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William Quantrill

William Clarke Quantrill was a Confederate guerrilla leader during the American Civil War. Having endured a tempestuous childhood before becoming a schoolteacher, Quantrill joined a group of bandits who roamed the Missouri and Kansas countryside apprehending escaped slaves. On this group became Confederate soldiers, who were referred to as "Quantrill's Raiders"; this group was a pro-Confederate partisan ranger outfit best known for their brutal guerrilla tactics, which made use of effective Native American field skills. Notable, William's group included the infamous young Jesse James and his older brother Frank James. Quantrill is noted as influential in the minds of many bandits and hired guns of the Old West as it was being settled. In May 1865, Quantrill was mortally wounded in combat by Union troops in Central Kentucky, in one of the last engagements of the Civil War, he died of wounds in June. William Quantrill was born at Canal Dover, Ohio on July 31, 1837, his father was Thomas Henry Quantrill of Hagerstown and his mother, Caroline Cornelia Clark, was a native of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.

Quantrill was the oldest of twelve children, four of whom died in infancy. By the time he was sixteen, Quantrill was teaching school in Ohio. In 1854, his abusive father died of tuberculosis. Quantrill's mother had to turn her home into a boarding house in order to survive. During this time, Quantrill helped support the family by continuing to work as a schoolteacher, but he left home a year and headed to Mendota, Illinois. Here, Quantrill took up a job in the lumberyards. One night while working the late shift, he killed a man. Authorities arrested him, but Quantrill claimed that he had acted in self-defense. Since there were no eyewitnesses and the victim was a stranger who knew no one in town, William was set free; the police urged him to leave Mendota. Quantrill continued his career as a teacher, moving to Fort Wayne, Indiana, in February 1856; the district was impressed with Quantrill's teaching abilities. Quantrill journeyed back home to Canal Dover that fall, with no more money in his pockets than when he had left.

Quantrill spent the winter in his family's diminutive shack in the impoverished town, he soon grew rather restless. At this time, many Ohioans were migrating to the Kansas Territory in search of cheap land and opportunity; this included Henry Torrey and Harmon Beeson, two local men hoping to build a large farm for their families out west. Although they didn't trust the 19-year-old William, his mother's pleadings persuaded them to let her son accompany them in an effort to get him to turn his life around; the party of three departed in late February 1857. Torrey and Beeson agreed to pay for Quantrill's land in exchange for a couple of months' worth of work, they settled at Marais des Cygnes. After about two months, Quantrill began to slack off when it came to working the land, he spent most days wandering aimlessly about the wilderness with a rifle. A dispute arose over the claim, he went to court with Torrey and Beeson; the court awarded the men what was owed to them, but Quantrill only paid half of what the court had mandated.

While his relationship with Beeson was never the same, Quantrill remained friends with Torrey. Shortly afterwards, Quantrill accompanied a large group of hometown friends in their quest to start a settlement on Tuscarora Lake, but soon neighbors began to notice Quantrill stealing goods out of other people's cabins, so they banished him from the community in January 1858. Soon thereafter, he signed on as a teamster with the U. S. Army expedition heading to Salt Lake City, Utah in the spring of 1858. Little is known of Quantrill's journey out west, he racked up piles of winnings by playing the game against his comrades at Fort Bridger but flushed it all on one hand the next day, leaving him dead broke. Quantrill joined a group of Missouri ruffians and became somewhat of a drifter; the group helped protect Missouri farmers from the Jayhawkers for pay and slept wherever they could find lodging. Quantrill traveled back to Utah and to Colorado, but returned in less than a year to Lawrence, Kansas, in 1859 where he taught at a schoolhouse until it closed in 1860.

