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Radio receiver

In radio communications, a radio receiver known as a receiver, wireless or radio is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna; the antenna intercepts radio waves and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, the receiver extracts the desired information. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the desired radio frequency signal from all the other signals picked up by the antenna, an electronic amplifier to increase the power of the signal for further processing, recovers the desired information through demodulation. Radio receivers are essential components of all systems; the information produced by the receiver may be in the form of sound, moving images, or digital data. A radio receiver may be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or an electronic circuit within another device; the most familiar type of radio receiver for most people is a broadcast radio receiver, which reproduces sound transmitted by radio broadcasting stations the first mass-market radio application.

A broadcast receiver is called a "radio". However radio receivers are widely used in other areas of modern technology, in televisions, cell phones, wireless modems and other components of communications, remote control, wireless networking systems; the most familiar form of radio receiver is a broadcast receiver just called a radio, which receives audio programs intended for public reception transmitted by local radio stations. The sound is reproduced either by a loudspeaker in the radio or an earphone which plugs into a jack on the radio; the radio requires electric power, provided either by batteries inside the radio or a power cord which plugs into an electric outlet. All radios have a volume control to adjust the loudness of the audio, some type of "tuning" control to select the radio station to be received. Modulation is the process of adding information to a radio carrier wave. Two types of modulation are used in analog radio broadcasting systems. In amplitude modulation the strength of the radio signal is varied by the audio signal.

AM broadcasting is allowed in the AM broadcast bands which are between 148 and 283 kHz in the longwave range, between 526 and 1706 kHz in the medium frequency range of the radio spectrum. AM broadcasting is permitted in shortwave bands, between about 2.3 and 26 MHz, which are used for long distance international broadcasting. In frequency modulation the frequency of the radio signal is varied by the audio signal. FM broadcasting is permitted in the FM broadcast bands between about 65 and 108 MHz in the high frequency range; the exact frequency ranges vary somewhat in different countries. FM stereo radio stations broadcast in stereophonic sound, transmitting two sound channels representing left and right microphones. A stereo receiver contains the additional circuits and parallel signal paths to reproduce the two separate channels. A monaural receiver, in contrast, only receives a single audio channel, a combination of the left and right channels. While AM stereo transmitters and receivers exist, they have not achieved the popularity of FM stereo.

Most modern radios are "AM/FM" radios, are able to receive both AM and FM radio stations, have a switch to select which band to receive. Digital audio broadcasting is an advanced radio technology which debuted in some countries in 1998 that transmits audio from terrestrial radio stations as a digital signal rather than an analog signal as AM and FM do, its advantages are that DAB has the potential to provide higher quality sound than FM, has greater immunity to radio noise and interference, makes better use of scarce radio spectrum bandwidth, provides advanced user features such as electronic program guide, sports commentaries, image slideshows. Its disadvantage is that it is incompatible with previous radios so that a new DAB receiver must be purchased; as of 2017, 38 countries offer DAB, with 2,100 stations serving listening areas containing 420 million people. Most countries plan an eventual switchover from FM to DAB; the United States and Canada have chosen not to implement DAB. DAB radio stations work differently from AM or FM stations: a single DAB station transmits a wide 1,500 kHz bandwidth signal that carries from 9 to 12 channels from which the listener can choose.

Broadcasters can transmit a channel at a range of different bit rates, so different channels can have different audio quality. In different countries DAB stations broadcast in either Band L band; the signal strength of radio waves decreases the farther they travel from the transmitter, so a radio station can only be received within a limited range of its transmitter. The range depends on the power of the transmitter, the sensitivity of the receiver and internal noise, as well as any geographical obstructions such as hills between transmitter and receiver. AM broadcast band radio waves travel as ground waves which follow the contour of the Earth, so AM radio stations can be reliably received at hundreds of miles distance. Due to their higher frequency, FM band radio signals cannot travel far beyond the visual horizon; however FM radio has higher fidelity. So in many countries serious music is only broa

Amaury Duval (1760–1838)

Charles-Alexandre-Amaury Pineux, known as Amaury Duval was a French lawyer, diplomat and scholar. His brother was the playwright one of his two sons was the painter Amaury Duval. Paris et ses monuments, mesurés, dessinés et gravés par Baltard, avec des descriptions historiques par le citoyen Amaury-Duval Un songe d'Alexandre, fragment d'un poëme d'Arrien, retrouvé et publié par Amaury Duval Les Fontaines de Paris anciennes et nouvelles, ouvrage contenant 60 planches dessinées et gravées au trait, par M. Moisy, accompagnées de descriptions historiques et de notes critiques et littéraires, par M. Amaury Duval Mémoires historiques, politiques et littéraires sur le royaume de Naples par M. le comte Grégoire Orloff, publiés avec des notes et additions par Amaury Duval Monuments des arts du dessin chez les peuples tant anciens que modernes, recueillis par le Baron Vivant Denon, pour servir à l'histoire des arts, lithographiés par ses soins et sous ses yeux, décrits et expliqués par Amaury Duval L'Évêque Gozlin ou le Siège de Paris par les Normands.

