It is named after its use of linear stickwork on the outside walls to mimic an exposed half-timbered frame. Stick-style architecture is recognizable by the relatively plain layout, often accented with trusses on the gables or decorative shingles, the stickwork decoration is not structurally significant, being just narrow planks or thin projections applied over the walls clapboards. The planks intersect mostly at right angles, and sometimes diagonally as well, the style was commonly used in houses, train stations, life-saving stations, and other buildings from the era. Highly stylized and decorative versions of the Stick style are referred to as Eastlake. Stick-Eastlake is a term that uses details from the Eastlake Movement, started by Charles Eastlake. It is sometimes referred to as Victorian Stick, a variation of Stick, stick-Eastlake enjoyed modest popularity in the late 19th century, but there are relatively few surviving examples of the style when compared to other more popular styles of Victorian architecture.
Chatham Train Station in Chatham, Massachusetts Delaware and Hudson Railroad Passenger Station in Altamont, american houses, a field guide to the architecture of the home, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt,2004
Princeton, New Jersey
As of the 2010 United States Census, the municipalitys population was 28,572, reflecting the former townships population of 16,265, along with the 12,307 in the former borough. Princeton was founded before the American Revolution and is best known as the location of Princeton University, Princeton is roughly equidistant from New York City and Philadelphia. It is close to major highways that serve both cities, and receives major television and radio broadcasts from each. It is close to Trenton, New Jerseys capital city, the governor of New Jerseys official residence has been in Princeton since 1945, when Morven in the borough became the first Governors mansion. It was replaced by the larger Drumthwacket, a mansion located in the former Township. Morven became a property of the New Jersey Historical Society. Princeton was ranked 15th of the top 100 towns in the United States to Live, although residents of Princeton traditionally have a strong community-wide identity, the community had been composed of two separate municipalities, a township and a borough.
The central borough was completely surrounded by the township, the Borough contained Nassau Street, the main commercial street, most of the University campus, and incorporated most of the urban area until the postwar suburbanization. The Borough and Township had roughly equal populations, the Lenni Lenape Native Americans were the earliest identifiable inhabitants of the Princeton area. Europeans founded their settlement in the part of the 17th century. The first European to find his home in the boundaries of the town was Henry Greenland. He built his house in 1683 along with a tavern, in this drinking hole representatives of West Jersey and East Jersey met to set boundaries for the location of the township. Originally, Princeton was known only as part of nearby Stony Brook, James Leonard first referred to the town as Princetown, when describing the location of his large estate in his diary. The town bore a variety of names subsequently, Princetown, Princes Town, although there is no official documentary backing, the town is considered to be named after King William III, Prince William of Orange of the House of Nassau.
Another theory suggests that the name came from a large land-owner named Henry Prince, a royal prince seems a more likely eponym for the settlement, as three nearby towns had similar names, Kingston and Princessville. When Richard Stockton, one of the founders of the township, died in 1709 he left his estate to his sons, who helped to expand property, based on the 1880 United States Census, the population of the town comprised 3,209 persons. Local population has expanded from the nineteenth century, according to the 2010 Census, Princeton Borough had 12,307 inhabitants, while Princeton Township had 16,265. Aside from housing the university of the name, the settlement suffered the revolutionary Battle of Princeton on its soil
An oriel window is a form of bay window which projects from the main wall of a building but does not reach to the ground. Supported by corbels, brackets or similar, a window is most commonly found projecting from an upper floor but is sometimes used on the ground floor. Oriel windows are seen in Arab architecture in the form of mashrabiya, in Islamic culture these windows and balconies project from the street front of houses, providing an area in which women could peer out and see the activities below while remaining invisible. Oriel College, took its name from a balcony or oriel window forming a feature of a building occupied the site the college now stands on. Oriel Chambers in Liverpool was a controversial building when it was built. It is seen as an example of modernism. Bay window for more details Bow window Bretèche Turret window
Beaux-Arts architecture expresses the academic neoclassical architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without interruption until 1968. The Beaux-Arts style heavily influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920, in contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation often returned to Greek models, for the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches, highly finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, site considerations tended toward social and urbane contexts. In the façade shown to the right, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in an action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the teams of the first truly modern architectural offices.
