click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Quikscript

Quikscript is an alphabet designed for the English language. Quikscript replaces traditional English orthography, which uses the Latin alphabet, with new letters, it is phonemically regular and designed to be comfortably and written. There are Quikscript alphabets adapted for other languages, using the same letters for sounds which do not exist in English. George Bernard Shaw, the writer and playwright, was a vocal critic of English spelling because it lacked a coherent system for representing the phonemes of English accurately; as a result, for years he wrote his literary works using Pitman shorthand. However, he found its limitations frustrating as well and realized that it was not a suitable replacement for the Latin alphabet, being difficult to use to produce printed material and impossible to type. A shorthand is, by definition, more specialized than an alphabet, which represents the standard written form of a language. Shaw desired and advocated a phonetic reworking of written English, this called for a new alphabet.

To that end, Shaw placed in his will provisions instructing his executor to organize a world-wide competition to design an improved English alphabet. A British designer, Ronald Kingsley Read, who had corresponded extensively with Shaw for several years regarding just such an alphabet, was selected along with three other finalists as the winners of the competition. Read was chosen to design the final form of the alphabet; the "Shaw Alphabet" or "Shavian", as it is now known, was the result. To provide field testing of the new alphabet, Read organized a lengthy public testing phase of Shavian by some 500 users from around the world who spoke different dialects of English. Once he had analyzed the results of those tests, Read decided to revise Shavian to incorporate a number of changes to improve the alphabet and make it both easier and faster to write, he called the revised alphabet "Quikscript". In 1966 he published the Quikscript manual which set out the alphabet's rationale, discussed different possible methods of alphabet reform.

The heart of the manual provided comprehensive instructions regarding the use of the alphabet along with reading samples. Each Quikscript letter represents one, only one, English phoneme. There are 15 vowels, totaling in all 40 letters; the letters are designed to be written and each of them only requires a single stroke of pen. Just as in the Roman alphabet, there are short letters, a, c, e, m, n, written between the base writing line and the "upper parallel", tall letters, b, d, f, k, t, which ascend above the top of the short letters, deep letters, g, j, p and y, which descend below the base writing line. Quikscript, makes better use of these possibilities by using 11 tall, 11 deep, 18 short letters. All vowels are short letters; the most common phonemes have the simplest letter shapes. Similar sounding phonemes have similar letter shapes. Examples: Long vowels and glides are written with a larger bend or loop, while short vowels have a simpler shape; every voiced consonant is written with a deep letter similar in shape to the corresponding voiceless consonant which in turn is written with a tall letter.

While the Roman alphabet has two distinct forms in common use, which are designated as lower and upper case, this concept does not exist in the Quikscript alphabet. There is only one form for the majority of the letters. Names and proper nouns are preceded with a mid-line dot, sufficient to distinguish them from ordinary words. Beginners learn Junior Quikscript first; each word is spelled "as it is spoken". Each letter is written separately from the next so that it is equivalent to what is termed "printing" in the Roman alphabet; some people may prefer Junior Quikscript for printed texts as readers are used to the Roman alphabet being printed in that manner. Senior QuikScript introduces a number of advanced techniques; the most obvious difference between the two is that Senior encourages the connection of one letter to the next as long as the shapes of the letters are not altered. The design of the alphabet fosters these natural connections, as each Quikscript letter either begins or ends on the base line or the upper parallel.

This structure permits letters to connect yet maintains the shapes of the individual letters because there are no connecting strokes between letters as there are in cursive Roman alphabet writing. It is common that Senior writing will have several letters in a row which are connected to each other, but when such a connection is not possible, the letters are left unconnected. Read added a small number of alternative letter forms, which permit more letters to connect easily, it is the writer's choice. Senior Quikscript introduces the concept of half-letters. Read recognized that the top half of several tall letters and the bottom half of several deep letters distinguish those letters. Therefore, the portion of the vertical shafts of those letters which lie between the base line and upper parallel can be discarded without legibility being affected. Using half-letters increases the number of letters which can connect with each other; this produces several benefits: 1) it speeds up handwriting because fewer pen-lifts are required.

