Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Michael Thackwell is a former racing driver, who participated in a number of prominent racing categories, including Formula One. The fourth youngest driver to qualify for a Grand Prix, he participated in five of them, making his first start on 28 September 1980 at the Canadian Grand Prix, he scored no championship points. He had attempted unsuccessfully to qualify for the Dutch Grand Prix, held on 31 August 1980. Thackwell has been described as a "teenage sensation", a "maverick" and as "something of a cult hero". Outside Formula One, he competed in Formula Three, Formula Two, Formula 3000 and sports cars, amongst other categories. In 1984, Thackwell won the European Formula Two Championship, he was runner up in that championship in 1983, in its successor, the International Formula 3000 Championship, in 1985. In each case, he was driving a works Ralt. In 1986, he won the Pau Grand Prix, again in a works Ralt. In the year, he combined with Henri Pescarolo to win the 1000km Nürburgring sports car race, in a Sauber C8.
Thackwell was born into a motor racing family. For many years, his father, was a successful international speedway rider and racing driver; when Mike was six years old, his family emigrated from New Zealand to Perth, Western Australia, where he spent his formative years, began racing. Michael Thackwell has 4 siblings Joan Caccioppoli – Kerry John Thackwell – Lisa Brabham – Heidi Thackwell. Lisa is married to David Brabham. Between 1972 and 1976, Thackwell attended Christ Church Grammar School, in Claremont, a suburb of Perth. By the time of his Formula One debut in 1980, he spoke with an Australian accent, regarded himself as Australian, but he competed, liked to be known, as a New Zealander. For three years from the age of nine, Thackwell competed in motocross events on motorcycles supplied by his father, an importer of high performance racing & sports cars, he switched to karts, winning the Western Australian championship at the age of 14. After winning the Hong Kong Kart Grand Prix in 1975 and 1976, he moved to England.
In early 1978, Thackwell began his European career, in the Dunlop Star of Tomorrow Formula Ford championship, held in the United Kingdom. He campaigned with a Van Diemen-Scholar RF78, entered by the Rushen Green team. In a fought, 11-round series, he won five rounds, made the podium on two other occasions, but finished only third in the championship, with 72 points, behind Canadian entrant Robert Zurrer and British driver Terry Gray; the following year, 1979, Thackwell moved up to the Vandervell British Formula 3 Championship, at the wheel of a March-Toyota 793, entered by the March works team. In a 19-race series, he managed five more wins and four other podium finishes, along with a pole position and a fastest lap. Once again, he finished the championship in third place, this time with 71 points, behind Chico Serra and Andrea de Cesaris, but ahead of Stefan Johansson, Nigel Mansell, Alain Prost and Thierry Boutsen, all four of whom were to have lengthy, in most cases race-winning, Formula One careers.
In 1979, March entered Thackwell and the March 793 in two races of the FIA European Formula Three Championship. He achieved a fastest lap, at Monza in the Gran Premio della Lotteria. In a championship won by Alain Prost, he finished equal eighth overall, ahead of Boutsen, Arie Luyendyk and Philippe Streiff, Jo Gartner. Thackwell and the March 793 managed pole position and fastest lap in the non-championship RAC FOCA Trophy race at Donington Park, but finished only ninth. For 1980, Thackwell decided to follow de Cesaris into Formula Two. However, before that he returned to New Zealand to race a Marlboro-backed works March 792 in Aurora AFX New Zealand International Formula Pacific series, alongside de Cesaris; the cars, modified F2 cars, were under performed. His return to Europe saw him again driving a March; as early as round two at Hockenheim he was on the pace, setting fastest lap, a feat he would repeat in the following round on the 14.272 mile Nürburgring Nordschleife. However it was at Zandvoort.
