Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
The Adelphi Mill is the only surviving historic mill in Prince George's County, Maryland. It is the oldest and largest mill in the Washington, D. C. area. The Adelphi Mill and Storehouse is located on the Northwest Branch of the Anacostia River at 8401 & 8402 Riggs Road in Adelphi, Maryland, it was built in 1796, operated by two brothers and Mahlon Schofield. It was given the name "Adelphi" after the original land patent title; the mill was used to card wool. In the early-19th century, ships came up the Northwest Branch to deliver raw goods and pickup finished materials. In the mid-19th century, the mill was part of the Green Hill estate of George Washington Riggs and renamed Riggs Mill; the mill was operated by the Freeman family until 1916. In the early 1920s, it became part of the Langley Park estate of Leander McCormick-Goodhart. In 1950, Mr. McCormick-Goodhart transferred the mill and surrounding 34 acres to the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission; the mill was subsequently restored and reopened in 1954, as a community center with the old machinery and grinding wheels on display.
It is known as the Adelphi Mill Recreation Center, M-NCPPC. On this property is the small stone storehouse built into the slope on the opposite side of the road at 8401 Riggs Road." This article contains information from the Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission's page on the Adelphi Mill. Arnett, Earl. Papenfuse. Maryland: A New Guide to the Old Line State. Johns Hopkins University Press. Adelphi Mill, Department of Parks and Recreation, M-NCPPC Prince George's County Historic Marker Database, Adelphi Mill marker Online Exhibit: Prince George's County Celebrates 300 years of history 1696-1996. MD-93, "Adelphi Mill, Adelphi Mill Recreation Center, State Route 212, Langley Park, Prince George's County, MD", 9 photos Riggs Mill Thesis presented to Tau Beta Pi, April 28, 1930, by William Edward Roberts 8 photos and sketch of mill race
Silver Spring, Maryland
Silver Spring is an unincorporated community, large village, suburb of Washington, D. C. and census-designated place located inside the Capital Beltway in Montgomery County, United States. It had a population of 79,483, according to the 2017 official estimate by the United States Census Bureau, making it the fourth most populous place in Maryland, after Baltimore and Germantown, the second largest in Montgomery County after Germantown. Inner Silver Spring consists of the following neighborhoods: Downtown Silver Spring, East Silver Spring, North Woodside, Woodside Park, North Hills Sligo Park, Long Branch, Montgomery Knolls, Franklin Knolls, Indian Spring Terrace, Indian Spring Village, Clifton Park Village, New Hampshire Estates and Woodmoor. Outer Silver Spring consist of the following neighborhoods: Four Corners, Glenmont, Forest Glen, Aspen Hill, White Oak, Colesville Park, Calverton, Briggs Chaney, Northwood Park, Sunset Terrace, Fairland and Kemp Mill; the urbanized and southernmost part of Silver Spring is a major business hub that lies at the north apex of Washington, D.
C. As of 2004, the Central Business District held 7,254,729 square feet of office space, 5216 dwelling units and 17.6 acres of parkland. The population density of this CBD area of Silver Spring was 15,600 per square mile all within 360 acres and 2.5 square miles in the CBD/downtown area. The community has undergone a significant renaissance, with the addition of major retail and office developments. Silver Spring takes its name from a mica-flecked spring discovered there in 1840, by Francis Preston Blair, who subsequently bought much of the surrounding land. Acorn Park, tucked away in an area of south Silver Spring away from the main downtown area, is believed to be the site of the original spring; as an unincorporated area, Silver Spring's boundaries are not defined. As of the 2010 Census the United States Census Bureau defines Silver Spring as a census-designated place with a total area of 7.92 square miles, all land. This definition is a 15% reduction from the 9.4 square miles used in previous years.
