Chatham is a town in Pittsylvania County, United States. It is the county seat of Pittsylvania County. Chatham's population was 1,338 at the 2000 census, it is included in Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area. The town was called Competition, but the name was changed to Chatham by the Virginia General Assembly on May 1, 1852. Chatham is home to Chatham High School, Hargrave Military Academy, Chatham Hall, an all-female boarding high school, it is the home to the oldest continually used building in Pittsylvania County, once an 18th-century tavern, since turned into a house and now occupied by Chatham Hall faculty. Chatham is the county seat for Pittsylvania County and has held that status since 1777. There is a large U. S. Department of Agriculture office to support farmers in the area and a small branch office of the U. S. Forestry Service; the State of Virginia has built a new state prison at the site of an old work-release camp and this led to infrastructure upgrades in fire and water services to support the increased population.
Chatham did not see any battle action during the Civil War although it is between Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, Danville, which contained Confederate prisons for captured Union soldiers. On Confederate Memorial Day each year, the local chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy places flowers at the statue of a Confederate soldier, prominent in the front of the historic Pittsylvania County Court House. There is a walking tour of this downtown historic district and a brochure for this is available at the Town Hall, or at the Historical Society building next to Town Hall. There are several bed & breakfast establishments located on Main Street in historic Greek Revival homes. According to the United States Census Bureau, Chatham has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, 1,338 people, 554 households, 350 families resided in the town; the population density was 654.6 people per square mile. The 612 housing units averaged 299.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 71.52% White, 26.08% African American, 0.60% Native American, 0.52% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 0.60% of the population. Of the 554 households, 21.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.8% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.8% were not families. About 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.87. In the town, the population was distributed as 19.6% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 26.7% from 45 to 64, 20.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $38,938, for a family was $50,391.
Males had a median income of $29,375 versus $23,472 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,785. About 6.3% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 17.0% of those age 65 or over. For people 25 years and over in Chatham: High school or higher: 77.4% Bachelor's degree or higher: 33.1% Graduate or professional degree: 13.2% Unemployed: 5.3% Mean travel time to work: 20.8 minutesFor people 15 years and over in Chatham: Never married: 23.4% Now married: 49.6% Separated: 3.8% Widowed: 9.8% Divorced: 13.4%Nineteen residents are foreign born. The Mayor of Chatham serves a two-year term; the current mayor is William A. Pace. Town Council serves four-year terms; the current town council members are Janet R. Bishop, William P. Black, Teresa D. Easley, Irvin W. Perry, Robert B. Thompson, Andrew D. Wall; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Chatham has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps
Rocky Mount, Virginia
Rocky Mount is a town in and the county seat of Franklin County, United States. The town is part of the Roanoke Metropolitan Statistical Area, had a population of 4,799 as of the 2010 census, it is located in the Roanoke Region of Virginia. Although Robert Hill built a block house in the 1740s, the first English colonists arrived here in 1760, they named Rocky Mount for a steep cliff near the town; the area consisted of two adjacent villages, Rocky Mount and Mount Pleasant. Washington Iron Furnace was built by James Callaway and Jeremiah Early on what is now Main Street outside what is now the historic district, operated by Calloway's heirs and Peter Saunders until damaged by a flood in 1850, with rebuilding stopped by the Civil War; the first court session was held at Rocky Mount in 1786 following the Revolutionary War, in Callaway's home until he deeded land to the town on which to build the courthouse. Rocky Mount had a post office in 1795; the town was divided into lots in 1804. Jeremiah's son John Early represented the county in the Virginia House of Delegates and served as sheriff as well as operated a plantation nearby.
The courthouse was replaced in 1831. By 1836 the iron furnace employed 100 people and the town had about 275 residents, included 30 homes and several businesses including 3 grocery stores and a newspaper/printing office; the oldest dwelling is "Mount Pleasant", built overlooking the courthouse in 1829 for Caleb Tate. The Rocky Mount Turnpike Company incorporated in 1846 and a bank shortly afterward, but neither prospered. During the Civil War, numerous planter families from the Tidewater region sought refuge in Rocky Mount, many brought substantial numbers of slaves with them. Among these were the immediate past governor, Henry A. Wise, who settled his family here before he became a Confederate general. Jubal Anderson Early, who became a Confederate general during the war, was born on a farm nearby, served as one term in the Virginia House of Delegates representing the county and more than a decade as Commonwealth's attorney before the war resumed his legal practice here and in Lynchburg, Virginia after the war's end.