Fluent readers do not sound out words letter by letter. They recognize a familiar word-sh

1557 in art

The year 1557 in art involved some significant events and new works. Painter Biagio Betti becomes a monk of the order of the Theatines of San Silvestro al Quirinale, most of his works being found in the monastery of that order in Rome. Sofonisba Anguissola Family Portrait: Minerva and Asdrubale Anguissola Portrait of Bianca Ponzoni Anguissola, the artist's mother Federico Barocci – Martyrdom of St. Sebastian Giovanni Battista Moroni – Portrait of a Man before the Virgin and Child Lattanzio Gambara – Apollo Joan de Joanes – Portrait of Alfonso V, King of Aragon TintorettoTamar and Judah Daniele da VolterraMassacre of the Innocents June 10 - Leandro Bassano, Venetian artist and younger brother of Francesco Bassano the Younger August 16 - Agostino Carracci, Italian painter and printmaker September 16 - Pietro Tacca, Italian sculptor and follower of Giambologna December 23 - Giovanni Battista Crespi, Italian painter and architect date unknown Alessandro Capriolo, Italian engraver and printer probable - Benedetto Bandiera, Italian painter January 2 - Pontormo, Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine school January 3 - Giacomo Raibolini, Italian painter July 16 - Vincenzo degli Azani, Italian painter October 5 - Francesco Bacchiacca, Florentine Mannerist painter date unknown Giovanni del Giglio, Italian painter Lorenzo Lotto, Italian painter and illustrator Giacomo Raibolini, Italian painter

Mark Rowntree

Mark Rowntree is a British spree killer, committed to a mental hospital after he admitted killing four people at random in the town of Bingley, West Yorkshire, during late 1975 and early 1976. Due to the timing of his spree, some of his victims were erroneously assumed to have been killed by the Yorkshire Ripper, which distracted police enquiries at the time. On 31 December 1975, 19-year-old Rowntree stabbed widow Grace Adamson to death celebrated with a beer at the local pub. on 3 January 1976 he killed sixteen-year-old Stephen Wilson at a bus stop in Eastburn, West Yorkshire. The victim died in hospital, although he was first able to give a description of his attacker to the police. On 7 January 1976, Rowntree visited part-time model Barbara Booth at her home and stabbed her to death, along with her three-year-old son Alan. By the time he returned home, the police were waiting for him, armed with the description given by the second victim. Rowntree gave a full confession to his crimes and complained that he had not managed to reach five victims — the body count of his hero, Donald Neilson.

Diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia, Rowntree pleaded guilty to four counts of manslaughter on the ground of diminished responsibility at Leeds Crown Court in June 1976. He was ordered to be committed to Rampton Secure Hospital for an indefinite period, he is now one of the longest serving patients in any British psychiatric/secure hospital. He changed his name to Paul Page in the late 1990s and has been allowed out on day trips from the secure hospitals he is incarcerated in. In 1994, he partook in an adventure holiday in Kielder forest, which the Home Secretary at that time had to apologise for. In 2003, he again changed his name to Mark Allen Evans and has used pseudonyms in an attempt to get his novels and short stories published. In 1992, the Space rock band Hawkwind released. One of the tracks on the album, Death of War, is co-credited to Mark Rowntree as the lyrics are taken from one of Rowntree's poems. In March 2004, Evans was convicted of threats to kill a social worker at the secure hospital in Middlesbrough where he was locked up.

The judge detained Evans at Rampton Hospital without time limit, which has led to speculation that he will never be released. Wade, Stephen. Foul deeds and suspicious deaths around Bradford. Barnsley: Wharncliffe Books. ISBN 1-903425-83-2

Jim Catania

Jim Catania known as Mr. Jim, replaced drummer Manny Martínez in The Misfits in the fall of 1977 and remained in the band until November 1978. Catania had been in an earlier band called Boojang with Glenn Danzig. Mr. Jim is featured on the same songs as Franché Coma. Jim left the band soon after Franché returned to his other band Continental Crawler, he played for The Adults and Aces and Eights. Both Jim and Manny were from Lodi, New Jersey and graduated from Lodi High School in 1971. After leaving Lodi, Jim moved to New Jersey with his wife. Mr. Jim and his wife moved to Hoboken, New Jersey, he opened his own music and DVD store called Mr. Jim's House of Video in Belleville, New Jersey in December 2008; as for his playing style, he is known for his frantic 4/4 rock beats fast footwork on the bass drum and 16th-note precision on the hi-hat. As of August 2010, Mr. Jim is playing in The Exstatics with Paul of the Living Dead of The Undead and the Bad Whoremoans. Jim Catania has joined the Von Frankensteins, according to an article from Blabbermouth.net.