In 1980, having tested for both Ensign and Tyrrell, Thackwell had been signed by Ken Tyrrell to be a test driver for the Tyrrell F1 team, alongside his F2 campaign. He was invited to the Dutch Grand Prix by Tyrrell as a spectator, both to learn about the track and the Tyrrell 010 when Arrows team boss Jackie Oliver approached him after the first unofficial practice session to ask if he'd like to drive the Arrows A3. Oliver's regular driver, Jochen Mass had been injured at the previous grand prix, but his car was at Zandvoort. Although the car was still set up for Mass, including his seat and pedal arrangement, Thackwell got permission to drive the car from Tyrrell and though he failed to qualify set a faster time than Keke Rosberg in the Fittipaldi, he made his official debut a few weeks when Tyrrell made the third car available for him at the Canadian Grand Prix. Because he took part in this event, Thackwell was listed as the youngest driver to start a Formula One race, but this claim is arguable.
On the first lap of the race, Alan Jones and Nelson Piquet collided at the first turn and were subsequently hit by a number of other cars, including Jean-Pierre Jarier and Derek Daly, both driving Tyrrells. Thackwell negotiated his way through the carnage and returned to the start/finish line undamaged by which time, the race had been red flagged; as both Jarier's and Daly's cars were too badly damag
Manfred Winkelhock was a German racing driver. He participated in 56 Formula One Grands Prix between 1980 and 1985, driving for Arrows, ATS, Brabham and RAM Racing, with a best finish of fifth at the 1982 Brazilian Grand Prix. Born in Waiblingen on 6 October 1951, Manfred Winkelhock was the older brother of Joachim Winkelhock, he began racing in Formula Two in 1978 and survived a major crash at Nürburgring Nordschleife circuit, when he flipped his March at the steep rise-and-fall Flugplatz corner. Winkelhock's first attempt at qualifying for a Formula One Grand Prix race was in Italy, when he stood in for the injured Jochen Mass at Arrows, he was able to land a drive with ATS in 1982. As BMW became the team's engine supplier in 1983, he qualified well on several occasions in 1983 and 1984, but the car was reliable, so there were few results and a lot of accidents, his son, Markus Winkelhock, is a racing driver. At the same time he was a regular sports car and touring car driver, winning the 1000km Monza with Marc Surer in 1985.
He was killed in the summer of 1985 when he crashed at turn 2 at Mosport Park of Bowmanville near Toronto, Canada, during the Budweiser 1000 km World Endurance Championship event, driving a Porsche 962C for Kremer Racing with co-driver Marc Surer. At the time of Winkelhock's death, he was a driver for the Skoal Bandit sponsored RAM Racing team in Formula One, though it had been a frustrating season with a best finish of 12th in the 1985 French Grand Prix at Paul Ricard, his death saw him replaced by Northern Irish driver Kenny Acheson, though lack of money saw the team fold before the end of the 1985 season
Jonathan Charles Palmer is a British businessman and former Formula One racing driver. Before opting for a career in motor racing, Palmer trained as a doctor at London’s Guys Hospital, he worked as a junior doctor at Cuckfield and Brighton hospitals. He is the majority shareholder and Chief Executive of MotorSport Vision, a company that runs six UK motorsport circuits, the world-renowned PalmerSport corporate driving event at Bedford Autodrome and several racing championships including British Superbikes and BRDC British F3. Palmer’s success in turning around the fortunes of many of the country’s best-loved race circuits has earned him recognition from leading industry publications, winning the 2018 ‘MotorSport Hero’ prize at the Autocar Awards, as well as being inducted into the Motor Sport Magazine Hall of Fame the same year. Palmer received the'Outstanding Contribution of the Year' Award at the Professional Motorsport World Expo and was named the most important person in British motorsport by Motorsport News in November 2018.
Prior to his business life, Palmer was active in Formula One between 1983 and 1989, drove for Tyrrell, Williams, RAM, Zakspeed. He won 14 Championship points from 83 starts, he raced a Group C Porsche in sports car events between 1983 and 1990, most notably winning the 1984 1000 km of Brands Hatch with co-driver Jan Lammers and taking second place at the 1985 24 Hours of Le Mans with co-drivers James Weaver and Richard Lloyd. Palmer helped develop the McLaren F1 road car, drove one to a new speed record for production cars. Following his education at Brighton College, Palmer raced an Austin Healey Sprite and a Marcos in club events while he was a medical student at Guy’s Hospital, he went on to work as a doctor at Cuckfield and Brighton hospitals, opted for a professional driving career after he had participated in Formula Ford from 1978 to 1980. He won the British Formula 3 Championship in 1981, landed a Williams Formula One test drive in 1982; the following year he won the European Formula Two Championship, the British Racing Drivers' Club awarded him their Gold Star.
