Quinoa is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is an herbaceous annual plant grown as a crop for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth, originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America, it was first used to feed livestock 5.2–7 thousand years ago, for human consumption 3–4 thousand years ago in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia. Today all production in the Andean region is done by small farms and associations, its cultivation has spread to more than 70 countries, including Kenya, the United States, several European countries. As a result of increased popularity and consumption in North America and Australasia, quinoa crop prices tripled between 2006 and 2013. Chenopodium quinoa is a dicotyledonous annual plant about 1–2 m high, it has broad powdery, lobed leaves arranged alternately. The woody central stem is branched or unbranched depending on the variety and may be green, red or purple; the flowering panicles arise from leaf axils along the stem.
Each panicle has a central axis from which a secondary axis emerges either with flowers or bearing a tertiary axis carrying the flowers. The green hypogynous flowers have a simple perianth and are self-fertilizing; the fruits are about 2 mm in diameter and of various colors—from white to red or black, depending on the cultivar. Chenopodium quinoa is believed to have been domesticated in the Peruvian Andes from wild or weed populations of the same species. There are non-cultivated quinoa plants. In their natural state, the seeds have a coating which contains bitter-tasting saponins, making them unpalatable. Most of the grain sold commercially has been processed to remove this coating; this bitterness has beneficial effects during cultivation, as it deters birds and therefore, the plant requires minimal protection. The genetic control of bitterness involves quantitative inheritance. Although lowering the saponin content through selective breeding to produce sweeter, more palatable varieties is complicated by ≈10% cross-pollination, it is a major goal of quinoa breeding programs, which may include genetic engineering.
The toxicity category rating of the saponins in quinoa treats them as mild eye and respiratory irritants and as a low gastrointestinal irritant. In South America, the saponins have many uses, including their use as a detergent for clothing and washing, as a folk medicine antiseptic for skin injuries. Additionally, high levels of oxalic acid are in the leaves and stems of all species of the genus Chenopodium, in the related genera of the family Amaranthaceae; the risks associated with quinoa are minimal, provided those parts are properly prepared and the leaves are not eaten to excess. Raw, uncooked quinoa is 13% water, 64% carbohydrates, 14% protein, 6% fat. Nutritional evaluations indicate that a 100 g serving of raw quinoa seeds is a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins, including 46% DV for folate, the dietary minerals magnesium and manganese. After cooking, the typical preparation for eating the seeds, quinoa is 72% water, 21% carbohydrates, 4% protein, 2% fat. In a 100 g serving, cooked quinoa provides 120 kcal and is a rich source of manganese and phosphorus, a moderate source of dietary fiber and the dietary minerals, iron and magnesium.
Quinoa is gluten-free. Because of the high concentration of protein, ease of use, versatility in preparation, potential for increased yields in controlled environments, it has been selected as an experimental crop in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System for long-duration human occupied space flights; the plant's growth is variable due to the number of different subspecies and landraces. However, it is undemanding and altitude-hardy. Depending on the variety, optimal growing conditions are in cool climates with temperatures that vary between −4 °C during the night to near 35 °C during the day; some cultivars can withstand lower temperatures without damage. Light frosts do not affect the plants at any stage of development, except during flowering. Midsummer frosts during flowering, a frequent occurrence in the Andes, lead to sterilization of the pollen. Rainfall requirements are variable between the different cultivars, ranging from 300 to 1,000 mm during the growing season. Growth is optimal with well-distributed rainfall during early growth and no rain during seed maturation and harvesting.