The United States Geological Survey locates the center of Silver Spring at 38°59′26″N 77°1′35″W, notably some distance from the Census Bureau's datum. By another definition, Silver Spring is located at 39°0′15″N 77°1′8″W; the definitions used by the Silver Spring Urban Planning District, the United States Postal Service, the Greater Silver Spring Chamber of Commerce, etc. are all different, each defining it for its own purposes. Residents of a large swath of southeastern Montgomery County have Silver Spring mailing addresses, including Four Corners, Glenmont, Forest Glen, Aspen Hill, White Oak, Colesville Park, Calverton, Briggs Chaney, Northwood Park, Sandy Spring, Sunset Terrace, Lyttonsville, Kemp Mill, a portion of Langley Park, a portion of Adelphi; the area that has a Silver Spring mailing address is larger in area than any city in Maryland except Baltimore. Silver Spring's notable landmarks include the world headquarters of Discovery Communications, the AFI Silver Theatre, the world headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the headquarters of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the headquarters of the Food and Drug Administration, the national headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.
Rock Creek Park passes along the west side of Silver Spring, offers hiking trails, picnic grounds, bicycling on weekends, when its main road, Beach Drive, is closed to motor vehicles. Sligo Creek Park follows Sligo Creek through Silver Spring; the latter is facilitated on weekends. The bike trails are slower than most in the region. Rocks have been spread along either side of the road, providing a hazardous bike ride, or skating leisure. Acorn Park in the downtown area of Silver Spring, is believed to be the site of the eponymous "silver spring."The 14.5-acre Jessup-Blair Park was renovated and features a soccer field, tennis courts, basketball courts, picnic area. Brookside Gardens is a 50-acre park within Wheaton Regional Park, in "greater" Silver Spring, it is located on the original site of Stadler Nursery. Northwest Branch Park is a 700-acre park surrounding the Northwest Branch of the Anacostia River; the park includes hiking and cycling trails on the Northwest Branch and Rachel Carson Greenway Trails.
This park extends farther within Montgomery County. Note that the Rachel Carson Greenway Trail is named after Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring and former resident of Silver Spring. Note: For the 2010 Census the boundaries of the Silver Spring CDP were changed reducing the land area by approx. 15%. As a result, the population count for 2010 shows a 6.6% decrease, while the population density increases 11%. As enumerated in the 2010 census, there were 71,452 residents, 28,603 total households, 15,684 families residing in the Silver Spring CDP; the population density was 9,021.7 people per square mile. There were 30,522 housing units at an average density of 3,853.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the community, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau, for residents who self-identified as being members of "one race," was 45.7% "White," 27.8% "Black or African American," 0.6% "American I
A trail is a path, track or unpaved lane or road. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland path or footpath is the preferred term for a walking trail; the term is applied, in North America, to routes along rivers, sometimes to highways. In the US, the term was used for a route into or through wild territory used by emigrants. In the USA "trace" is a synonym for trail, as in Natchez Trace; some trails are single use and can only be used for walking, horse riding and cross-country skiing. There are unpaved trails used by dirt bikes and other off-road vehicles and in some places, like the Alps, trails are used for moving cattle and other livestock. In Australia, the term track can be used interchangeably with trail, can refer to anything from a dirt road to an unpaved pedestrian path. In New Zealand, the terms track or walkway are used exclusively except in reference to cross-country skiing: "walkways vary enormously in nature, from short urban strolls, to moderate coastal locations, to challenging tramps in the high country ".
Walkway is used in St. John's, Canada, where the "Grand Concourse", is an integrated walkway system. In the United Kingdom, the term trail is in common usage. Longer distance walking routes, government-promoted long distance paths, collectively known as National Trails, are frequently called ways; the term footpath is preferred for pedestrian routes, including long distance trails, is used for urban paths and sometimes in place of pavement. Track is used for wider paths used for hiking; the terms bridleway, restricted byway are all recognised legal terms and to a greater or lesser extent in general usage. The increased popularity of mountain biking has led to a proliferation of mountain bike trails in many countries; these will be grouped to form larger complexes, known as trail centers. In the early years of the 20th century, the term auto trail was used for a marked highway route, trail is now used to designate routes, including highway routes, designated for tourist interest like the Cabot Trail, Nova Scotia and the Quilt Trails in the US.