He took up with brigands and turned to cattle rustling and anything else that could earn him money. He learned the profitability of capturing runaway slaves and devised plans to use free black men as bait for runaway slaves, whom he subsequently captured and returned to their masters in exchange for reward money. Before 1860, Quantrill appeared to support the anti-slavery side. For instance, he wrote to his good friend W. W. Scott in January 1858 that the Lecompton Constitution was a "swindle" and that James H. Lane, a Northern sympathizer, was "as good a man as we have here." He called the Democrats "the worst men we have for they are all rascals, for no one can be a democrat here without being one." However, in February 1860, Quantrill wrote a letter to his mother expressing his views on the anti-slavery supporters. He told her that he now detested Jim Lane, he said that the hanging of John Brown had been too good for him and that, "the devil has got unlimited sway over this territory, will hold it until we have a better set of man and society generally."

In 1861, Quantrill went to Texas with a slaveholder named Marcus Gill. There they met Joel B. Mayes and joined the Cherokee Nations. Mayes was a half Scots-Irish, half Cherokee Indian Confederate sympathizer and a war ch

Ádám Hrepka

Ádám Hrepka is a Hungarian football player playing for MTK Budapest FC. He is a striker and has played for the Hungary national team. Born in Szeged, Csongrád in Southern Hungary, Hrepka was with local side Szeged, before joining Újpest where he stayed until 2004 as a youth player. In 2004, he joined Hungarian National Championship I side MTK Hungária, making nine appearances and scoring two goals in his first season. In 2005–06 he scored twelve goals in 24 appearances, a further 11 goals in 27 appearances the following season as MTK finished as runners-up in the league, he spent a short time in 2007 -- 08 on loan at NEC, making seven appearances. He made 17 appearances back at MTK, scoring twice, as the club won the league title, he made 27 appearances, scoring five goals in 2008–09. On 8 October 2008 he scored all four goals in MTK's 4–2 victory over Kaposvári Rákóczi in the 1st leg and added two more in the 6–1 win in the 2nd leg of their Hungarian Cup, Round 5 tie. In the 2009–10 season Hrepka was loaned to Budapest Honvéd.

In late-January 2010, during the league's winter break, he was linked with a move to English Championship club Blackpool. MTK confirmed on 24 January on the club's official website that Hrepka had travelled to Blackpool to discuss a possible move. Hrekpa has made three appearances for Hungary. MTK Hungária Hungarian National Championship I champion: 2007-08 Hungarian National Championship I runner-up: 2006-07 Data page at Ádám Hrepka at Hungarian Professional Footballers Association profile Ádám Hrepka at MLSZ

Ottoman wars in Asia

Ottoman wars in Asia refers to the wars involving the Ottoman Empire in Asia. Ottoman Empire was founded at the beginning of the 14th century, its original settlement was in the north west Anatolia. Its main rival was Byzantine Empire. In 1350s Ottomans were able to cross the Dardanelles strait and they conquered whole south east Europe. Although they concentrated on Europe, they fought in Asia. In the early years of the 14th century, there were many Turkish beyliks in Anatolia; the first Ottoman sultan Osman I was careful not to provoke the neighbouring beyliks. Second sultan Orhan was the first Ottoman ruler, engaged in a war against other beyliks, he interfered in a civil war in Karesi, another beylik to the south of Ottoman beylik and annexed the territory of Karesi. His son Murad I established hegemony on most of the beyliks in Anatolia by diplomacy Bayezid I continued expansion policy by harsher methods. At the end of the 14th century most beyliks were incorporated into Ottoman realm. However, in 1402, Beyazıt was defeated by Timur, a Turkic conqueror from Turkestan in the Battle of Ankara and the newly annexed beyliks regained their independence.

During the reigns of Mehmed I, Murad II and Mehmed II, Ottomans reconquered all beyliks with the exception of two, which were the vassals of Mamluk Empire in Egypt. During Ottoman expansion, there were only three important Christian territories. Ottomans captured İzmir from Aydın Beylik. Empire of Trebizond in east Black Sea region was conquered by Mehmed II in 1461. There were some Christian forts some of which were in alliance with Karaman Beylik; when Ottomans conquered Karaman, the most important beylik, during the reign of Mehmed II, these forts fell to Ottoman Empire. Towards the end of the 14th century east of Central Anatolia was under the hegemony of a Turkmen leader named Kadı Burhaneddin. Bayezid I tried to conquer his territory without success. After his death and the shorth-term Timurid rule, Ottomans faced with a more powerful rival. In the 15th century tribes in the east, were united into a tribal confederation named Akkoyunlu. In 1473, Mehmed II defeated Akkoyunlu sultan Uzun Hasan in the Battle of Otlukbeli.