The only building constructed in that era and surviving today was constructed for Dr. Thomas Greer in 1861. Two other buildings constructed in 1850-1854 and used as law offices still survive; the town's clerk, Robert A. Scott, issued scrip to assist families of Confederate soldiers during the Civil War, the Confederate government requisitioned slaves from various county landowners to work on Richmond's defenses; the town experienced no battles, although Union Gen. George Stoneman and troops passed through the county in the war's final days. In 1867, the Freedman's Bureau under William F. DeKnight opened a Sunday school in Rocky Mount, about a third of whose residents at the time were African American, but efforts to establish a day school didn't succeed until much, one of the reasons Booker Taliaferro Washington, born enslaved in Franklin County, moved with his mother to West Virginia for his education, studied at the Hampton Institute at the other side of the state; the area's major cash crop both after the Civil War was tobacco.
In 1873, Rocky Mount incorporated as a town and absorbed the smaller village of Mount Pleasant, creating the its present boundaries. Former court clerk Robert Scott became the first mayor. Rocky Mount's population was about 400 people in 1870, 600 in 1897 and about 1100 in 1920. In 1880, the Franklin and Pittsylvania Railroad connected Rocky Mount to Danville and Lynchburg via Pittsylvania County, but the more important railroad line would not arrive for another dozen years, until three years after most of Rocky Mount burned in 1889. Industrial and commercial development began as Rocky Mount became a stop on the twisty railroad line between Roanoke and Winston-Salem, North Carolina; the Cannaday Mills was built in 1898. Schoolteacher turned merchant and entrepreneur Nathanial V. Angle built the Bald Knob furniture factory in 1903. By World War I, N. V. Angle owned a furniture and grocery stores, a lumberyard, tobacco house, agricultural implement store and the area's first Ford Dealership. Much of the historic architecture, both residential and commercial, dates from the first decades of the 20th century, although only one structure the Lodge Rooms built in 1900, remains of what had been a thriving African American community on West Court Street.
Workers needed housing, more elaborate dwellings were built for managers and professionals. Rocky Mount is halfway between Roanoke and Martinsville, which developed furniture manufacturing and textile industries early in the 20th century; the present Franklin County courthouse was constructed in 1909 and modeled on the Roanoke County courthouse in Salem, Virginia. Trinity Episcopal Church and its Rectory survived the 1889 fire, but the pre-1898 African Methodist Episcopal Church no longer exists; the Presbyterian Church managed to reopen shortly after the fire.
Emily Donelson was the niece of Rachel Donelson Jackson, the wife of U. S. President Andrew Jackson, she served as de facto First Lady of the United States. Emily Tennessee Donelson was born on her father's farm in Tennessee, her father, John Donelson, was the brother of Rachel Donelson Jackson, the wife of future President Andrew Jackson. Unlike many girls of her day, Emily was afforded a formal education, she studied at Nashville Female Academy in Nashville, with her niece Mary Ann Eastin, was considered an accomplished student. On September 16, 1824, seventeen-year-old Emily married Andrew Jackson Donelson. Donelson was Emily's first cousin and a ward of their mutual uncle and aunt and Rachel Donelson Jackson; the couple had four children. It has been speculated that before Rachel Donelson Jackson's death in 1828, Jackson had planned for Emily to accompany them to Washington to assist Rachel in the duties of White House hostess; the Jacksons had maintained a similar arrangement with Emily at The Hermitage, their plantation in Tennessee.
The death of Rachel Donelson Jackson caused these plans to be abandoned and Andrew Jackson asked Emily to take over all the responsibilities of the White House hostess, which she did with the aid of her niece Mary Ann Eastin. She arrived in Washington at the age of 21, her husband, A. J. Donelson, served as President Jackson's private secretary; the first months of Jackson's administration marked a period of mourning for Rachel Donelson Jackson. The unofficial period of mourning ended when Emily hosted a New Year's party at the White House on January 1, 1830. In 1829, Washington society began to buzz with rumors surrounding Peggy Eaton, the new wife of Secretary of War John Henry Eaton; the rumors alleged the couple's relationship had begun as an extramarital affair, that Peggy's first husband had committed suicide when he learned of their relationship. The growing scandal, soon to be nicknamed the Petticoat affair, began to split Jackson's Cabinet; the wives of several members of Jackson's cabinet, most notably Floride Calhoun, the wife of Vice-President John C. Calhoun refused to receive Peggy into Washington society, snubbed the couple.