The prestige of the École gave the style Beaux-Arts a second wind in combining the new manner with the traditional training and they were followed by an entire generation. Henry Hobson Richardson absorbed Beaux-Arts lessons in massing and spatial planning and his Beaux-Arts training taught him to transcend slavish copying and recreate in the essential fully digested and idiomatic manner of his models. Richardson evolved a personal style freed of historicism that was influential in early Modernism. The White City of the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was a triumph of the movement, the Beaux-Arts curriculum was subsequently begun at Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania, and elsewhere. From 1916, the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design in New York City schooled architects, bosworth, Carnegie Mellon University, designed by Henry Hornbostel, and the University of Texas, designed by Paul Philippe Cret. Beaux-Arts architecture brought a civic face to the railroad, two of the best American examples of the Beaux-Arts tradition stand within a few blocks of each other, Grand Central Terminal and the New York Public Library.
Another prominent U. S. example of the style is the largest academic dormitory in the world, in the late 1800s, during the years when Beaux-Arts architecture was at a peak in France, Americans were one of the largest groups of foreigners in Paris. Many of them were architects and students of architecture who brought this back to America. Beaux-Arts was very prominent in public buildings in Canada in the early 20th century, notably all three prairie provinces legislative buildings are in this style. Buenos Aires is a center of Beaux-Arts architecture which continued to be built as late as the 1950s, national Theatre, Melbourne General Post Office building, Forrest Place, Perth Argus Building. Beaux-Arts Architecture in New York, A Photographic Guide United States, sixteenth Street Architecture – profiles of Beaux-Arts architecture in Washington D. C
Fireplace mantel or mantelpiece, known as a chimneypiece, originated in medieval times as a hood that projected over a grate to catch the smoke. The term has evolved to include the decorative framework around the fireplace, mantelpiece is now the general term for the jambs, mantel shelf, and external accessories of a fireplace. The most prolific designer of chimneypieces was G. B. Piranesi, who in 1765 published a series, on which at a date the Empire style in France was based. In France, the finest work of the early Renaissance period is to be found in the chimneypieces, which are of infinite variety of design. In the latter part of the century the classic architrave was abandoned in favor of a bolder and more effective molding, as in the chimneypieces at Hampton Court. In the eighteenth century, the returned to the Inigo Jones classic type. Towards the close of the century the designs of the Adam Brothers superseded all others. The Adam mantels are in wood enriched with ornament, cast in molds, mantels or fireplace mantels can be the focus of custom interior decoration. A mantel traditionally offers an opportunity for the architect/designer to create a personal statement unique to the room they are creating.
Historically the mantel defines the style of the interior decor, whether it be traditional i. e. Classic, Italian, American, Victorian. The choice of material for the mantel includes such rich materials as marble, granite, certainly the most luxurious of materials is marble. In the past only the finest of rare colored and white marbles were used, today many of those fine materials are no longer available, however many other beautiful materials can be found world wide. The defining element of a great mantel is the design and workmanship, a mantel offers a unique opportunity in its design for a sculptor/artisan to demonstrate their skill in carving each of the fine decorative elements. Elements such as capitals, brackets, animals, one might say that a mantel can be an encyclopedia of sculpture. More than the material, it is the quality of the carving that defines the quality of the piece thus highlighting the magnificence of the room. In 1834 Gideon Algernon Mantell, was given a block containing Iguanodon bones.
Up to the century, fires were simply made in the middle of a home by a hypocaust, or with braziers
Peabody and Stearns
Peabody & Stearns was a premier architectural firm in the Eastern United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Based in Boston, the firm consisted of Robert Swain Peabody and John Goddard Stearns, the firm worked on in a variety of designs but is closely associated with shingle style. With addition of Pierce P. Furber, presumably as partner, bayley House,16 Fairmont Ave. Newton Kragsyde,27 Smiths Point Rd. Manchester-by-the-Sea - Demolished 1929. Building,195 State St. Springfield U. S. Custom House Tower, unitarian Church of the Messiah,508 N. Garrison Ave. Turner Building,304 N. 8th St. St. Louis - Demolished 1902, St. Louis Club, T. E. Huntley Ave. George Blackman House,5843 Bartmer Ave, St. Louis Alvah Mansur House,3700 Lindell Blvd. St. Louis Charles F. Morse House,200 E. 36th St. Kansas City - Demolished, henry L. Newman House,21 Westmoreland Pl. Security Building,319 N. 4th St. St. Louis, St. Louis John T. Davis House,17 Westmoreland Pl. St. Louis James J. Hill House,240 Summit Ave, St. Paul - Peabody & Stearns were fired from the project in 1889.