After this battle all of the Central Anatolia and parts of East Anatolia became Ottoman possessions. Egypt was under the rule of a military cast named Mamluks. Mamluks were Turks and Circassians. Ottomans were unable to defeat Mamluks in the initial clashes during the reign of Beyazıt II; however the Mamluks supported Safavid Persia against the Ottomans and this give the Ottoman sultan Selim I the necessary cause to wage a war to Egypt. His grand vizier Hadim Sinan Pasha defeated Dulkadir Beylik in Southeast Anatolia, a Mamluk vassal in 1516. Ramazan Beylik, the other Mamluk vassal in Çukurova voluntarily accepted the Ottoman suzerainty. During Selim’s long campaign to Egypt in 1516-18, Mamluks were defeated three times. Syria, Palestine and Lebanon as well as Egypt fell under Ottoman domination. Hejaz region voluntarily accepted Ottoman suzerainty. After the death of Uzun Hasan of Akkoyunlu, Ismail I of Safavid house began controlling Persia and East Anatolia. Sect differences between the two countries led to a war.

In 1514 Selim I annexed most of East Anatolia. War continued during the reign of Suleyman I. Three of Suleyman’s campaigns were directed to Persia; the war ended by the Treaty of Amasya in 1555. Whole East Anatolia as well as mid and north Iraq became parts of the Ottoman Empire. Meanwhile, south Iraq fell voluntarily to Ottoman suzerainty. Ottomans annexed most of West Iran and Caucasus by the Treaty of Ferhat Pasha at the end of the renewed war of 1578-1590 during the reign of Murad III. But, after the attack of Shah Abbas of Persia, they had to abandon their 1590-gains by the Treaty of Nasuh Pasha in 1612 during the reign of Ahmed I. In 1623, Persians captured Baghdad in mid Iraq, but Murad IV recaptured the city in 1639. At the end of the war the present western borderline of Iran was drawn by the Treaty of Zuhab. During Afsharid and Qajar dynasties of Persia, Ottomans fought against Persia numerous times with little changes in the gained and lost territories except during the reign of Nader Shah, when large territories were abandoned to Persia but were recovered upon his death.

At the end of the wars, with the last one ending in 1823, the border line drawn was the same as that of the Treaty of Zuhab. In 1538, Suleyman I sent a navy to the Indian Ocean. Although Hadım Suleiman Pasha, the captain of the navy failed to capture any bridgehead in India, he captured Aden and most of Yemen. A few years a Portuguese Navy tried to dominate in the Red Sea after Süleyman Pasha's return; however Ottoman captain Piri Reis defeated the navy and restored the Ottoman dominance in the Red Sea in 1548. In 1552, he captured the south coasts of Arabian Peninsula, he captured small forts in the Persian Gulf. Ottoman dominance on most of Arabian Peninsula continued up t

Joseph Erlanger

Joseph Erlanger was an American physiologist, best known for his contributions to the field of neuroscience. Together with Herbert Spencer Gasser, he identified several varieties of nerve fiber and established the relationship between action potential velocity and fiber diameter, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1944 for these achievements. Erlanger was born on January 1874, at San Francisco, California, his family was Jewish and his parents both immigrated from the Kingdom of Württemberg and met in California during the Gold Rush. Joseph was the sixth of seven children born to the couple, he completed his Bachelor of science in Chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1895. He completed his M. D. in 1899 from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in Baltimore, where he finished second in his class. Upon graduating, Erlanger interned at Johns Hopkins Hospital under William Osler and worked in a physiology laboratory. Erlanger gave lectures at the school on digestion and metabolism.