President Jackson viewed the treatment of Peggy Eaton as unfair. He drew comparisons to the treatment of his own late wife. Unbeknownst to the Jacksons, Rachel was still married to her first husband when she married Andrew Jackson, as he had begun divorce proceedings against Rachel, but the action was not finalized; this fact was discovered by supporters of John Quincy Adams during the election of 1828. They mercilessly attacked Rachel as a bigamist. Although Rachel had suffered from ill health since 1825, Jackson blamed her death in December 1828 on the stresses of the campaign. Jackson believed that Washington society was treating Peggy unfairly just as it had treated his late wife. Jackson began to pressure his subordinates to accept the couple. Emily had sided with the group; when Jackson confronted Emily, she relented somewhat and included Peggy in White House functions, but Emily extended to her the basic courtesies and nothing more. The situation came to a head when the Eatons declined Jackson's invitation to a White House dinner in early 1830.
When Jackson inquired why they had declined his invitation, Peggy cited Emily's cold treatment. Emily and Andrew Jackson traveled to the Hermitage for a vacation in the summer of 1830. By the rift between the President and Emily had grown so great that Emily refused to stay at the Hermitage, instead choosing to stay at her mother's house; when Jackson returned to Washington, A. J. accompanied him but Emily did not. When Jackson returned to the White House, he implored Emily to resume her duties. However, she refused to do so as long as Jackson continued to insist on Peggy Eaton's acceptance in the White House. Beginning in 1834, Sarah Yorke Jackson, President Jackson's daughter-in-law, served as the White House hostess. There are conflicting accounts about Emily Donelson's absence from the White House during the three years that Sarah Yorke Jackson served as hostess. A cohort of scholars believe that the cause was her treatment of Peggy Eaton, while others argue that it was her worsening tuberculosis.
Emily's health began to deteriorate in 1836. In June of that year she went to recuperate at Poplar Grove, her plantation adjacent to the Hermitage, her health continued to decline, she died that December at the age of 29 of her tuberculosis, making her the shortest-lived First Lady in American history. She died looking out the window waiting for her husband to come home
1824 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1824 was the tenth quadrennial presidential election, held from Tuesday, October 26, to Thursday, December 2, 1824. In an election contested by four members of the Democratic-Republican Party, no candidate won a majority of the electoral vote, necessitating a contingent election in the House of Representatives under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On February 9, 1825, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams as president; the 1824 presidential election was the first election in which the winner of the election lost the popular vote. Prior to the election, the Democratic-Republican Party had won six consecutive presidential elections, by 1824 the opposition Federalist Party had collapsed as a national party. Secretary of State Adams, General Andrew Jackson, Secretary of the Treasury William H. Crawford, Speaker of the House Henry Clay all sought the presidency as members of the Democratic-Republican Party.
A fifth candidate, John C. Calhoun sought the presidency before dropping out to run for vice president; the 1824 Democratic-Republican congressional nominating caucus nominated Crawford for president, but the other candidates disregarded this nomination and continued to seek the presidency. In the election, Adams won New England and Adams split the mid-Atlantic states and Clay split the Western states, Jackson and Crawford split the Southern states. Jackson finished with a plurality of the electoral and popular vote, while the other three candidates each finished with a significant share of the electoral and popular vote. Calhoun, who supported Jackson became the de facto running mate of Adams and as such was elected with a comfortable majority of the vice presidential vote in the Electoral College. However, no one had won a majority of the presidential electoral vote, the 1824 election thus became the first election to be decided in the House of Representatives under the terms of the 12th Amendment.