Chronique du IX siecle Souvenirs. On Gallica

Mark Gray (snooker player)

Mark Gray is an English professional pool player and former professional snooker player. Born in 1973, Gray turned professional in 1992, he made little progress in any tournament until the 1997/1998 season, when he reached the last 64 at the German Open - losing 1–5 to Karl Broughton - the last 48 at the Thailand Masters, where Chris Small whitewashed him 5–0, made his first appearance in the last 32 at a ranking event, in the 1998 British Open. There, he lost 3 -- 5 to Dominic Dale; the following season saw Gray repeat his feat at the British Open, beating Bjorn Haneveer 5–2, Paul Wykes 5–4 and Jamie Burnett 5–3, having trailed Burnett 1–3. He was again eliminated at this time 4 -- 5 by Peter Ebdon. Gray's ranking improved to a career-best 79th for the 1999/2000 season, but his form declined thereafter. In the 2000 UK Championship, he again met Small and led 3–2, but succumbed 3–9. Gray reached his first quarter-final at the 2001 Benson & Hedges Championship, but was defeated 1–5 by the eventual finalist, Hugh Abernethy.

Having finished the 2002/2003 season ranked 103rd, Gray dropped off the tour, entered several qualifying events the following season to regain his place. He played only four matches in the 2004/2005 season. Finishing that season ranked 97th, he left the professional game once more at the age of 31. After his snooker career ended, Gray began playing pool, becoming a full-time professional player in 2010. In 2008, he was the number one nine-ball player in Britain and Europe, having won the 2008 Swiss 9-Ball Championship. Alongside Daryl Peach, Gray was the runner up at the 2008 World Cup of Pool, losing to the American team of Rodney Morris and Shane Van Boening 11–7

Sandy MacIntyre

Hugh Alexander “Sandy” MacIntyre is one of the most respected artists in the tradition of Cape Breton fiddle music. Sandy was born into a family of musicians in Inverness, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada on April 17, 1935, his father Ronald and mother Cassie were both Scottish fiddlers. Cassie had long been considered one of the liveliest square dance fiddlers in the county. Sandy was one of fourteen children, he started visiting fiddlers. At about age 16 he took up the fiddle, he learned the guitar and in high school he was a drummer in the Inverness Pipe Band. Sandy took the music with him, he is responsible for creating a Cape Breton scene there. He linked up with other exiled Cape Bretoners to bring musicians to Toronto for Cape Breton style dances and to keep the music alive; some of his guest appearances included the Mariposa Folk Festival at Toronto in 1971 and 1972 where he represented Cape Breton fiddlers. He performed at, managed, the Scottish Talent Club in Toronto for eight years.

He has traveled extensively in Canada and the United States, has made trips to Scotland as well as the Shetland and Orkney Islands doing fiddle workshops and concerts. He appeared for five years on the CBC National TV show “Ceilidh” from Halifax with other artists such as Winnie Chafe, Buddy MacMaster, John Campbell, Cameron Chisholm, Doug MacPhee. Sandy was a member of the Cape Breton Symphony Fiddlers for many years, performed on the John Allan Cameron CTV show with symphony director Bobby Brown, Buddy MacMaster, John Donald Cameron and Wilfred Gillis. Sandy made two trips to the Northwest Territories, where he taught fiddle and step dancing to many Native American and Inuit children under the auspices of the “Strings Across The Sky” program arranged by Toronto Symphony violinist Andrea Hansen. Sandy was an instructor at the Cape Breton Fiddling School at the Gaelic College in St. Ann’s Bay for many years and expanded the interest in that program to students from around the world. Sandy’s efforts in raising funds for the College through benefit concerts and his assistance to so many students was recognized by the Board of Governors of the College in 1995.

Sandy was a feature artist on “Bridging Canada”, a simultaneous series of concerts held in October, 1996 on famous bridges from Vancouver to Montreal to foster and celebrate Canadian unity. Sandy performed on the famous Bloor Viaduct in Toronto. Sandy was one of the feature artists in the Mirvish production of “Needfire”, a Celtic musical, from 1998 – 2000 at the Royal Alexandra Theatre and the Princess of Wales Theatre in Toronto, he displayed the unique and traditional style of Cape Breton fiddling during numerous stage appearances throughout the show. Sandy has been a feature performer for many years at the Celtic Colours International Festival in Cape Breton. In 2009, the festival paid tribute to Sandy, his Toronto family band Steeped in Tradition, joined him for this concert in the beautiful St. Matthew's Church in his beloved Inverness. At Sandy's request, he was joined by some of his "teacher's pets", former students Jeff Gosse, Colin Grant, Kimberley Fraser and Dawn & Margie Beaton. Sandy worked as a manager at Air Canada until he retired after twenty-five years in 1983.

