Jæren is a traditional district in Rogaland county, Norway. The others districts in Rogaland are Dalane and Haugalandet. Jæren is one of the 15 districts. At about 700 square kilometres, Jæren is the largest flat lowland area in Norway, stretching from the municipality of Randaberg in the north to Hå in the south, it includes the mainland area at its base. The coast is flat compared to the rest of the mountainous Norwegian coast, it has sandy beaches along most of the coastline; the largest urban area in Jæren is the adjoining cities of Stavanger/Sandnes. The petroleum industry around Stavanger is an important part of economy of Jæren, with the headquarters of the country's largest oil company Statoil being located in Jæren, as well regional offices of international companies like ExxonMobil, Shell, ConocoPhillips, BP, Halliburton, Baker Hughes, several others. Jæren is one of the most important agricultural areas of Norway, with a long crop period and a varied and well-developed livestock production.
Industry here is strongly connected to the farming industry, with one of the largest producers of agricultural machines in the world, Kverneland Group, located in Time and Klepp. The Old Norse form of the name was Jaðarr; the name is identical with the word jaðarr which means "edge" or "brim". Several farms in Norway have the same name; the name refers to the 60 km long coastline stretching from Brusand in the south to Tungenes in the north. Jæren is the largest flat lowland area in Norway, it comprises the coastline from the Stavanger Peninsula near the mouth of the great Boknafjorden all the way, south nearly to Egersund. Unlike most of the Norwegian coastline, there are few offshore islands and few fjords cutting into the shoreline; the geographical region of Jæren has eight municipalities: The geographical region of Jæren constitutes the above-mentioned municipalities, but the description of Jæren varies. Speaking, the Jæren District Court constitutes only the municipalities of Sandnes, Forsand, Time, Hå.
Some areas not traditionally in the area included in the district, other areas are part of the Stavanger District Court. Religiously speaking, the Jæren deanery constitutes the churches in the municipalities of Hå, Klepp and Gjesdal. Geographically speaking, the municipality of Gjesdal lies in the transition between Jæren and Dalane districts, but it is traditionally considered to be part of Jæren. Confusion over the extent of the district is added by the fact that in everyday language, the name Jæren for most people does not include the towns of Stavanger and Sandnes but only the more rural area to the south. Author and poet Arne Garborg grew up in the traditional lowland landscape of Jæren, in several of his works he describes the landscape and its inhabitants around the turn of the 19th century. Norwegian County Road 44, national tourist road for the region. Nordsjøvegen 2003 Reisemål Jæren Store Norske Leksikon
Caithness is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland. Caithness has a land boundary with the historic county of Sutherland and is otherwise bounded by sea; the land boundary follows a watershed and is crossed by two roads, the A9 and the A836, one railway, the Far North Line. Across the Pentland Firth ferries link Caithness with Orkney, Caithness has an airport at Wick; the Pentland Firth island of Stroma is within Caithness. The name was used for the earldom of Caithness and the Caithness constituency of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Boundaries are not identical in all contexts, but the Caithness area is now within the Highland council area. Caithness is one of the Watsonian vice-counties, subdivisions of Britain and Ireland which are used for the purposes of biological recording and other scientific data-gathering; the vice-counties were introduced by Hewett Cottrell Watson who first used them in the third volume of his Cybele Britannica published in 1852.
He refined the system somewhat in volumes, but the vice-counties remain unchanged by subsequent local government reorganisations, allowing historical and modern data to be more compared. They provide a stable basis for recording using similarly-sized units, although grid-based reporting has grown in popularity, they remain a standard in the vast majority of ecological surveys, allowing data collected over long periods of time to be compared easily; the Caith element of Caithness comes from the name of a Pictish tribe known as the Cat or Catt people, or Catti. The -ness element comes from Old Norse and means "headland"; the Norse called the area Katanes, over time this became Caithness. The Gaelic name for Caithness, means "among the strangers"; the Catti are represented in the Gaelic name for eastern Sutherland and the old Gaelic name for Shetland, Innse Chat. Caithness extends about 30 miles north-south and about 30 miles east-west, with an area of about 712 square miles; the topography is flat, in contrast to the majority of the remainder of the North of Scotland.
