click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

RER D

The RER D is one of five RER lines serving Paris, France. It connects Orry-la-Ville and Creil in the north to Melun, Corbeil-Essonnes and Malesherbes in the south, passing through the heart of Paris. Opened in stages from 1987 to 1996, it is the longest RER line by distance, the busiest SNCF line in France, carrying up to 615,000 passengers and operating 466 trains each working day. All of the line is located in the Île-de-France region, that is, within the jurisdiction of the Île-de-France mobilités, but the some of the branch line ends at the north and south are outside this region. Due to a high rate of incidents, social issues and poor on time performance, the line is sometimes colloquially known as the "RER poubelle". Line D links Gare du Nord with Gare de Lyon via Châtelet – Les-Halles; the northern section of Gare du Nord opened in the late 1980s. Operated Villiers-le-BelGare du NordChâtelet-Les Halles, 19 km, using the Line B Tunnel to Châtelet – Les Halles 1988: Extension north towards Goussainville.

September 1990: Extension north towards Orry-la-Ville. September 1995: Inauguration of "Interconnexion Sud-Est"; the line is extended from Châtelet to Melun and La Ferté-Alais Malesherbes in the south of Paris. 25 January 1998: New station, Stade de France – Saint-Denis, opened. Located between Gare du Nord and St-Denis. 29 January 2007: First renovated Z 20500 stock in service. 19 March 2008: Start of the "D Maintenant" programme by Guillaume Pepy, the president of SNCF. 14 December 2008: Reduced "Interconnexion Nord-Sud" service, with 8 interconnected trains per hour. Late 2009: End of the "D Maintenant" programme. 7 December 2011: Start of studies for the doubling of the Châtelet-Gare du Nord tunnel. 15 December 2013: New station, Créteil-Pompadour, opened. The "métro régional", the ancestor to the RER, was conceived of three lines, one going from east to west, a new line built from existing lines, the extension of the Ligne de Sceaux and with its interconnection with an SNCF line, along with a supplementary interconnected north-south.

The operation of renovating "les Halles" gave the occasion to build Châtelet-Les Halles with a cut-and-cover method, in order to reduce costs. The new RER D was meant to share with the RER A between Paris-Gare de Lyon and Châtelet-Les Halles. But, RATP, the company who runs the RER A, objected to such an operation as the number of passengers using the RER A was growing and required running extra trains on the RER A, it was decided that instead, each lines must have its own platforms, in which the RER A at the Gare de Lyon has its tracks at lower level of the underground station, with the future RER D on the upper level. The RER D tracks at Paris-Gare de Lyon have four tracks and being above the RER A tracks, allowed "platform to platform" transfers vertically, a Japanese invention. On 27 September 1987, the RER D was created, by extending existing suburban trains from Villiers-le-Bel to Gare du Nord, towards Châtelet-Les Halles. 19 km long, it was equipped with bi-current Z 8800 stock trains, while newer Z 20500 stock trains were still being built.

At Châtelet-Les Halles station, the RER D terminated on the three central tracks built from the conception of Châtelet-Les Halles station. In 1988, existing suburban trains terminating at Goussainville now integrate with the RER D. On the same year, the first bi-mode Z 20500 trains are in service, they were composed of 4 cars until the north-south interconnection was inaugurated in 1995, when they became 5-car trains. In September 1990, the RER D again extended north to Orry-la-Ville. At the same time, one-man operation started on the RER D. On 11 September 1995, the north-south interconnection of the RER D was put into service by building a dedicated 2.5 km long tunnel between Châtelet-Les Halles and Paris-Gare de Lyon. In 1996, the RER D was extended south from La Ferté-Alais to Malesherbes. On 15 January 1998 for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, Stade de France - Saint-Denis station opened, in order to serve the Stade de France. A high number of incidents, from a social and service point of view, have brought the term "RER poubelle" used by its users, its staff.