Mr. Jim's latest projects include the instrumental surf album entitled "Monkey with a Gun" and a untitled punk rock album. In August 2012 he recorded a Misfits cover of'Hollywood Babylon' with Robby Bloodshed. Bullet - Single Beware - EP Legacy of Brutality - Compilation Collection I - Compilation Collection II - Compilation The Misfits - Box set Static Age - Album Promotional Pollution - EP "The Anthology 1977-79: Cars, Cards And Questionable Women" - CD

Norway, Maine

Norway is a town in Oxford County, United States. The population was 5,014 at the 2010 census, it is home to a recreation area. Fertile soil and abundant fauna surrounding the Pennessewasse Lake supported native people in the region for thousands of years, it wasn't until after the American Revolution. In 1786, Joseph Stevens, George Leslie, Amos Hobbs, Jeremiah Hobbs, Jonas Stevens, Nathaniel Stevens began clearing land and building homes, they intended to not only provide for their families, but attract new settlers to their small community. Many of the early settlers had fought in the Revolutionary War, including Phineas Whitney, a veteran of the Battle of Bunker Hill. By 1789, a sawmill and gristmill were established, the first road was built in 1796, the town of Norway was incorporated on March 9, 1797. Before incorporation, the township adopted the name Rustfield, to recognize the contributions of prominent landowner Henry Rust of Salem and the community once petitioned the Massachusetts General Court to be named Norage, meaning "falls" in the native peoples' language.

Still, the origin of the town's current name remains unknown. During the Civil War and other municipalities in Oxford County formed a militia that joined the 1st Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment under the command of George Lafayette Beal. Beal would rise to the rank of major general and serve as State Treasurer from 1888 to 1894. With fertile soil for cultivation and access to the Pennesseewassee waterways, which drain into the Little Androscoggin River, the community had ample water power to drive industrial manufacturing, including a cloth and carding mill, a furniture factory, a box factory, a shovel handle factory. Waterfalls powered two grain mills. Businesses like the tannery, the harness maker, the [[trunk |trunk manufacturer emerged. Shoe manufactory was established in 1872; the busy stage route from Paris, the county seat, to Fryeburg passed through Norway. By 1878, there were 32 stores in the town. For a number of years, Norway had the fastest growing population of any similar town in the state.

On December 30, 1879, the Norway Branch Railroad opened. The 1.45 mile line connected Norway village with the Atlantic St. Lawrence Railroad at South Paris. On May 9, 1894, a fire sparked in the C. B. Cummings & Sons mill on Main Street. Spread by a strong wind, what would become known as The Great Norway Fire, destroyed a substantial portion of the business district, devastating the opera house, Congregational Church, 80 other buildings, including many homes. Reconstruction began the same year, many of the original wooden buildings on Main Street were rebuilt with brick. Norway, Maine was once known as the "Snowshoe Capital of the World." Walter Tubbs founded the Tubbs Snowshoe Company 1906. Tubbs produced high quality ash snowshoes, skis and furniture supplying Byrd and Peary's polar expeditions. Tubbs relocated to Vermont in the early 1930's. Soon after, SnoCraft Inc. a company owned and operated by Kenneth Aldrich, set up production in the old Tubbs Factory. SnoCraft was responsible for supplying 70% of the snowshoes ordered by the U.

S. government during World War II. Founded in 1850, the C. B. Cummings & Son Company mass-produced wooden components like dowels downtown Norway. In 2001, after domestic furniture manufacturers were unable to compete with production costs in China, the company closed and auctioned their factory. After K2 Sports bought Tubbs Snowshoe Company in 2014, production moved from Vermont to Guangzhou, China. In 1997, the New Balance Shoe Company built a manufacturing facility in Norway where production continues today. Norway is in School Administrative District 17. Children attend Rowe Elementary School from pre-kindergarten to grade 6. Older students attend high school. Norway has a waste water treatment facility; the town is administered by a board of selectmen. The town has a planning board. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 47.33 square miles, of which 45.04 square miles is land and 2.29 square miles is water. Norway is drained by the Pennesseewassee Little Androscoggin River.