The term trail has been used by developers and urban planners for a variety of modern paved roads and boulevards, in these countries, some highways continue to be called a trail, such as the Susquehanna Trail in Pennsylvania, a designation that varies from a two-lane road to a four-lane freeway. A unusual use of the term is in the Canadian province of Alberta, which has multi-lane freeways called trails. Trail segregation, the practice of designating certain trails as having a specific preferred or exclusive use, is common and diverse. For example, bike trails are used not only on roads open to motor vehicles, but in trail systems open to other trail users; some trails are segregated for use by both equestrians and mountain bikes, or by equestrians only, or by mountain bikes only. Designated "wilderness area" trails may be segregated for non-wheeled use. Trail segregation for a particular use is accompanied by prohibitions against that use on other trails within the trail system. Trail segregation may be supported by signage, trail design and construction, by separation between parallel treads.
Separation may be achieved by "natural" barriers including distance, banking and vegetation, by "artificial" barriers including fencing and walls. Bicycle trails encompass a wide variety of trail types, including shared-use paths used for commuting, off-road cross country trails and downhill mountain bike trails; the number of off-road cycle trails has increased along with the popularity of mountain bikes. Off-road bicycle trails are function-specific and most waymarked along their route, they may form part of larger complexes, known as trail centres. Off-road trails incorporate a mix of challenging terrain, smooth fireroads, paved paths. Trails with an easy or moderate technical complexity are deemed cross-country trails, while trails difficult to experienced riders are more dubbed all-mountain, freeride, or downhill. Downhilling is popular at ski resorts such as Mammoth Mountain in California or Whistler Blackcomb in British Columbia, where ski lifts are used to get bikes and riders to the top of the mountain.
EuroVelo bicycle routes are a network of long-distance cycling routes criss-crossing Europe in various stages of completion, more than 45,000 km was in place by 2013. It is envisaged that the network will be complete by 2020 and when finished, the EuroVelo network's total length will exceed 70,000 km. EuroVelo is a project of the European Cyclists' Federation. EuroVelo routes can be used for bicycle touring across the continent, as well as by local people making short journeys; the routes are made of both existing national bike routes, such as the Dutch LF-Routes, the German D-Routes, the British National Cycle Network, existing general purpose roads, together with new stretches of cycle routes to connect them. Off-road cycling can cause soil erosion and habitat destruction if not carried out on established trails; this is so when trails are wet, overall though, cycling may have only as mu
Metropolitan Branch Trail
The Metropolitan Branch Trail called the Met Branch Trail, is a rail trail that, when completed, will run eight miles from the transit center in Silver Spring, Maryland, to Union Station in the District of Columbia. It serves to extend the Capital Crescent Trail where it merges with the active WMATA/CSX railroad into the National Capital. At Fort Totten, a connector trail to the Northwest Branch Trail of the Anacostia Tributary Trail System at Hyattsville, will be constructed; when completed, the Metropolitan Branch Trail will serve as part of the East Coast Greenway. Seven miles of the trail are within Washington, D. C. and one mile is in Maryland. The trail gets its name from the Metropolitan Subdivision of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which the trail parallels; the remainder of the trail parallels the current WMATA/CSX tracks into Maryland. It is anchored by two railroad landmarks: Union Station and the old B&O Railroad Station in Silver Spring; the Metropolitan Branch Trail was first conceived in 1988, by Patrick Hare of the Brookland neighborhood.
Working with the Washington Area Bicyclist Association and Rails-to-Trails Conservancy in 1989, Hare organized a group of 11 area cyclists to conduct an exploratory walk/ride. Soon after, motivated by CSX's plans to develop the Eckington Rail Yard needed for the trail, the Coalition for the Metropolitan Branch Trail was formed to explore and promote the potential for a multi-use trail. Before that, the trail was sometimes called the "Dome to Dome Trail" because it would connect the Capital Dome and the Catholic University dome; the Metropolitan Branch Trail entered the DC Comprehensive Plan in the early 1990s and in 1997, the DC Department of Public Works completed an engineering feasibility study that determined that it would be possible. Planning of the trail began in 1998 after Congress allocated $8.5 million in demonstration project funding to the District for the trail through the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, the six-year federal transportation funding bill, this was celebrated with a ground breaking ceremony.
