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Quasicrystal

A quasiperiodic crystal, or quasicrystal, is a structure, ordered but not periodic. A quasicrystalline pattern can continuously fill all available space, but it lacks translational symmetry. While crystals, according to the classical crystallographic restriction theorem, can possess only two-, three-, four-, six-fold rotational symmetries, the Bragg diffraction pattern of quasicrystals shows sharp peaks with other symmetry orders — for instance, five-fold. Aperiodic tilings were discovered by mathematicians in the early 1960s, some twenty years they were found to apply to the study of natural quasicrystals; the discovery of these aperiodic forms in nature has produced a paradigm shift in the fields of crystallography. Quasicrystals had been investigated and observed earlier, until the 1980s, they were disregarded in favor of the prevailing views about the atomic structure of matter. In 2009, after a dedicated search, a mineralogical finding, offered evidence for the existence of natural quasicrystals.

An ordering is non-periodic if it lacks translational symmetry, which means that a shifted copy will never match with its original. The more precise mathematical definition is that there is never translational symmetry in more than n – 1 linearly independent directions, where n is the dimension of the space filled, e.g. the three-dimensional tiling displayed in a quasicrystal may have translational symmetry in two directions. Symmetrical diffraction patterns result from the existence of an indefinitely large number of elements with a regular spacing, a property loosely described as long-range order. Experimentally, the aperiodicity is revealed in the unusual symmetry of the diffraction pattern, that is, symmetry of orders other than two, four, or six. In 1982 materials scientist Dan Shechtman observed that certain aluminium-manganese alloys produced the unusual diffractograms which today are seen as revelatory of quasicrystal structures. Due to fear of the scientific community's reaction, it took him two years to publish the results for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2011.

On 25 October 2018, Luca Bindi and Paul Steinhardt were awarded the Aspen Institute 2018 Prize for collaboration and scientific research between Italy and the United States. In 1961, Hao Wang asked whether determining if a set of tiles admits a tiling of the plane is an algorithmically unsolvable problem or not, he conjectured that it is solvable, relying on the hypothesis that every set of tiles that can tile the plane can do it periodically. Two years his student Robert Berger constructed a set of some 20,000 square tiles that can tile the plane but not in a periodic fashion; as further aperiodic sets of tiles were discovered, sets with fewer and fewer shapes were found. In 1976 Roger Penrose discovered a set of just two tiles, now referred to as Penrose tiles, that produced only non-periodic tilings of the plane; these tilings displayed instances of fivefold symmetry. One year Alan Mackay showed experimentally that the diffraction pattern from the Penrose tiling had a two-dimensional Fourier transform consisting of sharp'delta' peaks arranged in a fivefold symmetric pattern.

Around the same time, Robert Ammann created a set of aperiodic tiles that produced eightfold symmetry. Mathematically, quasicrystals have been shown to be derivable from a general method that treats them as projections of a higher-dimensional lattice. Just as circles and hyperbolic curves in the plane can be obtained as sections from a three-dimensional double cone, so too various arrangements in two and three dimensions can be obtained from postulated hyperlattices with four or more dimensions. Icosahedral quasicrystals in three dimensions were projected from a six-dimensional hypercubic lattice by Peter Kramer and Roberto Neri in 1984; the tiling is formed by two tiles with rhombohedral shape. Shechtman first observed ten-fold electron diffraction patterns in 1982, as described in his notebook; the observation was made during a routine investigation, by electron microscopy, of a cooled alloy of aluminium and manganese prepared at the US National Bureau of Standards. In the summer of the same year Shechtman related his observation to him.

Blech responded. Around that time, Shechtman related his finding to John Cahn of NIST who did not offer any explanation and challenged him to solve the observation. Shechtman quoted Cahn as saying: "Danny, this material is telling us something and I challenge you to find out what it is"; the observation of the ten-fold diffraction pattern lay unexplained for two years until the spring of 1984, when Blech asked Shechtman to show him his results again. A quick study of Shechtman's results showed that the common explanation for a ten-fold symmetrical diffraction pattern, the existence of twins, was ruled out by his experiments. Since periodicity and twins were ruled out, unaware of the two-dimensional tiling work, was looking for another possibility: a new structure containing cells connected to each other by defined angles and distances but without translational periodicity. Blech decided to use a computer simulation to calculate the diffraction intensity from a cluster of such a material without long-range translational order but still not random.