Until the latter part of the 20th century when large areas were planted in conifers, this level profile was rendered still more striking by the total absence of forest. The underlying geology of most of Caithness is old red sandstone to an estimated depth of over 4,000 metres; this consists of the cemented sediments of Lake Orcadie, believed to have stretched from Shetland to Grampian during the Devonian period, about 370 million years ago. Fossilised fish and plant remains are found between the layers of sediment. Older metamorphic rock is apparent in the Scaraben and Ord area, in the high southwest area of the county. Caithness' highest point is in this area; because of the ease with which the sandstone splits to form large flat slabs it is an useful building material, has been used as such since Neolithic times. Caithness is a land of open, rolling farmland and scattered settlements; the area is fringed to the north and east by dramatic coastal scenery and is home to large, internationally important colonies of seabirds.
The surrounding waters of the Pentland Firth and the North Sea hold a great diversity of marine life. Away from the coast, the landscape is dominated by open moorland and blanket bog known as the Flow Country, the largest expanse of blanket bog in Europe, extending into Sutherland; this is divided up along the straths by more fertile croft land. The Caithness landscape is rich with the remains of pre-historic occupation; these include the Grey Cairns of Camster, the Stone Lud, the Hill O Many Stanes, a complex of sites around Loch Yarrows and over 100 brochs. A prehistoric souterrain structure at Caithness has been likened to discoveries at Midgarth and on Shapinsay. Numerous coastal castles are Norwegian in their foundations; when the Norsemen arrived in the 10th century, the county was inhabited by the Picts, but with its culture subject to some Goidelic influence from the Celtic Church. The name Pentland Firth can be read as meaning Pictland Fjord. Numerous bands of Norse settlers landed in the county, established themselves around the coast.
On the Latheron side, they extended their settlements as far as Berriedale. Many of the names of places are Norse in origin. In addition, some Caithness surnames, such as Gunn, are Norse in origin. For a long time sovereignty over Caithness was disputed between Scotland and the Norwegian Earldom of Orkney. Circa 1196, Earl Harald Maddadsson agreed to pay a monetary tribute for Caithness to William I. Norway has recognised Caithness as Scottish since the Treaty of Perth in 1266; the understanding of Caithness prehistory is well represented in the county, by groups including Yarrows Heritage Trust, Caithness Horizons and Caithness Broch Project. Caithness formed part of the shire or sheriffdom of Inverness, but gained independence: in 1455 the Earl of Caithness gained a grant of the justiciary and sheriffdom of the area from the Sheriff of Inverness. In 1503 an act of the Parliament of Scotland confirmed the separate jurisdiction, with Dornoch and Wick named as burghs in which the sheriff of Caithness was to hold courts.
The area of the sheriffdom was declared to be identical to that of the Diocese of Caithness. The Sheriff of Inverness still retained power over important legal cases, until 1641. In that year, parliament declared Wick the head burgh of the shire of Caithness and the Earl of Caithne
Kirkwall is the main town of the Northern Isles and the capital of Orkney, an archipelago to the north of mainland Scotland. The name Kirkwall comes from the Norse name Kirkjuvagr, which changed to Kirkvoe and Kirkwall; the town is first mentioned in Orkneyinga saga in the year 1046 when it is recorded as the residence of Rögnvald Brusason the Earl of Orkney, killed by his uncle Thorfinn the Mighty. In 1486, King James III of Scotland elevated Kirkwall to the status of a royal burgh. On the west edge of the town, surrounded by Hatston Industrial Estate, is a prehistoric ancient monument, Grain Earth House, a short low stone-walled passage deep underground leading to a small pillared chamber; this is the form of earth souterrain characteristic of the Northern Isles. It was connected to a surface dwelling, which has since disappeared, the original purpose of these Iron Age structures remains unknown. Further west towards Grimbister is the similar Rennibister Earth House. Kirkwall is the administrative centre for Orkney, is the home of headquarters for Orkney Islands Council and NHS Orkney.