The 12th Amendment specified that only the three top finishers in the electoral vote were eligible to be selected by the House, thus eliminating Clay, influential within that chamber. In the contingent election, Clay threw his support behind Adams, who shared many of his positions on the major issues. With Clay's backing, Adams won the contingent election on the first ballot. After Adams took office, he appointed Clay as Secretary of State, supporters of Jackson accused Clay and Adams of having agreed to a "corrupt bargain" in which Clay supported Adams in return for his appointment to the most prestigious Cabinet position; the faction led by Jackson would evolve into the modern Democratic Party, while supporters of Adams and Henry Clay would form the National Republican Party and the Whig Party. Adams's 1824 election victory was thus the last of seven consecutive wins by the Democratic-Republican Party; the Era of Good Feelings associated with the administration of President James Monroe, was characterized by the dissolution of national political identities.
With the discredited Federalists in decline nationally, the "amalgamated" or hybridized Republicans adopted key Federalist economic programs and institutions, further erasing party identities and consolidating their victory. The economic nationalism of the Era of Good Feelings that would authorize the Tariff of 1816 and incorporate the Second Bank of the United States portended an abandonment of the Jeffersonian political formula for strict construction of the constitution, limited central government and commitments to the primacy of Southern agrarian interests; the end of opposition parties meant the end of party discipline and the means to suppress internecine factional animosities. Rather than produce political harmony, as President James Monroe had hoped, amalgamation had led to intense rivalries among Republicans. Bereft of any party apparatus to contain these outbursts, Monroe attempted to enlist the leading statesmen of his day into his cabinet so as to commit them to advancing his policies.
Of the five politicians who would run for president in 1824, three were in Monroe's cabinet: Secretary of State John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Treasury William H. Crawford of Georgia, Secretary of War John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. General Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, a commander in the regular US Army, was tapped for high-profile military assignments. Only Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky held political power independent of the Monroe administration. Monroe's efforts to bring Clay into his cabinet failed, the Speaker remained a persistent critic of the Monroe administration. Amid these reconfigured political landscapes arose two pivotal events: the Panic of 1819 and the Missouri crisis of 1820. Both the alarming economic disaster, which fell upon both agrarian and industrial workers, the distressing sectional disputes over slavery expansion, produced widespread social unrest and calls for increased democratic control over the future of the American republic.
From these disaffected social groups would be assembled the popular base on which political parties would be revived, though these were only beginning to take shape at the time of the 1824 presidential election. The previous competition between the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party collapsed after the War of 1812 due to the disintegration of the Federalists' popular appeal, U. S. President James Monroe of the Democratic-Republican Party was able to run without opposition in the election of 1820. Like previous presidents, elected to two terms, James Monroe declined to seek re-nomination for a third term. Monroe's vice president, Daniel D. Tompkins, was considered unelec
John Donelson Martin
John Donelson Martin was a Confederate States Army officer during the American Civil War. John Martin was born on August 1830 in Davidson County, Tennessee, he was the middle child of Catherine Donelson Martin. In 1846 he volunteered for the Mexican–American War, serving as a private in the 3rd Tennessee Infantry Regiment until war's end in 1848; when the American Civil War erupted in 1861 Martin joined the Confederate States Army and was named Captain of the Hickory Rifles, a company of infantry from Memphis and Shelby County. It soon became Company E of the 154th Senior Tennessee Infantry Regiment. During the summer Martin raised a regiment with 7 companies from 3 from Tennessee, he was assigned to command this unit. In January 1862 it was renamed 2nd Confederate Infantry. Fighting in the Battle of Shiloh Martin took over brigade command when his commander, Brigadier John S. Bowen, was wounded, his services were noted and he was recommended for a promotion to Brigadier General. He was named Acting Brigadier General and assigned to command a brigade in the Army of the West, composed of the 36th, 37th and 38th Mississippi regiments as well as the 37th Alabama Infantry.
Colonel Martin was killed in the Second Battle of Corinth on October 1862 while leading his men. He was buried on Elmwood Cemetery in Memphis, his grandson was Judge John Donelson Martin, Sr.. John Donelson Martin, Sr. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1. Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9. John Donelson Martin at Find a Grave
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
In cultures that practice marital monogamy, bigamy is the act of entering into a marriage with one person while still married to another. Bigamy is a crime in most Western countries, when it occurs in this context neither the first nor second spouse is aware of the other. In countries that have bigamy laws, consent from a prior spouse makes no difference to the legality of the second marriage, considered void. Before Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire and Maximian passed strict anti-polygamy laws in 285 AD that mandated monogamy as the only form of legal marital relationship, as had traditionally been the case in classical Greece and Rome. In 393, the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I issued an imperial edict to extend the ban on polygamy to Jewish communities. In 1000, Rabbi Gershom ben Judah ruled polygamy inadmissible within Ashkenazi Jewish communities living in a Christian environment. In ancient China, bigamy was a punishable offence. A man, at any given time, could only be married to one woman, vice versa.
