsus, Martha Sterling and his report was favorable to the Mormons, stating they were not guilty of any offenses and that in his opinion the charges had been brought by their enemies. Following the Mormon capitulation in November 1838, Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs to Caldwell County ordered Price a company of men to protect the LDS from further depredations. He was elected to the Missouri State House of Representatives from 1836 to 1838, and again from 1840 to 1844, and was chosen as its speaker. He was elected as a Democrat to the 29th United States Congress, serving from March 4,1845, to August 12,1846, Price raised the Second Regiment, Missouri Mounted Volunteer Cavalry and was appointed its colonel on August 12,1846. He marched his regiment under Alexander Doniphan to Santa Fe, where he assumed command of the Territory of New Mexico after Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, departed for California. Price served as governor of New Mexico, and put down the Taos Revolt.
President James K. Polk promoted Price to brigadier general of volunteers on July 20,1847 and this was the last battle of the war, taking place days after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had been ratified by the United States Congress on March 10. Although reprimanded by Secretary of War William L. Marcy and ordered to return with his army to New Mexico and he was honorably discharged on November 25,1848, and returned to Missouri as a hero. Price now became an owner, and raised tobacco on the Bowling Green prairie. Popular because of his war service, he was easily elected Governor of Missouri in 1852, during his tenure, Washington University in St. Although the state passed an act to increase the governors salary. Price became the states Bank Commissioner from 1857 to 1861 and he secured a rail line through his home county, now forming part of the Norfolk and Western Railway
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, slaves were freed either by manumission or emancipation, a fugitive slave is one who escaped slavery by fleeing. Rome differed from Greek city-states in allowing freed slaves to become plebeian citizens, the act of freeing a slave was called manumissio, from manus and missio, the act of releasing. After manumission, a slave who had belonged to a Roman citizen enjoyed not only freedom from ownership. A slave who had acquired libertas was known as a libertus in relation to his former master, as a social class, freed slaves were liberti, though Latin texts used the terms libertus and libertini interchangeably. Libertini were not entitled to public office or state priesthoods. During the early Empire, freedmen held key positions in the government bureaucracy, any future children of a freedman would be born free, with full rights of citizenship. The Claudian Civil Service set a precedent whereby freedmen could be used as servants in the Roman bureaucracy.
In addition, Claudius passed legislation concerning slaves, including a law stating that sick slaves abandoned by their owners became freedmen if they recovered, the emperor was criticized for using freedmen in the Imperial Courts. Some freedmen enjoyed enormous success and became quite wealthy, the brothers who owned House of the Vettii, one of the biggest and most magnificent houses in Pompeii, are thought to have been freedmen. A freedman who became rich and influential might still be looked down on by the aristocracy as a vulgar nouveau riche. Trimalchio, a character in the Satyricon of Petronius, is a caricature of such a freedman, for centuries Arab slave traders took and transported an estimated 10 to 15 million sub-Saharan Africans to slavery in North Africa and the Middle East. They enslaved Europeans from coastal areas and the Balkans, many Arabs took women slaves as concubines in their harems. In the patrilineal societies, mixed-race children of concubines and Arab men were considered free and were given inheritance rights related to their fathers property.
In the United States, the freedmen and freedwomen refer chiefly to former slaves emancipated during and after the American Civil War, by the Emancipation Proclamation. Slaves freed before the war, usually by individual manumissions, often in wills, were referred to as Free Negroes or free blacks. There were numerous such families formed in the Upper South before the Revolution, for the first two decades after the Revolution, thousands of slaves were freed in the Upper South, and most northern states abolished slavery, some on a gradual basis. In Louisiana and other areas of the former New France, free people of color were classified in French as gens de couleur libres and they were born to African or African-European mothers and white fathers of mixed-race African and French or other European ancestry
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Joseph O. Shelby
Joseph Orville Jo Shelby was a Confederate cavalry general noted for his actions in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. Shelby was born in Lexington, Kentucky to one of the states wealthiest and most influential families and he lost his father at age five, and was raised by a stepfather. Shelby attended Transylvania University and was a manufacturer until 1852. He moved to Waverly, where he engaged in steamboating on the Missouri River and he ran a hemp plantation, a ropeworks, and a sawmill. During the Bleeding Kansas struggle of the mid-1850s, Shelby organized the pro-slavery Blue Lodge group in Waverly, Shelbys first direct involvement in Kansas was at Lawrence during the March 30,1855 election of the Kansas territorial legislature. Many Missourians without residence in the territory voted illegally in the election and this was partially achieved through intimidation of election judges, who were prevented from administering residency oaths. Additionally and other Missourians harassed several abolitionists attempting to vote, Shelbys leadership in the Missouri–Kansas border war damaged his business ventures and partnership with his stepbrother, Henry Howard Gratz.