Quinoa has been cultivated in the United States in the high elevation San Luis Valley of Colorado where it was introduced in 1983. In this high-altitude desert valley, maximum summer temperatures exceed 30 °C and night temperatures are about 7 °C. In the 2010s, experimental production was attempted in the Palouse region of Eastern Washington, farmers in Western Washington began producin
Argybargy is the third album by the UK new wave band Squeeze. Argybargy was released in February 1980 peaking at number 32 in the UK Albums Chart spending 15 weeks in that listing. On the US dance chart, all cuts from "Argybargy" peaked at number 76, spent 6 weeks on that listing, in the summer of 1980; the John M. Borack book Shake Some Action - The Ultimate Guide To Power Pop ranked Argybagy at number 58 in its list "The 200 Greatest Power Pop Albums"; the track listing below is from the original UK LP release. On the American release, the song order was changed with "If I Didn't Love You" moved up to the first track of the second side, but the order otherwise remaining the same. All songs written by Glenn Tilbrook except as indicated. "Pulling Mussels" – 3:58 "Another Nail in My Heart" – 2:56 "Separate Beds" – 3:21 "Misadventure" – 2:56 "I Think I'm Go Go" – 4:18 "Farfisa Beat" – 2:57 "Here Comes That Feeling" – 2:12 "Vicky Verky" – 3:12 "If I Didn't Love You" – 4:11 "Wrong Side of the Moon" – 2:25 "There at the Top" – 3:46 In 1997, the CD was released in the UK with two bonus tracks, as part of the Six of One... box set.
The set included each digitally remastered. These CDs were made available for individual purchase in 1998. "Funny How It Goes" – 3:49 "Go" – 4:12 Argybargy was re-issued in 2008 as a two disc deluxe edition. The first disc includes the original album, the two bonus cuts from the 1997 reissue, seven additional bonus tracks. "What the Butler Saw" – 2:46 "Someone Else's Heart" – 2:55 "Pretty One" – 2:46 "Going Crazy" – 3:56 "Farfisa Beat" – 2:58 "Library Girl" – 3:17 "If I Didn't Love You" – 3:39The second disc contains a concert recorded at the Hammersmith Odeon on 9 March 1980, plus a US radio commercial for the album. Radio Commercial – 1:05 "Slap and Tickle" – 3:54 "Touching Me Touching You" – 2:07 "Slightly Drunk" – 2:40 "Pulling Mussels" – 3:44 "Hop Skip and Jump" "Funny How It Goes" – 3:18 "Another Nail in My Heart" – 2:55 "Cool for Cats" – 3:46 "Mess Around" – 2:37 "I Think I'm Go Go" – 4:55 "Take Me I'm Yours" "If I Didn't Love You" – 3:54 "Strong in Reason" – 4:06 "Misadventure" "It's So Dirty" – 3:02 "Goodbye Girl" – 4:14 "Up the Junction" – 3:03 "There at the Top" "Going Crazy" – 4:59 SqueezeChris Difford – rhythm guitar, lead vocal on "Here Comes That Feeling", co-lead vocals on "If I Didn't Love You" & "I Think I'm Go Go" Glenn Tilbrook – lead guitar, lead vocals Jools Holland – keyboards, lead vocal on "Wrong Side of the Moon" John Bentley – bass Gilson Lavis – drumswith: Del Newman – string arrangementsIt would be the last album featuring founding member Jools Holland until Squeeze's first reunion album, 1985's Cosi Fan Tutti Frutti
The third season of the television comedy series Mike & Molly began airing on September 24, 2012 on CBS in the United States. The season is produced by Chuck Lorre Productions and Warner Bros. Television, with series creator Mark Roberts serving as executive producer along with Chuck Lorre and Don Foster. On March 14, 2012, CBS renewed Molly for a third season; the series focuses on the title characters Mike Biggs and Molly Flynn, a couple who meet at an Overeaters Anonymous meeting in Chicago, Illinois. After Molly, a primary-school teacher, invites police officer Mike to give a talk to her class, they begin dating. Mike and Molly live in the home of Molly's mother Joyce and sister Victoria. Joyce is in an on-off relationship with widower Vince Moranto, seen at the house. Mike is kept company by his best friend and partner in the police force, Carl McMillan. Other prominent characters in the series include Carl's grandmother Rosetta. David Anthony Higgins, who plays the role of Harry, was upgraded to series regular status for this season.
Season three of Mike & Molly was broadcast in the United States on Mondays at 9:30 P. M. following 2 Broke Girls. Episode recaps at CBS.com List of Mike & Molly season 3 episodes at Internet Movie Database