The town is crossed by state routes 26, 117 and 118. It borders the towns of West Paris to the north; this climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Norway has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 5,014 people, 2,163 households, 1,357 families living in the town. The population density was 111.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,804 housing units at an average density of 62.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.1% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. Of 2,163 households, 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals, where 13.5% of individuals over 65 years of age lived alone. The average household size

Prosopis tamarugo

Prosopis tamarugo known as the tamarugo, is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, subfamilia Mimosoideae. It is only found in northern Chile in the Pampa del Tamarugal, some 70 km east of the city of Iquique; this bushy tree grows without the benefit of rainfall, it is thought obtains some water from dew. Studies indicate, it participates in hydraulic redistribution moving water from deeper levels to the upper and reversing the process in times of severe drought. Scattered stands of the trees have been cut down for firewood; the trees grow on saline soils. The species is a valuable source of charcoal and lumber and the leaves and fruits are food for goats, it has been planted in Spain. Prosopis tamarugo is a drought and salt tolerant tree. Belonging to the family of legumes, the tree has the potential to fix nitrogen through rhizobial symbiosis with bacteria. On nutrient-poor soils the tree can therefore compete better compared to other non-nitrogen fixing plants. Prosopis tamarugo has the ability to grow deep roots, leading to extreme drought tolerance.

The plant has been observed to root down to groundwater tables at 20 m depth, allowing it to survive drought periods enduring several months. Furthermore, the tree is able to absorb moisture from atmosphere and redirect it to the rhizosphere, where water is exudated to the surrounding soil in a kind of reversion of a normal guttation process; the genus Prosopis of the family Fabaceae is well known to tolerate high saline soils without major restrictions in growth. The tree's salt tolerance evolved responding to salty conditions at its geographical place of origin. In the northern Chilean Atacama desert, thick salt crusts which were formed in the past through desiccation of lakes are found widely; the tree can grow under saline crusts of 0.10–0.40 m thickness. Tolerating high saline water, the tree can be irrigated with seawater in coastal regions. Less saline water concentrations tend to have a promoting effect on growth. Although the tree shows quite a high saline tolerance, an excessive salt concentration in water leads to a decrease in growth, but growth is not stopped.

With high saline concentration in water the root diameter decreases due to a reduction of the cortex layers of the roots. Seedlings irrigated with high saline water concentration tend to have a decreased protein and carbohydrate content and a lower amount of photosynthetic pigments but a greater lipid content and oxygen uptake. In the 19th century, the natural forests of Tamarugo at Pampa del Tamarugal were intensively cut and used as source of firewood, so that they became extinct. Between 1960 and 1980 around 20,000 hectares in the Pampa del Tamarugal were revitalised with Tamarugo; the tree easy can be established from seedlings. It can grow in thick salt layers on sandy soils. Although it can absorb water from the atmosphere through its foliar system, initial costs can be reduced when tamarugo is planted where groundwater can be found between 2–10 m; the seeds used for propagation come from selected trees. Seeds receive water every 2–3 days later when the plant has established only once every 15 days.

The small plants stay in a nursery for 3–5 months until a height of 8–10 cm. The plants are planted in a distance of 10 m from each other at a depth of 40–60 cm whereby the saline crust is broken to facilitate establishment. At the beginning, watering is needed for the establishment of the plants. Four insects are the main enemies of tamarugo: "Palomilla violeta" damages the fruits, leaves and twigs "Polilla del fruto" damages the fruit and seeds "Polilla de la flor" damages the flower "Bruco del tamarugo" damages the seedControlling the pests with synthetic pesticides seems to be useful. At Pampa del Tamarugal, a silvopastoral system with small ruminants was established; the mature fruit and dry leaves of tamarugo fall on the soil and can be used as fodder for goats and cows. Thanks to the leaves and the fruits of tamarugo, around 7000–9000 sheep and goats can survive in an original desert region. In fact, a 14–22 years old tree can produce 20–70 kg of fodder per year. With trees aged 7 to 10 years, the estimated carrying capacity is about 0.5.

Tamarugo is unused until an age of 6 years. For this reason the trees should be grown only in areas bigger than 500 ha to cover the development costs. Although Tamarugo shows a high quantity of fruit fiber the forage quality is poor because of the low digestible energy content compared to cereal stalks; the goats are more efficient in digesting rougher forage and consume about 3.46 kg of fruits and foliage per day whereas sheep eat only 1.88 kg per day. If the existence of Tamarugo allows the livestock production in the Pampa del Tamarugal, supplemental feeding is needed. Locally available fodder are alfalfa hay. Besides fodder and fuelwood, tamarugo plantations provide shelter to wildlife and recreational opportunities. In contrast to the deserted land, tamarugo plantations provide vegetation cover. "Prosopis tamarugo". Ornamental trees in Spain. Retrieved 2010-03-30