Réunion is an overseas department and region of the French Republic and an island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and 175 km southwest of Mauritius. As of January 2020, it had a population of 859,959; the island has been inhabited since the 16th century, when people from France and Madagascar settled there. Slavery was abolished on 20 December 1848, when the French Second Republic abolished slavery in the French colonies; however on indentured workers were brought to Réunion from South India, among other places. The island became an overseas department of France in 1946; as in France, the official language is French. In addition, the majority of the region's population speaks Réunion Creole. Administratively, Réunion is one of the overseas departments of France. Like the other four overseas departments, it is one of the 18 regions of France, with the modified status of overseas region, an integral part of the republic with the same status as Metropolitan France. Réunion is an outermost region of the European Union and, as an overseas department of France, part of the eurozone.
Not much is known of Réunion's history prior to the arrival of the Portuguese in the early 16th century. Arab traders were familiar with it by the name Dina Morgabin, "Western Island"; the island is featured on a map from 1153 AD by Al Sharif el-Edrisi. The island might have been visited by Swahili or Austronesian sailors on their journey to the west from the Malay Archipelago to Madagascar; the first European discovery of the area was made around 1507 by Portuguese explorer Diogo Fernandes Pereira, but the specifics are unclear. The uninhabited island might have been first sighted by the expedition led by Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, who gave his name to the island group around Réunion, the Mascarenes. Réunion itself was dubbed Santa Apolónia after a favourite saint, which suggests that the date of the Portuguese discovery could have been 9 February, her saint day. Diogo Lopes de Sequeira is said to have landed on the islands of Réunion and Rodrigues in 1509. By the early 1600s, nominal Portuguese rule had left Santa Apolónia untouched.
The island was occupied by France and administered from Port Louis, Mauritius. Although the first French claims date from 1638, when François Cauche and Salomon Goubert visited in June 1638, the island was claimed by Jacques Pronis of France in 1642, when he deported a dozen French mutineers to the island from Madagascar; the convicts were returned to France several years and in 1649, the island was named Île Bourbon after the French royal House of Bourbon. Colonisation started in 1665. "Île de la Réunion" was the name given to the island in 1793 by a decree of the Convention Nationale with the fall of the House of Bourbon in France, the name commemorates the union of revolutionaries from Marseille with the National Guard in Paris, which took place on 10 August 1792. In 1801, the island was renamed "Île Bonaparte", after First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte. During the Napoleonic Wars, the island was invaded by a Royal Navy squadron led by Commodore Josias Rowley in 1810, who used the old name of "Bourbon".
When it was restored to France by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the island retained the name of "Bourbon" until the fall of the restored Bourbons during the French Revolution of 1848, when the island was once again given the name "Île de la Réunion". From the 17th to 19th centuries, French colonisation, supplemented by importing Africans and Indians as workers, contributed to ethnic diversity in the population. From 1690, most of the non-Europeans were enslaved; the colony abolished slavery on 20 December 1848. Afterwards, many of the foreign workers came as indentured workers; the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 reduced the importance of the island as a stopover on the East Indies trade route. During the Second World War, Réunion was under the authority of the Vichy regime until 30 November 1942, when Free French forces took over the island with the destroyer Léopard. Réunion became a département d'outre-mer of France on 19 March 1946. INSEE assigned to Réunion the department code 974, the region code 04 when regional councils were created in 1982 in France, including in existing overseas departments which became overseas regions.
Over about two decades in the late 20th century, 1,630 children from Réunion were relocated to rural areas of metropolitan France to Creuse, ostensibly for education and work opportunities. That program was led by influential Gaullist politician Michel Debré, an MP for Réunion at the time. Many of these children were disadvantaged by the families with whom they were placed. Known as the Children of Creuse and their fate came to light in 2002 when one of them, Jean-Jacques Martial, filed suit against the French state for kidnapping and deportation of a minor. Other similar lawsuits were filed over the following years, but all were dismissed by French courts and by the European Court of Human Rights in 2011. In 2005 and 2006, Réunion was hit by a crippling epidemic of chikungunya, a disease spread by mosquitoes. According to the BBC News, 255,000 people on Réunion had contracted the disease as of 26 April 2006; the neighbouring islands of Mauritius and Madagascar suffered epidemics of this disease during the same year.