Assaults are frequent and unpunctuality is the highest in the Transilien network, with the number of late trains going from 9.9% to 14.1% between 1994 and 1995. On 22 November 2006, the STIF has approved a master plan for the RER D, in order to establish short and long term goals for the reliability of the RER D. On 29 January 2007, the first renovated Z 20500 train was presented, the first out of 137 trains. Renovated trains feature uniform 2 +3 seats, new lighting and new floor covering; the renovation programme costs over €100,000,000. The RER D is seen in Paris as the most unpunctual railway line in the RER network; this unpunctuality is due to the tunnel the RER B and RER D lines share between Châtelet - Les Halles station and Gare du Nord station, where a small delay of a few seconds on either lines can cause catastrophic delays and trains to be cancelled. The effects of this mean regular commuters of the RER D are used to trains being cancelled or late daily. On 20 September 2003, an unusual incident occurred near Villeneuve-Triage station.

A southbound train stopped at 18:50 on the central track near the station due to an incident. Passengers aboard were invited to step off the train by the left, as track 2M has been neutralised by

Bethany Lee

Bethany Lee is a retired Australian film and television actress. She guest starred on numerous television series during the 1970s, including recurring roles on The Long Arm, Number 96 and Skyways, but is best known for her role as Andrea Hennessy in the cult soap opera Prisoner. Bethany Lee made her television acting debut in 1970 with a recurring role on the television series The Long Arm as well as guest appearances on Division 4 and Homicide. In 1973, she played the lead female in the film adaptation of Come Out Fighting and had a brief stint on Number 96 during early 1974, her character was introduced as the "chaste and studious schoolgirl" Penny Snow who, with classmate Colin Campbell, move into one of the vacant apartments as a squatter. Her character's mother, Trixie O'Toole moved into the building and became one of the series early villains. Shortly before leaving the series, Penny Snow disappeared, her character reappeared in the series when Trixie O'Toole, in an attempt to deceive George Snow, got Edie MacDonald to impersonate Penny by dressing her in a school uniform.

Lee criticized the nudity in the series referring to a nude shower scene she had been required to do, in an interview with TV Week stating, Lee again starred in a leading female role in the 1975 film The Firm Man. Between 1975–76, Lee guest starred on several television series, making return appearances on Division 4 and Homicide, but including crime dramas Silent Number, Matlock Police and historical dramas Tandarra and The Sullivans. After a supporting role in the 1977 western film Raw Deal, Lee returned to television as a recurring character, Rhonda McDonald, on the drama series Skyways. In 1980, Lee was cast her most memorable role as Andrea Hennessy in the soap opera Prisoner, her character, a political activist, first appeared leading a protest for prisoners' rights outside the prison. It was at this same protest that her character became involved in a physical altercation with one of the prison officers, Colleen Powell, which results in her imprisonment. An attempt is made to free her by friends, Ricky Dunning and Linda Golman, results in the kidnapping of the Governor, Erica Davidson.

Ricky would be killed by police, while Linda committed suicide in prison. Lee's character, becoming unpopular among the other inmates, was transferred to another prison block to serve out her remaining sentence. Although this was her final television role, she would make a return appearance as another character, Edith Kipman, in 1986. Bethany Lee on IMDb Bethany Lee at the TCM Movie Database

Vauxhall Belmont

An unrelated vehicle, Holden Belmont, was manufactured by Holden, GM's Australian subsidiary in the 1970s. The Vauxhall Belmont was a saloon car sold in the United Kingdom by Vauxhall between January 1986 and September 1991, it was equivalent to a saloon version of the award winning Opel Kadett E, launched in the autumn of 1984, whose other body styles were marketed in the United Kingdom as Vauxhall Astra. The Belmont won praise for its huge boot compared to other rivals of the time. With hatchbacks becoming established as the preferred bodystyle in small European family cars, fewer saloons were on offer. During the 1980s, in order to enable them to position saloons as a slight cut above their hatchback counterparts, many manufacturers marketed them with different nameplates. Ford of Europe's saloon version of the Ford Escort hatchback was badged the Ford Orion, the Volkswagen Golf based saloon was sold as the Volkswagen Jetta. However, when GM launched a saloon version of the Vauxhall Astra/Opel Kadett, only British customers received it with a different badge.