He termed this new structure multiple polyhedral. The idea of a new structure was the necessary paradigm shift to break the impasse; the "Eureka moment" came when the computer simulation showed sharp ten-fold diffraction patterns, similar to the observed ones, emanating from

Holling C. Holling

Holling Clancy Holling was an American author and illustrator, best known for the book Paddle-to-the-Sea, a Caldecott Honor Book in 1942. Paddle to the Sea won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1962. In 1966, Bill Mason directed the Oscar-nominated short film Paddle to the Sea, based on Holling's book, for the National Film Board of Canada. Born in Jackson County, Holling graduated from the Art Institute of Chicago in 1923. A number of his early works were first published by P. F. Co.. He worked in a taxidermy department of the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago and spent time working in anthropology under Dr. Ralph Linton. During this period, he married Lucille Webster and within a year of their marriage accepted a position as art instructor on the first University World Cruise, sponsored by New York University. For many years, Holling dedicated much of his interest to making books for children. Much of the material he used was known to him firsthand, his wife, worked with him on many of the illustrations.

He was a runner-up for the Caldecott Medal in 1942 for Paddle-to-the-Sea. He received the Commonwealth Club of California Literature Award in 1948 for Seabird, a runner-up for the Newbery Medal in 1949, he was a runner-up for the Newbery Medal again in 1952 for Minn of the Mississippi. With his wife, Lucille, he received the Southern California Council on Literature Award in 1961 for Pagoo. Little Big Bye-and-Bye. P. F. Volland Co. 1926. OCLC 4707560 Rum Tum Tummy: The Elephant Who Ate. Buzza Co. 1927. OCLC 18034054 Claws of the Thunderbird. P. F. Volland Co. 1928. OCLC 2290354 With Gordon Volland; the Rollaway Twins and Their Famous World Flight: A Complete News-Reel. Minneapolis: Buzza Company, 1928. OCLC 777772481 Rocky Billy Choo-Me-Shoo Buzza Co. 1928. OCLC 17990617 Children of Other Lands Twins Who Flew Around the World Book of Cowboys Book of Indians Little Buffalo Boy Paddle-to-the-Sea A small canoe carved by an Indian boy makes a journey from Lake Superior all the way to the Atlantic Ocean.

The book won a Caldecott Honor. Tree in the Trail A cottonwood tree watches the pageant of history on the Santa Fe Trail for over two hundred years. Seabird A scrimshaw ivory gull is the mascot for four generations of seafarers aboard a whaler, a clipper ship, a steamer, an airplane; the book won a Newbery Honor. Minn of the Mississippi A snapping turtle hatched at the source of the Mississippi is carried through the heart of America to the Gulf of Mexico; the book won a Newbery Honor. A World Is Born Pagoo An intricate study of tide pool life is presented through the story of Pagoo, a hermit crab. Holling illustrated a full-page Sunday comic strip titled The World Museum; each strip included a diorama which could be cut out and assembled into a 3-D scene of, for example, a buffalo hunt or an undersea panorama. Gale Research Company, Thomson Gale. Something About the Author. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1971. V. 15 & v.26. Twentieth-Century Children's Writers. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978. V. 78.

Guide to the Holling Clancy Holling papers at the University of Oregon Guide to the Holling Clancy Holling papers at the University of California Los Angeles Holling at Library of Congress Authorities, with 20 catalog records

ChaƱarcillo

Chañarcillo is a town and mine in the Atacama Desert of Copiapó Province, Atacama Region, located near Vallenar and 75 kilometres from Copiapó. It is noted for its silver mining; the town grew up after the Chañarcillo silver mine was discovered on May 1832 by Juan Godoy. This event sparkled the Chilean silver rush, it grew in prominence in the second half of the nineteenth century and became important in the Atacama mining industry and one of the most important mines to the Chilean economy. It was connected by railway before 1862. Today it is something of a ghost town. Magnificent groups of large crystals have been found at Chañarcillo, including proustite, stephanite and adamite. Chanarcillo is on the south flank of a dome, the Sierra de Chanarcillo, characterized by radial fractures and northwest striking faults. Silver ore occurs in nearly vertical veins within these fractures and faults within interbedded limestones and tuffs; this ore zone is an supergene sulfide enriched rock. Oxidized ores occur above the water supergene sulfide enrichment below.