A few cases appeared in mainland France, carried by people travelling by airline. The French government of Dominique de Villepin sent an emergency aid package worth €36 million and deployed about 500 troops in an ef
Kalasha Dur Museum known as Bamborate Museum located in Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The Kalasha Dur Museum construction work started in 2001 and was completed in 2005. There are about 1300 objects exhibited which are of Ethnological interest from the Kalasha Tradition and from the traditions of the wider Hindu Kush area. Bumburet Valley Museum known as the Kalasha dur. Kalasha Dur is a place. Most of these objects were collected by the members of the N. G. O. called the "Greek Volunteers" based in Greece. They had been working in the Kalasha dur valleys since 1995; the building is composed of two floors. The members of the "Greek Volunteers" were responsible for much of the collection exhibited in the museum. Volunteers would visit the Kalasha Valleys with a view to buying traditional objects or to exchange them with modern ones. A lot of worry and anxiety were caused to the members of the "Greek Volunteers" when they noticed that the New Kalasha Generation would never see the traditional objects of their ancestors.
This observation started the buying of objects and other typical items so that they will not go out of the valleys. Their first aim was to exhibit all these objects in an Ethnological Museum, so future generations will able to see and learn about the life of their ancestors. On, when the Kalasha Dur Museum was built the number of the collected objects started to increase; the many offerings by the Kalasha people and inhabitants of the Kalasha valleys to their Museum, has increased the number of items above those purchased. The Museum purchased traditional utensils and other objects which had left the settlements of the Hindu Kush, from the antique shops of Peshawar and Chitral to enrich their collection. Chitral Museum List of museums in Pakistan www.kparchaeology.com
Adeo Ressi is an American entrepreneur and investor, the founder and CEO of TheFunded and The Founder Institute. He has been a fixture in the Silicon Valley since creating TheFunded in 2007, his previous business ventures include methodfive, Game Trust, Total New York, Expansive Ventures. He has sat on the board of the X Prize Foundation. Born Adeodato Gregory Ressi di Cervia, Ressi is Italian-American, was raised in New York City's Upper West Side; as a child, he asked his parents to send him to Arcosanti, an experimental town in Arizona, rather than traditional summer camp. He spent four summers in Arcosanti as its youngest working resident, he was tasked with performing menial jobs like cleaning out sewage pipes. His experiences at Arcosanti piqued his interest in environmental issues and influenced his career path to some degree. Ressi attended college at the University of Pennsylvania where he spent time as a housemate of PayPal co-founder, Elon Musk. Ressi and Musk opened an unofficial "nightclub" at their house, boasting as many as 500 patrons on a single night.
As an undergraduate, he founded the Social Revolutionary Club and started an environment-themed campus newspaper called, Green Times. He was an environmental studies major, he spent four years in college but did not receive his degree, because he wanted to use copies of Green Times as his senior thesis instead of writing a traditional paper. After ending his collegiate career, Ressi co-founded Total New York, a localized news website, in 1994. In 1997, America Online purchased Total New York for an undisclosed amount of money and redubbed it AOL Digital City, he sold it to Xceed in 2000 for $88 million. Ressi used the money from his previous two ventures to found Game Trust, a developer of online casual game infrastructure, in 2002. Game Trust had a successful first round of funding in 2003, securing investments from Silicon Valley Venture Partners and Intel Capital; the second round of funding was due to be provided by Softbank Capital in 2005. On the day of the deal, representatives from Softbank informed Ressi that they were pulling out.