Erlanger had an interest in cardiology the way that excitation transferred from the atrium to the ventricle and researched with Arthur Hirschfelder. Erlanger developed and patented a new type of sphygmomanometer that could measure blood pressure from the brachial artery. While working at Johns Hopkins in 1901, Erlanger published a paper on the digestive systems of canines; this paper caught the attention of a physiology professor at Johns Hopkins. Howell recruited Erlanger as an Assistant Professor. Erlanger was promoted to Associate Professor some time before 1906. In 1906, Erlanger accepted a position as the first chair of physiology at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. In 1910, he left to take a position as professor at Washington University in St. Louis. Herbert Spencer Gasser, Erlanger's former student at Wisconsin, joined Erlanger's laboratory soon after the move. During World War I, the pair contributed to the research effort examining the effects of shock; as part of this work, Erlanger was able to produce heart block in an animal model by clamping the bundle of His and tightening it.

Together, they managed to amplify the action potential of a bullfrog sciatic nerve in 1922 and published the results in the American Journal of Physiology. It is uncertain why the pair had such a sudden shift in interest to neuroscience, as Erlanger was widely respected in the cardiology field. Erlanger and Gasser were able to modify a Western Electric oscilloscope to run at low voltages. Prior to this modification, the only method available to measure neural activity was the electroencephalograph, which could only show large-scale electrical activity. With this technology, they were able to observe that action potentials occurred in two phases—a spike followed by an after-spike, they discovered that neurons were found in many forms, each with their own potential for excitability. With this research, the pair discovered that the velocity of action potentials was directly proportional to the diameter of the nerve fiber; the partnership ended in 1931. In 1944, they won the Nobel Prize in Physiology for these discoveries.

He died of heart disease on December 5, 1965 at Missouri. The Joseph Erlanger House in St. Louis was designated a National Historic Landmark on December 8, 1976 as a building of national significance. On January 22, 2009, the International Astronomical Union named a crater on the moon after him. McComas, Alan. Galvani's Spark: The Story of the Nerve Impulse. New York City, NY: Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0199751754. Oakes, Elizabeth. Encyclopedia of World Scientists. New York City, NY: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0816041305. Biography of Joseph Erlanger Joseph Erlanger at National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir

Évelyne Baylet

Évelyne Baylet was a French company director. She served between 1959 and 1995 as president of the La Dépêche du Midi newspaper group, while pursuing a parallel career as a regional politician. In 1970 she became president of the departmental council for Tarn-et-Garonne, a department in the southwest of France. Membership of departmental councils had been based on universal male suffrage since 1848, on universal adult suffrage since 1944, but it was only in 1970 that Évelyne Baylet became the first president of any departmental council in France, a woman. Évelyne Isaac and her twin brother were born into a Jewish family in Batna, a substantial inland city in northeastern Algeria. Her grandparents had moved across from Alsace after 1871. Maurice Simon Isaac, her father, was a Corps des mines member, her mother was a school teacher. She pursued her studies at the girl's lycée at Constantine, at the University of Algiers from which she graduated. Between 1937 and 1940 she taught French and Greek at a girls' school in at Bône.

On 30 December 1940 Évelyne Isaac married Jean Baylet, a Radical Party politician and director of the Dépêche de Toulouse. They had met while Évelyne was accompanying her mother, undergoing a cure at Ax-les-Thermes; the ceremony took place in Valence-d'Agen. The marriage would produce three recorded children including the politician-journalist Jean-Michel Baylet. By 2014 there were seven grandchildren and six great grandchildren. In September 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland. France reacted by declaring war on Germany. Eight months in May 1940, Germany invaded France: by the end of July 1940 a puppet government, based in Vichy, was administering the southern half of France. In 1943 Joseph Lécussan, a senior Vichy official, launched an enquiry in the region on behalf of the "Commissariat général" into the "Jewish question". Évelyne Baylet hastened changing her name to Eliane Bories. Liberation ushered in a period of fevered recrimination; the Dépêche de Toulouse faced a ban and its premises were sequestrated because, during the German occupation, the newspaper had been taken over by "collaborateurs" and published.