In the oxidized zone, ore minerals include native silver and argentite have been replaced by cerargyrite, bromyrite, iodyrite. In the supergene sulfide enriched zone, ore minerals include pearceite, tetrahedrite and pyrargyrite; the Chanarcillo District produced at least $100 million in silver before abandonment. This production from up to 20 mines was limited to a third of a square mile. From 1860 until 1885, 2,500,000 kg of silver was produced. Most production occurred before 1930 and since until 1960, only minor amounts of silver was produced by removing pillars in mines or from the dump material. Escondida El Teniente Los Pelambres mine Potrerillos, Chile Chuquicamata El Salvador mine Arqueros Mining in Chile

Buziaș

Buziaș is a town in Timiș County, Romania. As of 2011, it had a population of 6,504. In German: Busiasch, in Hungarian: Buziás or Buziásfürdő, in Serbian: Бузјаш or Buzjaš; the town was first mentioned in 1321 in a document of Charles I of Hungary. It was declared a city in 1956, it administers two villages and Silagiu. Buziaș is an old health spa, the first establishments being built in 1819. In 1839 was declared a spa; the mineral waters of Buziaș are used in the treatment of a wide range of diseases. They were bottled for common use; the park of Buziaș, with a surface of over 20 ha, is a dendrological park with many rare species of trees, the most important being the plane. The architectural symbolic element of the spa is the covered colonnade of the park built in Turkish-Byzantine style, unique to Romania; the only two other similar promenades in Europe are found in Karlovy Baden-Baden. Train services to Gataia and Jamu Mare are operated by Regiotrans. According to 2011 census: Endre Misteth and minister

Roger Bales

Roger Bales is an English former professional snooker player. Born in 1948, Bales first played competitive snooker in 1974, playing in that year's Pontin's Spring Open, a pro-am event, where he lost his first match 0–4 to Mario Berni. In the 1978 edition of that event, he recorded his first victory, whitewashing Cliff Wilson 4–0, but was defeated in the next round 4–3 by Dennis Taylor. Having gained experience in the amateur game, Bales turned professional in 1984, aged 35, enjoyed good results on the main tour - at the International Open, his first professional tournament, he defeated Dessie Sheehan, Tommy Murphy, Mick Fisher to reach the last 48, where he led Dean Reynolds 4–2 but could not prevent Reynolds from coming back to beat him 5–4. Beginning the 1985/1986 season ranked 66th, Bales reached the last 32 in a ranking event for the first time at the 1986 British Open. In their match, Bales again led 4–2 but went on to lose 5–4. Although he began the following season inside the top 64 of the rankings, at 57th, Bales earned only £1,695 in prize money during 1986/1987, due to a sole last-32 finish which came at the International Open.

Over the course of the next five years, Bales' ranking declined as he was able to produce only intermittently good results. He reached the last 32 in three more ranking events - the 1987 Grand Prix, where he lost 2–5 to Willie Thorne, the 1989 British Open, where Mike Hallett whitewashed him 5–0, the 1989 International Open, where he was beaten 5–1 by Alain Robidoux - but, having begun the 1991/1992 season ranked 116th, he finished it, having lost 1–10 to Chris Cookson in qualifying for the 1992 World Championship, without a ranking. Bales entered ten tournaments during the 1992/1993 season, but won only one match - in the sixth round of qualifying for the International Open, he lost 3–5 to Mark O'Sullivan in the seventh qualifying round for the 1993 World Championship, did not play competitive snooker thereafter

State of Origin results and statistics

State of Origin results and statistics have been accumulating since the 1980 State of Origin game. Every game played under State of Origin selection rules, including the additional 1987 exhibition match and the matches played between New South Wales and Queensland for the Super League Tri-series are detailed below unless stated otherwise. Queensland have won 21 series. NSW have won 15; the matches in 1980 and 1981 were one off experimental matches after New South Wales had won the interstate series in both years. Both games are not considered series. After Queensland had won the 1987 State of Origin series 2-1, a further game was played in Long Beach, California to showcase rugby league to the American public. On 15 July 2003 the Australian Rugby League announced that this game was to be classified as an "official match" and that the match would count towards the players' individual statistics and overall match win-loss-draw records. However, the match has not counted towards series win-loss-draw records and the 1987 series still remains a 2-1 win to Queensland.