The Belmont went on sale in January 1986. While sold as a Kadett in the rest of Europe, in South Africa, it was called the Opel Monza along with a convertible; this replaced the Opel Ascona. When the Astra II was replaced in September 1991, the Belmont nameplate was shelved, the car never having never lived up to Vauxhall's claim that it was "not just a booted Astra". In December 2004, it was revealed that the Belmont was the most stolen car in the United Kingdom in terms of ratio stolen, with 1,978 vehicles stolen in 2003, which amounted to around 1 out of every 10 Belmonts registered. At this time, an estimated 20,000 Belmonts remained on the road; the car topped a similar list for 2005, this list being published in December 2006. As of March 2020, according to records by the DVLA, only twenty three Belmonts remain on the roads, with a further sixty nine on SORN. Vauxhall deleted the Belmont nametag with the launch of the Mark 3 Astra in September 1991, the Astra nameplate was used on all body styles.

For variant of the Astra, see the Opel Astra. Sales of the Astra badged saloon were not as strong as those achieved by the Belmont, as saloons of this size continued to fall in popularity throughout the 1990s. Astra saloons were sold as an Opel, unlike the Belmont, which in the United Kingdom was only sold as a Vauxhall; the saloon version was dropped altogether in March 2004, upon the launch of the MK V Astra, although right hand drive saloons with Opel badges have continued to be sold in Ireland

Graupner (company)

Graupner/SJ GmbH is a radio control equipment manufacturing company founded in 1930 by Johannes Graupner in Stuttgart-Wangen. Taken over in 1953 by son Hans, the company became the leading designer and producer of aircraft and boat radio-controlled models. Providing the world RC market with RC radios and on board sensor equipment, it was purchased from receivership in 2013 by South Korean manufacturer SJ Ltd. In 2014, the name of SJ Inc. was changed to Graupner Co. Ltd, thus the name Graupner referring to a Korean company from that on. Graupner was founded by Johannes Graupner in Stuttgart in 1930 as a scale model manufacturer. Two years the company was moved to Kirchheim unter Teck. In 1935, the first glider model was introduced, in 1938, the first building plans and materials for ship scale modeling were produced. In 1954 the first radio-controlled models were introduced. After the conclusion of World War II, Johannes Graupner filed permits to reopen the firm; the first products offered after the re-opening were eighteen different toys and crafts plans and kitchen utensils.

In 1950, building plans and accessories for model aircraft were offered for sale, along with model train accessories such as scale buildings and landscape materials. In addition to a U. K. developed compression ignition model engine, a German developed model diesel named Taifun-Standard was marketed in 1952. Two years the company sold the first German model radio controllers. Hans Graupner took responsibility for the further development of the company at the death of his father in 1953. In 1954, Graupner GmbH made its first appearance at the Nuremberg International Toy Fair; the company's success and popularity continued, when in 1962, a new building was constructed for the firm. Due to increasing competition from Asia, Graupner went bankrupt in 2012 and was taken over by SJ incorporated, which had supplied radio control units to Graupner in the past; the company continues as a sales organisation. Official website

Hsenwi State

Hsenwi was a Shan state in the Northern Shan States in what is today Burma. The capital was Hsenwi town. Most Tai Yai chronicles begin with the story of two brothers, Khun Lung and Khun Lai, who descended from heaven in the 6th century and landed in Hsenwi, where the local population hailed them as kings. According to tradition, the predecessor state of Sivirattha was founded before 650 AD. Hsenwi was the largest of the cis-Salween Shan states, at one time included all of what are now the present states of North and South Hsenwi, Kehsi Mansam, Mong Hsu, Mong Sang, Mong Nawng, it held Mongnai State. 1802. It held Mang Lon and other Wa states east of the Salween in a protectorate-like arrangement, but during Burmese times, the state lost control of these areas. During the Sino-Burmese War the Qianlong Emperor of China invaded the area of Hsenwi; the main Chinese army, led by Ming Rui, was to approach Ava through Hsenwi and Hsipaw down the Namtu river. The main invasion route was the same route followed by the Manchu forces a century earlier, chasing the Yongli Emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty.