Kirkwall was a parliamentary burgh, combined with Dingwall, Dornoch and Wick in the Northern Burghs constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 to 1801 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918. Cromarty was added to the list in 1832; the constituency was a district of burghs known as the Tain Burghs until 1832, as the Wick Burghs. It was represented by one Member of Parliament until 1918, when the constituency was abolished and the Kirkwall component was merged into the county constituency of Orkney and Shetland. Modern roadsigns still indicate "The City and Royal Burgh of Kirkwall", although Kirkwall is not an official Scottish city. In 1784–85 the well-known outspoken Liberal Charles James Fox represented Tain in the British Parliament, while his political opponents fiercely contested his having been elected in his usual constituency of Westminster. Kirkwall is 528 miles north of London, it is situated on the northern coast of Mainland Orkney with its harbours in the bay of Kirkwall to the north, with Scapa Flow 1.4 miles to the south.
Its parish, St Ola forms the isthmus between Holm. It is the most populous island settlement in Scotland; as with the rest of Scotland, Kirkwall experiences a maritime climate with cool summers, mild winters strong winds, plentiful rainfall overcast skies and sparse amounts of sunshine. The population was 9,293 in 2011; the population was predicted to be about 10,000 in 2018. Kirkwall harbour with nearly 1 kilometre of quay edge is the second commercial hub for Orkney after Hatston. There is a Marina, support for fishing and dive vessels. After extensive work on harbour facilities, the town has become a popular cruise ship stop, with several ships arriving each week in the season; this has added to the prosperity of the town and allowed a thriving sector of independently owned shops. Each year now, 140 cruise ships visit Stromness. Weaving in Orkney took place from Viking times, with John Sclater & Co involved in Tweed production in Kirkwall in the 1970s, they used the brand names Jarltex. The Orkney Library and Archive is in Kirkwall.
Kirkwall has the most northerly of the world's Carnegie libraries, opened by Andrew Carnegie and his wife in 1909. The building survives; the town has two museums, the larger being Tankerness House Museum, which contains items of local historical interest within one of Scotland's best-preserved 16th-century town-houses. It is a Category A listed building Scotland; the prehistoric and Viking collections are of international importance. The other museum is the Orkney Wireless Museum, dealing with the history of radio and recorded sound. There is a Royal National Lifeboat Institution lifeboat station. One of the major annual events in the town is the Ba Game, held each Christmas Day and New Year's Day between the Uppies and the Doonies, each team representing one half of the town; the composer Peter Maxwell Davies was among a group which founded the annual St Magnus International Festival, centred on Kirkwall each midsummer. Orkney Theatre, a 384 seat venue, was opened in 2014 next to Kirkwall Grammar School in The Meadows.
It has an orchestra pit. Kirkwall Harbour can be seen in The Highlands and Islands – A Royal Tour, a 1973 documentary about Prince Charles' visit to the Highlands and Islands, directed by Oscar Marzaroli. Scottish film-maker Margaret Tait was born in Kirkwall, many of her films are set there. Kirkwall has many 17th -- other structures in the local vernacular style. Kirkwall once had a medieval castle, destroyed in the 17th century. Kirkwall is a port with ferry services to Aberdeen and Lerwick, as well as the principal north islands in the group. Hatson pier, the main ferry terminal, is some 2 miles outside the town centre; the Aberdeen, Clyde & Tay Shipping Company operated steamer services to Kirkwall from 1836, with successor companies operating until 2002. Kirkwall Airport, the main airport for Orkney, is 2.5 miles southeast of the town. There are no passenger rail services in Kirkwall, the nearby railways having been industrial or military. Kirkwall Grammar School has been establishe
George Mackay Brown
George Mackay Brown was a Scottish poet and dramatist, whose work has a distinctly Orcadian character. He is considered one of the great Scottish poets of the 20th century. George Mackay Brown was born on the youngest of six children, his parents were John Brown, a tailor and postman, Mhairi Mackay, brought up in Braal, a hamlet near Strathy, Sutherland as a native Gaelic speaker. Except for periods as a mature student on mainland Scotland, Brown lived all his life in the town of Stromness in the Orkney islands. Due to illness his father received no pension; the family had a history of depression and it is that Mackay's uncle, Jimmy Brown, committed suicide: his body was found in Stromness harbour in 1935. George Mackay Brown's youth was marked by poverty and it was from this time that he was affected by tuberculosis; this illness kept him from entering the army at the start of World War II and it afflicted him to such an extent that he could not live a normal working life. He did start work in 1944 with The Orkney Herald, writing on Stromness news, soon became a prolific journalist.