The concept plan for the trail which envisioned creation of a large urban park and greenway along the abandoned, as yet undeveloped, CSX Transportation property was published by WABA in 1999. In April 2001, WABA published a study describing the necessary acquisitions for the trail. In 2002, when the city and the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority agreed to construct a new Metro station at New York and Florida Avenues, trail advocates and city staff negotiated for WMATA to construct a portion of the trail as a part of the station construction project. Around the same time the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission completed a Feasibility Study and Concept Plan for one mile of the MBT between DC and Silver Spring. In 2003, the District Department of Transportation hired a special project manager for the trail, prepared a Takoma Alignment Study and initiated development of the comprehensive concept plan, completed in 2005; as the planning was on-going, work was underway in the District.
Following a groundbreaking ceremony on May 29, 1998, a nearly one mile long segment was built by the District Department of Transportation next to Catholic University along John McCormack Road as part of routine road maintenance. It was built with $1.9 million of federal Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality funding and was completed in November 1998. On October 21, 1999 the trail was named one of 50 Millennium Trails at a White House ceremony featuring First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton and Secretary of Transportation Rodney Slater. Five days on October 26, 1999, a formal ribbon-cutting ceremony was held at the Brookland-Catholic University Metro station, it was attended by 8 members of Congress, Secretary of Transportation Rodney Slater and representatives of NHTSA, FHWA and the DC government. Another short, on-road trail section was built along First Street NE from Union Station in 2000; when the New York Ave–Florida Ave–Gallaudet University Metro station opened in November 2004, it included about 2,000 feet of trail on a raised structure.
Stairs from the New York Avenue Metro Station section to L Street NE, a trail under the tracks along L Street NE and a one block portion along 2nd Street NE were completed in the spring of 2008. The core of the trail, a 1.5-mile segment from New York Avenue to Franklin Street opened in November 2010. On July 9, 2013, a 500-foot-long section between Monroe Street and the CUA Metro station opened as part of the Monroe Street Market development. On May 30, 2014, a ~2000 foot long section of the trail opened as a curb-protected, two-way bike lane along 1st Street NE from G Street NE to M Street NE; this was connected to the existing trail in November 2014 by a 572 foot long, protected bike lane on M Street, extended 812 feet south along 1st Street from G Street NE to the stub at Columbus Circle, NE on August 12, 2015. The Rhode Island Avenue Pedestrian Bridge, which connects the trail on the west side of the extant railroad tracks with the Rhode Island Avenue Metro Station on the east side, opened on December 31, 2014 after more than 15 months of work.
On October 31, 2017, DDOT issued a Notice to Proceed for the design-build construction of the next phase of the Metropolitan Branch Trail from John McCormack Drive in Brookland to the Fort Totten Metro Station. That work is to be completed in early 2019. Work was going on in Maryland too. A section in Montgomery County connects the trail from DC to the Silver Spring Metro Center. On July 28, 2004, a bridge was completed from the Takoma Park section over the railroad tracks to Jes
Cross Island Trail
The Cross Island Trail is a rail trail in Queen Anne's County, Maryland occupying a section of the abandoned Queen Anne's Railroad corridor that traverses the width of Kent Island. It is part of the American Discovery Trail; the trail is a part of the East Coast Greenway, a 3,000 mile long system of trails connecting Maine to Florida. The trail begins in Terrapin Park, near the foot of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and traverses both Terrapin Park and the adjacent Chesapeake Bay Business Park, it crosses Love Point Road through the property of Kent Island High School into Old Love Point Park. After traversing Old Love Point Park, the trail enters its original section and the former rail bed of the Queen Anne's Railroad. Along the railbed, it goes in a straight path until reaching the end of its original section at Castle Marina Road. After crossing the road, the trail parallels Piney Creek Road and U. S. Route 50, before ending at the Chesapeake Exploration Center in Kent Narrows. A continuation of the trail utilizes the Kent Narrows Bridge on Maryland Route 18 and connects with the rest of the American Discovery Trail.