Union Depot,509 W. Michigan Ave. Duluth Elberon Casino, Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal, Jersey City George W. Childs-Drexel House,1726 Locust St. Philadelphia Nathaniel Holmes House, Morewood & 5th Aves. Harvey Childs House,718 Devonshire St. Pittsburgh Sarah Drexel Fell House,1801 Walnut St. Philadelphia Durbin Horne House,7418 Penn Ave, Pittsburgh Joseph Horne & Co. Dept. Pittsburgh East Liberty Market,5900 Baum Blvd, Pittsburgh Remsen V. Messler House,651 Morewood Ave. Pittsburgh Laurento, Darby-Paoli Rd. Villanova - Demolished 1980s, Conshohocken State Rd. Lower Merion - Demolished. Krisheim,7514 McCallum St. Philadelphia Westview, Westview Rd. Bryn Mawr - Demolished, frederick S. G. DHauteville House,489 Bellevue Ave. Nathan Matthews House,492 Bellevue Ave, Newport Grace W. Rives House,30 Red Cross Ave. Newport The Breakers,44 Ochre Point Ave, Newport - Burned 1892, replaced. Newport Vinland, Newport - Now Salve Reginas Mcauley Hall, Newport Pavilion, Eastons Beach, Memorial Blvd.
Newport - Destroyed 1938 Ocean Lawn,51 Cliff Ave, Newport Rough Point,680 Bellevue Ave
In classical architecture a dentil is a small block used as a repeating ornament in the bedmould of a cornice. The earliest example is found on the tomb of Darius, c.500 BC, cut in the rock. Its first employment in Athens is in the cornice of the portico or tribune of the Erechtheum. When subsequently introduced into the bed-mould of the cornice of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates it is smaller in its dimensions. In the temples of Ionia, as in the temple of Priene, the dentil was the chief decorative feature employed in the bedmould by the Romans and in the Italian Renaissance. As a general rule, the projection of the dentil is equal to its width, thus appearing square, and the intervals between are half this measure. In some cases, the band has never had the sinkings cut into it to divide up the dentils, as in the Pantheon at Rome. The Venetian dentil was introduced as a label round arches and as a string course
Colonial Revival architecture
Colonial Revival architecture was and is a nationalistic design movement in the United States. The Centennial Exhibition of 1876 reawakened Americans to their colonial past, successive waves of revivals of British colonial architecture have swept the United States since 1876. In the 19th century, Colonial Revival took a formal style, public interest in the Colonial Revival style in the early 20th century helped popularize books and atmospheric photographs of Wallace Nutting showing scenes of New England. Historical attractions such as Colonial Williamsburg helped broaden exposure in the 1930s, in the post-World War II era, Colonial design elements were merged with the popular ranch-style house design. In the early part of the 21st century, certain regions of the United States embraced aspects of Anglo-Caribbean, Colonial Revival sought to follow American colonial architecture of the period around the Revolutionary War, which drew strongly from Georgian architecture of Great Britain. Structures are typically two stories with the ridge running parallel to the street, have a symmetrical front facade with an accented doorway.
William Butler, Another City Upon a Hill, Connecticut, richard Guy Wilson and Noah Sheldon, The Colonial Revival House 2004. Richard Guy Wilson, Shaun Eyring and Kenny Marotta, Re-creating the American Past, Essays on the Colonial Revival 2006
There are various styles of porches, all of which depend on the architectural tradition of its location. All porches will allow for sufficient space for a person to comfortably pause before entering or after exiting the building, for example, are usually quite large and may encompass the entire facade as well as the sides of a structure. An extreme example is the Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island, Michigan, in the Southwestern United States, ranch-style homes often use a porch to provide shade for the entrance and southern wall of the residence. Adobe-style homes in Santa Fe, New Mexico, often include large porches for entertainment called portals, which are not usually seen in the more traditional adobe homes. Older American homes, particularly those built during the era of Victorian architecture, or built in the Queen Anne style, the back porch is used as another sitting space. However, many American homes built with a porch since the 1940s have only a one, usually too small for comfortable social use.