He was encouraged in his writing of poetry by Francis Scarfe, billeted in the Browns' house for over a year from April 1944. After this he was helped in his development as a writer by Ernest Marwick, whose criticism he valued, Robert Rendall. In 1947, Stromness voted the town having been ` dry' since the 1920s; when the first bar opened in 1948 Mackay Brown first tasted alcohol, which he found to be "a revelation. I remember thinking to myself'If I could have two pints of beer every afternoon, life would be a great happiness'". Subsequently, alcohol played a considerable part in his life, although he says, "I never became an alcoholic because my guts staled", he was a mature student at Newbattle Abbey College in the 1951–1952 session, where the poet Edwin Muir, who would have a great influence on his life as a writer, was warden. His return for the following session was interrupted by the recurrence of tuberculosis. Having had poems published in several periodicals, his first volume of poems, The Storm, was published by the Orkney Press in 1954.
Muir wrote in the foreword: "Grace is what I find in these poems". Only three hundred copies were printed, the imprint sold out within a fortnight, it was acclaimed in the local press. Brown studied English literature at the University of Edinburgh. After publication of poems in a literary magazine, with the help of Muir, Brown had a second volume Loaves and Fishes published by the Hogarth Press in 1959, it was warmly received. During this period he met, drank in Rose Street Edinburgh with, many of the Scottish poets of his time: Sydney Goodsir Smith, Norman MacCaig, Hugh MacDiarmid, Tom Scott and others. Here he met Stella Cartwright, described as "The Muse in Rose Street". Brown was engaged to her, began a correspondence that would continue till her death in 1985. In late 1960 Brown commenced teacher training at Moray House College of Education, but was unable to remain in Edinburgh because of ill-health. On his recovery in 1961 he found that he was not suited to this type of work and returned late in the year to his mother's house in Stromness, unemployed.
It was at this time that he was received into the Roman Catholic Church, being baptised on 23 December and taking communion on the following day. This followed about twenty-five years of pondering his religious beliefs; this conversion was not marked by any change including his drinking. After a period of unemployment, the rejection of a volume of poetry by the Hogarth Press, Brown did post-graduate study on Gerard Manley Hopkins, although academic study was not to his taste; this provided some occupation and income until 1964, when a volume of poetry, The Year of the Whale, was accepted. Brown now found himself able to support himself financially for the first time, as he received new commissions, he received a bursary from the Scottish Arts Council in December 1965 and he was working on the volume of short stories, A Calendar of Love, issued, to critical acclaim, in February 1967. He was still troubled by his excessive drinking, that of Stella Cartwright; that year came the death of his mother, who had supported him, while disapproving of his drinking.
Meanwhile, he had been working on An Orkney Tapestry, which includes essays about Orkney and some more imaginative pieces. 1968 saw his only visit to Ireland, on a bursary from the Society of Authors. He met Seamus Heaney there, although his nervous condition reduced his ability to enjoy his time there. In 1969 A Time to Keep, a collection of short stories, was published, it received a positive welcome; the poet Charles Causley said, "I don't know anyone writing in this particular genre today who comes within a thousand miles of him". This was the year in which he finished working on a six-part cycle of poems about Rackwick, published in 1971 as'Fishermen with Ploughs'. Meanwhile, An Orkney Tapestry was proving to be a commercial success. By the late 1960s Brown's poetry was renowned internationally, so that, for example, the American poet Robert Lowell came to Orkney for the sole purpose of meeting him. Brown met the musician Peter Maxwell Davies in Rackwick during the summer of 1970. Subsequently, Davies – who came to live in Rackwick – based a number of his works on the poetry and prose of George Mackay Brown.