Information from National Recreation Trails Database Information from bikewashington.org
Rachel Louise Carson was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. Carson began her career as an aquatic biologist in the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, became a full-time nature writer in the 1950s, her praised 1951 bestseller The Sea Around Us won her a U. S. National Book Award, recognition as a gifted writer, financial security, her next book, The Edge of the Sea, the reissued version of her first book, Under the Sea Wind, were bestsellers. This sea trilogy explores the whole of ocean life from the shores to the depths. Late in the 1950s, Carson turned her attention to conservation some problems that she believed were caused by synthetic pesticides; the result was the book Silent Spring, which brought environmental concerns to an unprecedented share of the American people. Although Silent Spring was met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, which led to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides.
It inspired a grassroots environmental movement that led to the creation of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Carson was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter. Rachel Carson was born on May 27, 1907, on a family farm near Springdale, just up the Allegheny River from Pittsburgh, she was Robert Warden Carson, an insurance salesman. She spent a lot of time exploring around her family's 65-acre farm. An avid reader, she had her first story published at age ten, she enjoyed the St. Nicholas Magazine, the works of Beatrix Potter, the novels of Gene Stratton-Porter, in her teen years, Herman Melville, Joseph Conrad and Robert Louis Stevenson; the natural world the ocean, was the common thread of her favorite literature. Carson attended Springdale's small school through tenth grade completed high school in nearby Parnassus, graduating in 1925 at the top of her class of forty-five students. At the Pennsylvania College for Women, as in high school, Carson was somewhat of a loner.
She studied English, but switched her major to biology in January 1928, though she continued contributing to the school's student newspaper and literary supplement. Though admitted to graduate standing at Johns Hopkins University in 1928, she was forced to remain at the Pennsylvania College for Women for her senior year due to financial difficulties. After a summer course at the Marine Biological Laboratory, she continued her studies in zoology and genetics at Johns Hopkins in the fall of 1929. After her first year of graduate school, Carson became a part-time student, taking an assistantship in Raymond Pearl's laboratory, where she worked with rats and Drosophila, to earn money for tuition. After false starts with pit vipers and squirrels, she completed a dissertation project on the embryonic development of the pronephros in fish, she earned a master's degree in zoology in June 1932. She had intended to continue for a doctorate, but in 1934 Carson was forced to leave Johns Hopkins to search for a full-time teaching position to help support her family during the Great Depression.
In 1935, her father died worsening their critical financial situation and leaving Carson to care for her aging mother. At the urging of her undergraduate biology mentor Mary Scott Skinker, she settled for a temporary position with the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, writing radio copy for a series of weekly educational broadcasts entitled Romance Under the Waters; the series of fifty-two seven minute programs focused on aquatic life and was intended to generate public interest in fish biology and in the work of the bureau, a task the several writers before Carson had not managed. Carson began submitting articles on marine life in the Chesapeake Bay, based on her research for the series, to local newspapers and magazines. Carson's supervisor, pleased with the success of the radio series, asked her to write the introduction to a public brochure about the fisheries bureau. Sitting for the civil service exam, she outscored all other applicants and, in 1936, became the second woman hired by the Bureau of Fisheries for a full-time professional position, as a junior aquatic biologist.
At the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, Carson's main responsibilities were to analyze and report field data on fish populations, to write brochures and other literature for the public. Using her research and consultations with marine biologists as starting points, she wrote a steady stream of articles for The Baltimore Sun and other newspapers. However, her family responsibilities further increased in January 1937 when her older sister died, leaving Carson as the sole breadwinner for her mother and two nieces. In July 1937, the Atlantic Monthly accepted a revised version of an essay, The World of Waters, that she wrote for her first fisheries bureau brochure, her supervisor had deemed it too good for that purpose. The essay, published as Undersea, was a vivid narrative of a journey along the ocean floor, it marked a major turning point in Carson's writing career. Publishing house Simon & Schuster, impressed by Undersea, contacted Carson and suggested that she expand it into a book. Several years of writing resulted in Under the Sea Wind, which received excellent reviews but sold poorly.
In the meantime, Carson's article-writing success continued—her features appe