The investment would have been worth $10 million. Because Ressi was contractually obligated to not seek other investors while negotiating with Softbank, Game Trust was left with little remaining capital. Ressi was forced to take out a bridge loan from existing investors to keep Game Trust afloat. So, by the fall of 2005, Game Trust had secured $9 million in funding, including $3 million from TWJ Capital. After a failed development project at Game Trust in 2006, Elon Musk was voted off the board of directors and replaced with the son of TWJ Capital founder, Thomas Jones. Jones would try unsuccessfully to take control of Game Trust away from Ressi. Ressi sold Game Trust to RealNetworks in 2007, but his experience with venture capitalists led him to start TheFunded in 2007; the website is designed to allow entrepreneurs to write anonymous reviews about venture capital groups and their processes. The website was met with derision from venture capital groups, but proved to be popular among entrepreneurs.
Ressi intended to keep the site anonymous. The site had 1,000 anonymous entrepreneur members by March 2007. In order to remain anonymous himself, Ressi adopted the pseudonym of "Ted." In November 2007, Ressi decided to reveal his identity in a piece in Wired. By January 2008, TheFunded had 3,600 members. In 2009, Ressi embarked on another venture called The Founder Institute, a startup incubator and entrepreneur training program headquartered in Palo Alto, California; the organization was co-founded with longtime colleague Jonathan Greechan. The goal of the institute is to combat startup failure and "globalize Silicon Valley." As of 2014, the institute had expanded to over 40 nations worldwide. Ressi wanted to help entrepreneurs create better businesses, he wanted to understand the ingredients for a successful entrepreneur. In 2011, in collaboration with Orrick Law Firm and the Founder Institute released the Founder Advisor Standard Template, a simple legal framework entrepreneurs can use to create relationships with business advisors.
In 2012, in collaboration with Wilson Sonsini Goodrich Rosai and the Founder Institute released "Convertible Equity", a financing vehicle that provides all of the flexibility of convertible debt without hindering a company with loans. In addition, he was interviewed by The New York Times as part of a cover story of the Sunday Business Section of the newspaper. In 2014, Ressi co-founded Expansive Ventures, a venture capital investment firm with Jon Soberg, a venture capitalist.. In 2015, Ressi was featured on the cover of Entrepreneur Magazine, began writing as a Guest Contributor to Forbes Magazine. In 2017, a dispute between the co-founders of Expansive Ventures was settled, Ressi left the venture capital firm. TheFunded The Founder Institute
Distribution network operators are companies licensed to distribute electricity in Great Britain by the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets. There are fourteen licensed geographically defined areas, based on the former area electricity board boundaries, where the distribution network operator distributes electricity from the transmission grid to homes and businesses. Under the Utilities Act 2000 they are prevented from supplying electricity. Distribution network operators are responsible for allocating the core Meter Point Administration Number used to identify individual supply points in their respective areas, as well as operating and administering a Meter Point Administration System that manages the details relating to each supply point; these systems populate ECOES, the central online database of electricity supply points. Their trade association is the Energy Networks Association. In 1990, the area boards were replaced by regional electricity companies, which were privatised; the distribution network operators are the successors to the distribution arms of the regional electricity companies.
The distribution network operators have a trade association called the Energy Networks Association At September 2013, six company groups hold the fourteen distribution licences: In addition to the distribution network operators noted above who are licensed for a specific geographic area there are independent distribution network operators. IDNOs own and operate electricity distribution networks which will predominantly be network extensions connected to the existing distribution network, e.g. to serve new housing developments. A further, smaller level of distribution is the Building Network Operator a company employed by the building owner, in a large building with many meters, such as a block of private flats. In this case the DNO may act as BNO and its responsibility may include the sub-mains to the individual flats, or DNO responsibility may end at the first incomer, in which case the independent BNO is responsible for the secure distribution cabling'laterals' between that point and the individual fuses and meters.