In December 1855, their new sawmill burned, and evidence suggested the use of an incendiary, the mill was uninsured and losses exceeded $9,000. Gratz returned to Lexington and Shelby auctioned off the business in February 1860, on July 22,1857, Shelby married Elizabeth Nancy Shelby, in a grand steamboat wedding and honeymoon trip to St. Louis. Known as Betty, she was younger than him. Following the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter in April 1861, Missouri Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson refused Lincolns call for volunteers and maneuvered to take the state out of the Union. The resulting friction between State and Federal militias vying for control of the St. Louis Arsenal led to the Camp Jackson affair and the creation of the pro-secession Missouri State Guard. Shelby formed the Lafayette County Mounted Rifles for Missouri State Guard service and was elected the captain, leading it into battle at Carthage, Wilsons Creek. In 1862, he was promoted to colonel and authorized to recruit a Confederate cavalry regiment, after successfully bringing the regiment safely back to Arkansas, he was given command of a brigade of newly recruited regiments.
In the fall of 1863, Shelby led his Iron Brigade of Missouri volunteers on what was at the time the longest cavalry raid of the war and he was promoted to brigadier general on December 15,1863, following the successful conclusion of his raid. Steeles men were forced to retreat to Little Rock by the destruction or capture of their trains at the Battle of Marks Mills. Reassigned to Clarendon, Shelby succeeded in capturing a Union tinclad gunboat, the gunboat was burned to prevent her recapture. Shelby commanded a division during Sterling Prices 1864 Missouri raid, after Robert E. Lees army surrendered in Virginia in April 1865, General Edmund Kirby Smith appointed Shelby a major general on May 10
Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism is a movement to end the African and Indian slave trade. An abolitionist movement only started in the late 18th century, soon after his death in 1785, they joined with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. Massachusetts ratified a constitution that declared all men equal, freedom suits challenging slavery based on this principle brought an end to slavery in the state, which existed as an unrecognized state from 1777 to 1791, abolished adult slavery in 1777. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans, during the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, and Congress regulated the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union. France abolished slavery within the French Kingdom in 1315, Haiti achieved independence from France in 1804 and brought an end to slavery in its territory.
The northern states in the U. S. all abolished slavery by 1804, the United Kingdom and the United States outlawed the international slave trade in 1807, after which Britain led efforts to block slave ships. In Eastern Europe, groups organized to abolish the enslavement of the Roma in Wallachia and Moldavia and it was declared illegal in 1948 under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania, where it was officially abolished by presidential decree in 1981. In 1315, Louis X, king of France, published a decree proclaiming that France signifies freedom and this prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies. Some cases of African slaves freed by setting foot on the French soil were recorded such as example of a Norman slave merchant who tried to sell slaves in Bordeaux in 1571. He was arrested and his slaves were freed according to a declaration of the Parlement of Guyenne which stated that slavery was intolerable in France, born into slavery in Saint Domingue, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas became free when his father brought him to France in 1776.
As in other New World colonies, the French relied on the Atlantic slave trade for labour for their sugar plantations in their Caribbean colonies. In addition, French colonists in Louisiane in North America held slaves, particularly in the South around New Orleans, Louis XIVs Code Noir regulated the slave trade and institution in the colonies. It gave unparalleled rights to slaves and it includes the right to marry, gather publicly, or take Sundays off. Although the Code Noir authorized and codified cruel corporal punishment against slaves under certain conditions and it forced the owners to instruct them in the Catholic faith, implying that Africans were human beings endowed with a soul, a fact that was not seen as evident until then. It resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free in 1830 and they were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses and even slaves. Other free people of colour, such as Julien Raimond, spoke out against slavery, during the Age of Enlightenment, many philosophers wrote pamphlets against slavery and its moral and economical justifications, including Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws or in the Encyclopédie