Palmer joined Williams as a test driver for the 1982 and 1983 seasons whilst racing in F2, made his Formula One debut at Brands Hatch on 25 September 1983, driving a Williams in the European Grand Prix. This drive was a ` thank you' from Patrick Head, he finished 25th out of 30 starters. Moving to the Skoal Bandit RAM March team in 1984, his six finishes yielded one 8th place, three 9th, one 10th, one 13th, he joined Zakspeed in 1985, starting in eight races and retiring from all except the 1985 Detroit Grand Prix, where he finished 11th. Sixteen starts with the same team in 1986 resulted in eight retirements and a best finish of 8th in Detroit. In 1987, Palmer talked with McLaren boss Ron Dennis about becoming the team's No. 2 driver to double World Champion Alain Prost. Dennis signed Stefan Johansson, Palmer joined Tyrrell a week before the season’s opening race in Brazil. Although outpaced by its turbocharged competitors, Tyrrell’s normally-aspirated Cosworth-powered car proved reliable, it was nimble on tighter circuits.
Palmer won championship points in three races, it was in the Australian Grand Prix that he achieved his career-best fourth-place finish. He won the Jim Clark Cup, a championship for drivers of aspirated cars, he stayed with Tyrrell for the next two seasons, during which his best results were two 5th-place finishes and three 6th. At the end of 1989 he signed as McLaren’s test driver. Between 1983 and 1990 Palmer competed in the World Sportscar Championship at the wheel of a Group C Porsche. With co-driver Jan Lammers he won the 1984 1000 km of Brands Hatch. At Le Mans, his best result from five starts was second place in 1985, with co-drivers James Weaver and Richard Lloyd. In 1991 Palmer came seventh in the British Touring Car Championship, driving a Prodrive BMW; that year he became a pit lane reporter for the BBC F1 commentary team. Following James Hunt’s death from a heart attack after the 1993 Canadian Grand Prix, Palmer joined the BBC commentary box alongside Murray Walker. At the end of 1996 the BBC lost the rights to broadcast F1, in 1997 Palmer joined the CBC for its annual commentary on the Grand Prix of Canada.
Palmer’s work with McLaren included development of the McLaren F1 road car, he drove one to a record-breaking 231 mph at the Nardo test track. PalmerSport was founded in 1991 to run corporate hospitality motorsport events; this was run from the Bruntingthorpe airfield in Leicestershire before the lease was acquired to develop the site now known as Bedford Autodrome. Palmer opened the venue in 1999 as four separate circuits with a total of six miles of track, to become the permanent home for PalmerSport; the venue is used for trackdays. Palmer launched the Formula Palmer Audi Championship in 1998 as a less costly alternative to Formula 3. Inaugural champion Justin Wilson went on to win the Formula 3000 championship. With Palmer managing his career, an innovative share issue in Wilson helped him secure a Formula One drive with Minardi. In 2004, John Britten, Sir Peter Ogden acquired the Brands Hatch, Oulton Park and Cadwell Park circuits from Octagon, under the umbrella of MotorSport Vision; the company has turned around the fortunes of each circuit, implemented a programme of improvements at each venue to develop better facilities for spectators and circuit users.
Snetterton in particular has been revitalised under MSV ownership, with the circuit undergoing a near total redesign in 2011, with several new corners allowing for three different circuit configurations, the addition of large spectator viewing areas. The company, with Palmer as Chief Executiv
Michael Bleekemolen is a former racing driver who raced for the RAM and ATS teams in Formula One. He graduated from Formula Vee and tried his hand at Formula One in 1977, where he failed to qualify at his home grand prix, he returned the following year with ATS, for four races, but qualified only once, at Watkins Glen. After Formula One he returned to Formula 3 for another three years and won two rounds of the European Championship, finishing second in the series, to Alain Prost. From there he moved to one-make Renault racing, his sons Jeroen and Sebastiaan, are racers. ‡ Not eligible for points Profile at www.grandprix.com
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M