This arrangement is a new development such cabling would have been maintained and sealed by electricity boards that preceded the DNOs, different DNOs supplying buildings of different sizes and conditions, may choose to adopt the wiring in the building or to insist that an independent BNO is appointed. Unlike a DNO or an IDNO, BNOs are exempted from any registration requirement by schedules 2 and 3 of The Electricity Order 2001 and this allows those responsible for the building network to employ any suitable electrical contractor on an ad-hoc basis. Local distribution company Meter Point Administration Number Northern Ireland Electricity Energy Networks Association, the trade association for distribution network operators Electricity Central Online Enquiry Service
Bend radius, measured to the inside curvature, is the minimum radius one can bend a pipe, sheet, cable or hose without kinking it, damaging it, or shortening its life. The smaller the bend radius, the greater is the material flexibility; the diagram to the right illustrates a cable with a seven-centimeter bend radius. The minimum bend radius is the radius below; the minimum bend radius is of particular importance in the handling of fiber-optic cables, which are used in telecommunications. The minimum bending radius will vary with different cable designs; the manufacturer should specify the minimum radius to which the cable may safely be bent during installation, for the long term. The former is somewhat larger than the latter; the minimum bend radius is in general a function of tensile stresses, e.g. during installation, while being bent around a sheave while the fiber or cable is under tension. If no minimum bend radius is specified, one is safe in assuming a minimum long-term low-stress radius not less than 15 times the cable diameter, or 2 inches.
Beside mechanical destruction, another reason why one should avoid excessive bending of fiber-optic cables is to minimize microbending and macrobending losses. Microbending causes light attenuation induced by deformation of the fiber while macrobending causes the leakage of light through the fiber cladding and this is more to happen where the fiber is excessively bent. Strain gauges have a minimum bending radius; this radius is the radius below. This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C"
Hoërskool Wonderboom is a public Afrikaans medium co-educational high school situated in the suburb of Wonderboom in Pretoria in the Gauteng province of South Africa, on the southern slopes of the Magaliesberg, The learners are known as the Wonnies In 1925 a commission headed by J. A. Friis started an action to establish a high school in the Moot; the former Department of Education was not inclined to an Afrikaans high school building. In 1928 the MEC for Education, Mr. Michael Brink, made a promise for a new Afrikaans high school. Up until 1943, the matter was still on ice. A new Afrikaans high school was not on the agenda of the Department of Education. Mr. Michael Brink again decided to undertake the matter further. On June 14, 1944, a site was recommended and approved on February 13, 1946; this area was the now famous, southern slope of the Magaliesberg east of Voortrekker Road. In November 1946 the first sod was dug by Mr. Michael Brink. Mr. J Dey was the architect, Mr.. J D Verhoewe the contractor and Mr. C.
Morgan, chairman of the action committee. After many years, the first Afrikaans High School was established in the Moot, under the name Michael Brink Hoër. A year on June 10, 1950, the Administrator of the Transvaal announced that: the school will from now on be known as Die Hoërskool Wonderboom, it was the first step in the direction of the rich traditions, beautiful grounds and outstanding features of Hoërskool Wonderboom, as it is known today. "Grow and Serve" is the motto of the school upheld throughout the past 58 years. This motto and badge were introduced at the end of 1950; the school song was the next milestone. Mr. J. A. van der Walt, a teacher was the author of the lyrics and the famous Stephan Eyssen wrote the music. The school song was inaugurated at the matric farewell in 1953; the school's number of pupils had increased and in 1955 new building additions were necessary. In 1964 construction started on the larger hall, and completed on 16 January 1967. This included some alterations to existing buildings including the media center.
In 1974 the new pavilion was built, with its roof was a big improvement. In addition, the sports fields underwent a metamorphosis. In January 1949 Mr. Van Vuuren, a retired former headmaster took the reins of the new school in his capable hands. In 1950 dr. J. C. Otto was appointed the first permanent headmaster, he was the Mayor of Pretoria. He was succeeded in 1962 by Mr. S. H. Friis, son of Mr. J. A. Friis under whose leadership the action began for a new Afrikaans high school. After 14 years, in 1976, Mr. C. Schutte was appointed his successor, only 10 years in 1986, D. J. Ferreira took up the reins. Dr. S. T. van Wyk was appointed on 1 November 1994, his career as headmaster of Hoërskool Wonderboom lasted for a fruitful 17 years. Dr S. T. van Wyk retired in 2016, with Mr. Marius Lezar taking his place and starting his first year as headmaster in 2017