The second army, led by Gen. E'erdeng'e, was to try the Bhamo route again; the ultimate objective was for both armies to clamp themselves in a pincer action on the Burmese capital of Ava. The Burmese plan was to hold the second Chinese army in the north at Kaungton with the army led by Ne Myo Sithu, meet the main Chinese army in the northeast with two armies led by Maha Sithu and Maha Thiha Thura. At first, everything went according to plan for the Qing; the third invasion began in November 1767 as the smaller Chinese army occupied Bhamo. Within eight days, Ming Rui's main army occupied the Shan states of Hsipaw. Ming Rui made Hsenwi a supply base, assigned 5000 troops to remain at Hsenwi and guard the rear, he led a 15,000-strong army in the direction of Ava. In late December, at the Goteik Gorge, the two main armies faced off and the first major battle of the third invasion ensued. Outnumbered two-to-one, Maha Sithu's main Burmese army was routed by Ming Rui's Bannermen. Maha Thiha Thura too was repulsed at Hsenwi.

The news of the disaster at Goteik reached Ava. Hsinbyushin realized the gravity of the situation, urgently recalled Burmese armies from Siam. Having smashed through the main Burmese army, Ming Rui pressed on full steam ahead, overrunning one town after another, reached Singu on the Irrawaddy, 30 miles north of Ava at the beginning of 1768; the only bright spot for the Burmese was that the northern invasion force, to come down the Irrawaddy to join up with Ming Rui's main army, had been held off at Kaungton. At the time of the annexation following British rule in Burma, Hsenwi was composed of five de jure divisions. After the pacification of the region in March 1888, the colonial administration divided Hsenwi into two states: North Hsenwi, assigned to a successful adventurer, Hkun Sang, of Ton Hong. South Hsenwi which went to Nawmong, of the old Shan ruling house; the rulers of Hsenwi bore the title Saopha. Hsenwi is a playable nation in the strategy video game Europa Universalis IV. Hsenwi Yazawin Sino-Burmese War The Imperial Gazetteer of India "Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan states" "WHKMLA: History of the Shan States".

18 May 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2014. Hsenwi

Thomas Galt

Thomas Galt was an American Presbyterian minister and abolitionist who organized two Presbyterian churches in Sangamon County, Illinois. He was Vice-President of the Illinois Anti-Slavery Society and a conductor of the Underground Railroad. Thomas Galt was born in Pennsylvania to James Galt and Mary Martin Galt, he graduated from Jefferson College in Canonsburg and attended Presbyterian Theological Seminary in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. Although licensed by the Presbytery of Ohio on June 18, 1834, he was ordained and installed as pastor in 1836 at Farmington Presbyterian Church in Farmington, IL, now known as Farmingdale in Sangamon County west of Springfield; the church's name changed from Farmington to Farmingdale around 1905 due to duplication and not to be confused with the city of Farmington, IL, in Fulton County west of Peoria, founded in 1827. In 1837 Galt answered the call by Elijah Lovejoy to attend the Anti-Slavery Convention in Upper Alton, Illinois. At the convention, Edward Beecher and other attendees countered attempts by Illinois Attorney General Usher Linder to derail the proceedings.

The Anti-Slavery Convention ended sine die on October 28, 1837. Galt was elected Vice-President; as a "new school" Presbyterian, Galt favored an early end of slavery. Owing to "old school" sentiment in the Farmington church, he moved on in April 1842 to form Center Presbyterian Church in Farmington, Illinois, he held meetings of the Sangamon County Anti-Slavery Society at Center Presbyterian Church. On February 7, 1849, Galt organized another "new school" church, the Third Presbyterian Church in Springfield, Illinois. Galt was a Sangamon County "conductor" of the Underground Railroad. Galt was married to Sarah Happer, he died on September, 12th 1857 and is buried in Farmington Cemetery near the unincorporated community of Farmingdale, along with Sarah and other family members. Although the church changed names from Farmington to Farmingdale, the cemetery's name is still Farmington Cemetery and is on Farmington Cemetery Rd