Jean Baylet had been elected as mayor of Valence-d'Agen in 1930 and remained in office throughout the Vichy years, but he had taken care, if to distance himself from the collaborationist authorities, refusing to hang the portrait of Marshal Pétain on his office wall at the town hall. Any residual suspicions that he was too close to the Germans were helpfully undermined on 9 June 1944 shortly before liberation, by the Gestapo who suspected him of helping the Résistance and arrested him. Starting in 1944, Jean and Évelyne Baylet spent two years assembling evidence of their "Résistance credentials" and submitting applications to have the newspaper business returned to the family. With the need for secrecy gone, there was abundance evidence available from numerous well placed witnesses of the extent of the practical help Jean Baylet had given to those opposing the German occupation. In 1946 they obtained the necessary "ordonnance de non-lieu", confirming that they were not to be pursued as suspected "Vichy collaborators".

The times were uncertain and lawless and the Bayets were still prevented from returning to the newspaper offices. On 24 October 1947 Jean Baylet turned up at the newspaper's Toulouse offices accompanied by the rugby team from nearby Valence-d'Agen. By this time it was six months since a court had formally restored the newspaper to him, but the individuals occupying the offices had turned a deaf ear to the court. Now, they were persuaded to depart. At the same time, the newspaper's Paris office was recovered. Évelyne Baylet had spent a considerable amount of time in Paris, pleading with officials at all the government ministries that might be persuaded to show support, but this had failed to achieve a result. She therefore turned up early at the newspaper's offices in the prestigious Rue du Faubourg-Montmartre, accompanied by Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury. In 1957, Bourgès-Maunoury would serve as Prime Minister of France, but in 1947 he was an ambitious young opposition politician and a witness of what happened next.

The two of them installed themselves in the best arm chairs, to await the arrival of the "new master" of the place. When he arrived and asked what they were doing there, they explained they were doing the same as he was: "occupying the place"; the ensuing conversation, as reported, was brief and to the point. The Paris offices were recovered; the newspaper returned to the streets in its southwest heartland on 22 November 1947, now renamed La Dépêche du Midi. During the next twelve years the newspaper recovered its authority and its political "king-maker" status in the region defined by a circle with a radius of 100 kilometers surrounding Toulouse. Jean Baylet died young, in a motor accident: he collided at high speed with a tree after a motor cyclist cut across his path, on 29 May 1959, The next day his widow appeared at the printing plant and told the assembled employees "I am going to take over the direction of this newspaper", she had little obvious relevant experience, while 76% of the ownership of the business passed directly to her teenage children.

But, as she explained

1999 South Asian Games

The 1999 South Asian Games were held in Kathmandu, Nepal from September 25 to October 4, 1999. King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev declared the games open amidst a grand ceremony. 1069 athletes of the different seven SAARC countries participated in the twelve sports. In the final medal count, India took first position and taking the advantages of host country Nepal amazingly took second position followed by Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Maldives. Out of 523 medals India had the most, with 102 gold, 58 silver and 37 bronze, Nepal took 31 gold, 10 silver and 24 bronze, Sri Lanka 16 gold 42 silver and 62 bronze, Pakistan 10 gold, 36 silver and 30 bronze, Bangladesh 2 gold, 10 silver and 35 bronze, Bhutan 1 gold, 6 silver and 7 bronze, Maldives 4 bronze. None of the participant countries went back empty hand without having medals. Bhutan and Maldives had the benefit of medals. There were 12 sports including 2 new sports and Taekwondo. Athletics Boxing Football Kabaddi Karate Shooting Swimming Table tennis Taekwondo Volleyball Weightlifting Wrestling A total of 523 medals comprising 162 Gold medals, 162 Silver medals and 199 Bronze medals were awarded to athletes.

The host Nepal's performance was their best yet in South Asian Games and were placed only second to India. * Host nation Note: 28 Golds of Nepal came from Taekwondo and Karate. The gold medal won by Pramila Thapa in taekwondo was the first gold medal in Nepal's taekwondo history and sports council's history