2018 winners NSW New South Wales and Queensland played two matches against each other under State of Origin selection rules using players from the Super League competition. These matches were not sanctioned by the Australian Rugby League and are not counted as official State of Origin series matches; the Tri-series included both sides playing a game against New Zealand. Earliest start: 3 May Latest finish: 23 July Largest aggregate crowd: 224,135 With 2 games in Queensland: 187,374 Smallest Crowd: 67,003 Series Wins QLD: 21 Series Wins NSW: 15 Series Drawn: 2 Largest crowd: 91,513 at Melbourne Cricket Ground Smallest crowd: 16,559 at Lang Park, 12,439 at Veteran's Stadium, Los Angeles, USA Most points scored: 72, New South Wales d. Queensland 56-16 Fewest points scored: 2, Queensland d. New South Wales 2-0 Total points scored: 1940 Queensland, 1836 New South Wales Most consecutive wins: 8, Queensland New South Wales wins: 53 Queensland wins: 62 Drawn matches: 2 Largest winning margin: 46, Queensland d.

New South Wales 52-6 Highest score: 56, New South Wales d. Queensland 56-16 Since 1988 either New South Wales or Queensland hosts two of the three matches on a rotational basis. Prior to this Queensland hosted two matches every year. In 1990, 1994, 1995, 1997, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015 one of the matches was played in Melbourne; the following venues have hosted State of Origin matches since 1980. Most tries in a match: 3 – Chris Anderson, Kerry Boustead, Ryan Girdler, Lote Tuqiri, Matt Sing, Matt King, Dane Gagai, Valentine Holmes, Tom Trbojevic. Most goals in a match: 10 – Ryan Girdler Most field goals in a match: 2 – Ben Elias Most points in a match: 32 – Ryan Girdler Most appearances: 42 – Cameron Smith Most consecutive matches: 36 – Johnathan Thurston Most tries in State of Origin career: 18 – Greg Inglis Most points in State of Origin career: 212 – Johnathan Thurston Oldest player: Petero Civoniceva Youngest player: Ben Ikin Most wins as a player: Cameron Smith 27 games to Game III 2017 Queensland 42 - Cameron Smith 37 - Johnathan Thurston 36 - Darren Lockyer 34 - Allan Langer 33 - Petero Civoniceva 32 - Mal Meninga 32 - Nate Myles 32 - Greg Inglis 31 - Wally Lewis 29 - Steve Price 29 - Sam Thaiday 29 - Billy Slater 28 - Darius Boyd 26 - Dale Shearer 25 - Bob Lindner New South Wales 31 - Brad Fittler 27 - Andrew Ettingshausen 24 - Paul Gallen 23 - Laurie Daley 23 - Andrew Johns 22 - Rod Wishart 22 - Jarryd Hayne 21 - Danny Buderus 21 - Steven Menzies 21 - Tim Brasher 20 - Paul Harragon 19 - Glenn Lazarus 19 - Ben Elias 19 - Michael O'Connor From 1992 to 2003 the Wally Lewis Medal was awarded by the Queensland Rugby League for the Queensland player of the series.

Since 2004 it has been awarded to the player of the series, irrespective of state. The following players have been awarded the Wally Lewis Medal for player of the series.1 The following players have been awarded the Ron McAuliffe Medal for Queensland player of the series. From 1992 to 2003, the award was the "Wally Lewis Medal", however after 2003, this medal was dedicated to the player of the series from both teams, thus the award for Queensland Player of the Series was awarded with the "Ron McAuliffe" Medal; the following players have been awarded the Brad Fittler Medal for New South Wales player of the series. The following referees have controlled. Bill Harrigan refereed both matches between New South Wales and Queensland in the Super League Tri-series. Most games in a row: 12 List of NRL records List of records in the National Youth Competition Former Origin Greats website World of Rugby League website Stat