Issue with the wife enjoyed preference in social status. Most western countries do not recognize polygamous marriages, consider bigamy a crime. Several countries prohibit people from living a polygamous lifestyle; this is the case in some states of the United States where the criminalization of a polygamous lifestyle originated as anti-Mormon laws, although they are enforced. In diplomatic law, consular spouses from polygamous countries are sometimes exempt from a general prohibition on polygamy in host countries. In some such countries, only one spouse of a polygamous diplomat may be accredited, however. Australia: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Belgium: Illegal. 5–10 years' imprisonment. Brazil: Illegal. 2–6 years' imprisonment. Canada: Illegal under the Criminal Code, sect 290. China: Illegal. Up to 2 years' imprisonment, up to 3 years for bigamy with soldiers. Colombia Illegal with exceptions. Although bigamy no longer exists as a lone figure in the Colombian judicial code marrying someone new without dissolving an earlier marriage may yield to other felonies such as civil status forgery or suppression of information.
Egypt: Legal if first wife consents Eritrea: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. All the 27 countries of the European Union: Illegal. Iceland: Illegal according to the Icelandic Act on Marriage No. 31/1993, Art. 11. Germany: Illegal. Punishable. Ghana: Illegal. Up to six months' imprisonment. Hong Kong: Illegal. Up to 7 years' imprisonment. Republic of Ireland: Bigamy is a statutory offence, it is committed by a person who, being married to another person, goes through a ceremony capable of producing a valid marriage with a third person. The offence is created by section 57 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861; this section replaces section 26 of the Act 10 Geo. 4 c. 34 for the Republic of Ireland. India: Legal only for Muslims but rarely practiced. Up to ten years of imprisonment for others except in the state of Goa for Hindus due to its own civil code. Indonesia: Depending on the specific tribe in question, bigamy can be legal or illegal. Iran: Legal with consent of first wife. Practiced. Israel: Illegal for members of each confessional community.
Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Italy: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Libya: Legal with conditions. Malaysia: Illegal for non-Muslims under federal jurisdiction. Under section 494 of Chapter XX of the Penal Code, non-Muslim offenders found guilty of bigamy or polygamy shall be punished up to 7 years of imprisonment. Bigamy or polygamy is legal only for Muslims with restrictions under state jurisdiction practiced. Maldives: Permitted for anyone. Malta: Illegal under Marriage Act of 1975, section 6. Netherlands: Illegal. Up to 6 years' imprisonment. If the new partner is aware of the bigamy they can be imprisoned for a maximum of 4 years. New Zealand: Illegal. Up to 7 years' imprisonment, or up to 2 years' imprisonment if the judge is satisfied the second spouse was aware their marriage would be void. Morocco: Permitted for Muslims, restrictions apply. Pakistan: Polygamy in Pakistan is permitted with some restrictions. Philippines: Legal for Muslims. Others face 6–12 years' imprisonment and legal dissolution of marriage.
Romania: Illegal under Romanian Penal Code, art 376 and Civil Code of Romania, art 273. Saudi Arabia: Bigamy or polygamy is legal. South Africa: Legal under the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act, 1998 for customary marriages. Under civil law marriages, any marriage in addition to an existing one is invalid. Somalia: Polygamy is legal at marriage courts. Taiwan: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Thailand: Prior to October 1, 1935, polygamy in Thailand could be practiced and recognised under civil law. Since its abolition, it is still practiced and accepted in Thailand, though no longer recognised, as the law states "A man or a woman cannot marry each other while one of them has a spouse." Tunisia: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Turkey: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. United Kingdom: Illegal, although marriages performed abroad may be recognised for some legal purposes. On indictment, up to 7 years' imprisonment or on summary conviction up to 6 months' imprisonment, or to a fine of a prescribed sum, or to both.
United States: Illegal in every state. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Uzbekistan: Il