The New Urbanism movement in architecture urges a reversal in this trend, recommending a large front porch, some porches are screened in to exclude flying insects. Normally, the porch is architecturally unified with the rest of the house and it may be integrated into the roof line or upper storey. In Great Britain the projecting porch had come into use in churches by early medieval times. They were usually built of stone but occasionally were of timber, normally they were placed on the south side of the church, but on the west and north sides, sometimes in multiple. The porches served to cover to worshipers, but they had a liturgical use. At a baptism, the priest would receive the sponsors, with the infant, in the porch and the service began there. In medieval times, the porch sometimes had two storeys, with a room above the entrance which was used as a school, meeting room, storeroom. If the village or town possessed a collection of books, it would be housed there, sometimes the church custodian lived in the upper storey and a window into the church would allow supervision of the main church interior.
Some British churches have highly ornamented porches, both externally and internally, the south porch at Northleach, Gloucestershire, in the Cotswolds, built in 1480, is a well-known example, and there are several others in East Anglia and elsewhere in the UK. In India porches and verandahs are popular elements of secular as well as religious architecture, in the Hindu temple the mandapa is a porch-like structure through the gopuram and leading to the temple. It is used for dancing and music and is part of the basic temple compound
Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism. It is the finest grained foliated metamorphic rock, foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering, but instead is in planes perpendicular to the direction of metamorphic compression. The foliation in slate is called slaty cleavage and it is caused by strong compression causing fine grained clay flakes to regrow in planes perpendicular to the compression. Slate is frequently grey in color, especially when seen, en masse, Slate is not to be confused with shale, from which it may be formed, or schist. The word slate is used for certain types of object made from slate rock. It may mean a single roofing tile made of slate, or a writing slate and this was traditionally a small smooth piece of the rock, often framed in wood, used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard, and especially for recording charges in pubs and inns.
The phrases clean slate and blank slate come from this usage, before the mid-19th century, the terms slate and schist were not sharply distinguished. In the context of underground mining in the United States. For example, roof slate referred to shale above a coal seam, occasionally, as in the purple slates of North Wales, ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei, leaving a light green spotted texture. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids, Slate can be made into roofing slates, a type of roof shingle, or more specifically a type of roof tile, which are installed by a slater. Slate has two lines of breakability – cleavage and grain – which make it possible to split the stone into thin sheets, when broken, slate retains a natural appearance while remaining relatively flat and easy to stack. Slate is particularly suitable as a material as it has an extremely low water absorption index of less than 0. 4%. In fact, this natural slate, which requires only minimal processing, has the lowest embodied energy of all roofing materials, natural slate is used by building professionals as a result of its beauty and durability.
Slate is incredibly durable and can last several hundred years, often little or no maintenance. Its low water makes it very resistant to frost damage and breakage due to freezing. Natural slate is fire resistant and energy efficient, Slate roof tiles are usually fixed either with nails, or with hooks as is common with Spanish slate. In the UK, fixing is typically with double nails onto timber battens or nailed directly onto timber sarking boards, nails were traditionally of copper, although there are modern alloy and stainless steel alternatives. Both these methods, if used properly, provide a long-lasting weathertight roof with a lifespan of around 80–100 years, Slate roofs are still used today
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the system used, which reflects climate, material availability. A gable wall or gable end more commonly refers to the wall, including the gable. A variation of the gable is a gable, which has a stairstep design to accomplish the sloping portion. Gable ends of more recent buildings are often treated in the way as the Classic pediment form. But unlike Classical structures, which operate through trabeation, the ends of many buildings are actually bearing-wall structures. Thus, the detailing can be ambiguous or misleading, gable style is used in the design of fabric structures, with varying degree sloped roofs, dependent on how much snowfall is expected. Sharp gable roofs are a characteristic of the Gothic and classical Greek styles of architecture, the opposite or inverted form of a gable roof is a V-roof or butterfly roof. While a front-gabled building faces the street with its gable, a building faces it with its cullis.
The terms are used in architecture and city planning to determine a building in its urban situation, front-gabled buildings are considered typical for German city streets in the medieval gothic period, while Renaissance buildings, influenced by Italian architecture are often side-gabled. In America, front-gabled houses, such as the Gablefront house, were primarily between the early 19th century and 1920. A wimperg is a German and Dutch word for a Gothic ornamental gable with tracery over windows or portals and it was a typical element in Gothic Architecture especially in cathedral architecture. Wimpergs often had crockets or other elements in the Gothic style. The intention behind the wimperg was the perception of increased height, the gable end roof is a poor design for hurricane regions, as it easily peels off in strong winds. The part of the roof overhangs the triangular wall very often creates a trap that can catch wind like an umbrella. A series of ornamental timber gables, from existing examples in England and France of the 16th Century