Brown was now working on his first novel Greenvoe, the story of an imaginary Orkney community menac
Fjære is a former municipality in Aust-Agder county, Norway. The 60.4-square-kilometre municipality existed from 1846 until 1971. It was located to the north of the town of Grimstad; the name is still used to refer to that area, now a part of Grimstad municipality. The administrative centre of Fjære was the village of Vik, just east of the historic Fjære Church. Other villages in Fjære included Fevik, Dømmesmoen, Kroken, Rønnes; the municipality of Fjære was created in 1846. Fjære had a population of 2,806; the first municipal council met at a farmhouse at Bringsvær, north of Vik. In 1886, the council began meeting in the village of Vik. On 1 January 1878, a part of Fjære located adjacent to the town of Grimstad was transferred from Fjære to Grimstad. Again, on 1 January 1960, another part of Fjære located next to Grimstad was transferred from Fjære to the town of Grimstad. On 1 January 1971, the neighboring municipalities of Fjære and Landvik were merged with the town of Grimstad to form a much larger municipality called Grimstad.
The municipality of Fjære was named after the old Fjære farm, where the first Fjære Church was built. The name is identical with the word fjǫrðr which means "fjord". Fjære Church dates back to the middle of the 12th century. Despite being 850 years old, it is an active parish church, it was not completed in one generation, but was created over the centuries. The church grew together with the village and the people, became the centre of Fjære's history from the Middle Ages until the present day; the oldest and most valuable individual cultural monuments in and around Fjære Church are the finely sculpted head of a man in stone over the south door, dating from before 1150. The church's unique and beautiful baptismal font, in the High Gothic style from the Middle Ages. Olavskilden, a fountain associated with St. Olav the Holy; the Terje Vigen stone monument in memory of the brave men of the 1807–1814 war. The stone monument was erected in 1906 by the friends of Terje Vigen; the altarpiece, pulpit with panelled ceiling and pews with the names of farms painted on them are considered valuable.
They were made in the period 1500–1700. The well preserved church is located 3 kilometres north of Grimstad. Aust-Agder travel guide from Wikivoyage Fjære school
Lista is a former municipality in Vest-Agder county in Norway. The 193-square-kilometre municipality existed from 1838 until its dissolution in 1965; the administrative centre was the village of Vanse. Lista municipality was known as the municipality of Vanse until 1911; the former municipality's land is now located in the present-day municipality of Farsund. Farsund Airport, Lista is located here, but it has not had any scheduled commercial flights since 1999. Lista is located on a large peninsula along the Listafjorden and is home to the villages of Vestbygd and Vanse and the town of Farsund; the municipality was named "Vanse" from its creation in 1838 until 1911 when the name was changed to Lista. The original name of the municipality was named after the old Vanse farm, where the first Vanse Church was built; this name was changed in 1911 to bring back the historic name of Lista for this region of Vest-Agder county. Lista is the name of the peninsula; the name Lista is derived from the Norwegian word lista which means "edge" or "rim".
From 1662 until 1919, Vest-Agder county was named "Lister og Mandals amt", signifying the significance of the area. The municipality of Vanse was established on 1 January 1838. According to the 1835 census, the municipality had a population of 4,213. On 1 January 1903, an area with 99 inhabitants was transferred from Vanse to the neighboring town of Farsund. Again in 1948, another area with 64 inhabitants was transferred from Lista to the town of Farsund. During the 1960s, there were many major municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1965, the municipalities of Lista and Spind were merged with the town of Farsund to create a new, larger municipality of Farsund. Prior to the merger, Lista had a population of 4,544. Marquis of Lista Vest-Agder travel guide from Wikivoyage Weather information for Lista