He sold real estate in Scarborough until 1995. He teaches Cape Breton step dancing, he is a prolific composer with over a hundred tunes to his credit, many in active circulation among Cape Breton players. Sandy married the former Lucy LeBlanc of Inverness County, they have two children, Brian, a guitarist, Stephen, a bodhran player. Let’s Have a Ceilidh with Sandy MacIntyre Cape Breton.... My Land In Music Island Treasure Vol. 1 Cape Breton Fiddle Music: Steeped In Tradition Steeped and Served: The Sandy MacIntyre Collection Cape Breton Traditional Style Fiddle Sets with Guitar Tablature by Sandy MacIntyre and Leigh Cline This book is a definitive documentation of Cape Breton-style fiddle music. Techniques specific to the style are touched on and many sets are included. Presented are the melodies and guitar tablature. 120 pages. A number of fiddlers have composed tunes in Sandy’s honour: Sandy MacIntyre's Trip to Boston. Borggreen, Jørn. Right to the Helm: Cape Breton Square Dances, third ed. Jyllinge, Denmark: The author.

Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts Sandy MacIntyre Official website Sandy MacIntyre - Biography Back To The Sugarcamp The Cape Breton Fiddler by Allister MacGillivary, pages 126, 127. Celtic Colours International Festival

Virginia Johnson (dancer)

Virginia Johnson is an American ballet dancer and journalist. She serves as the artistic director of Dance Theatre of Harlem and is a founding member and former principal dancer of the company. From 2000 to 2009 she was the editor-in-chief of Pointe. Johnson was born and raised in Washington, D. C, she began training in classical ballet at the age of three under Therrell Smith, a friend of her mother's who had trained under Mathilde Kschessinska. When she was thirteen years old she was accepted as a scholarship student at The Washington School of Ballet, where she trained under Mary Day and was the only African-American student, she graduated from the school in 1968. Johnson enrolled as a dance major at New York University. While a student there, she took a class with Arthur Mitchell and was invited to help start a ballet company with him, she became a founding member of Dance Theatre of Harlem in 1969 and was promoted to the rank of principal dancer. She danced lead roles in Agon, A Streetcar Named Desire, Creole Giselle, Concerto Barocco, Allegro Brillante, Fall River Legend, Swan Lake, Les Biches, Glen Tetley's Voluntaries.

After a twenty-eight year career with the company, Johnson retired and enrolled as a communications student at Fordham University. She was hired as the inaugural editor-in-chief of Pointe Magazine and served in that capacity from 2000 until she left in 2009 to become the artistic director of Dance Theatre of Harlem

History of Santa Catalina Island (California)

The history of human activity on Santa Catalina Island, California begins with the Native Americans who called the island Pimugna or Pimu and referred to themselves as Pimugnans or Pimuvit. The first Europeans to arrive on Catalina claimed it for the Spanish Empire. Over the years, territorial claims to the island transferred to Mexico and to the United States. During this time, the island was sporadically used for smuggling, otter hunting, gold-digging. Catalina was developed into a tourist destination by chewing gum magnate William Wrigley, Jr. beginning in the 1920s, with most of the activity centered around the only incorporated city of Avalon, California. Since the 1970s, most of the island has been administered by the Catalina Island Conservancy. Prior to the modern era, the island was inhabited by people of the Gabrielino/Tongva tribe, having had villages near present-day San Pedro and Playa del Rey traveled back and forth to Catalina for trade; the Tongva referred to themselves as the Pimugnans or Pimuvit.

Archeological evidence shows Pimugnan settlement beginning in 7000 BCE. The Pimugnans had settlements all over the island at one time or another, with their biggest villages being at the Isthmus and at present-day Avalon, Shark/Little Harbor, Emerald Bay; the Pimugnans were renowned for their mining and trade of soapstone, found in great quantities and varieties on the island. This material was in great demand to make stone vessels for cooking and was traded along the California coast. Archaeologists have learned much about these tribes from middens, ancient dumps where they tossed everything they no longer needed; these middens can today be identified by mounds of crumbled abalone shells. It is estimated that there are over 2,000 middens on Catalina Island, only half of which have been discovered. Evidence from these middens indicate; the first European to set foot on the island was the Portuguese explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who sailed in the name of the Spanish crown. On October 7, 1542, he christened it San Salvador after his ship.

Over half a century another Spanish explorer, Sebastián Vizcaíno, rediscovered the island on the eve of Saint Catherine's day in 1602. Vizcaino renamed the island in the saint's honor; the colonization of California by the Spanish coincided with the decline of the Pimugnans. They suffered from the introduction of new diseases to which they had little immunity and the disruption of their trade and social networks caused by the establishment of the California missions. By the 1830s, the island's entire native population were either dead or had migrated to the mainland to work in the missions or as ranch hands for the many private land owners. Franciscan friars considered building a mission there, but abandoned the idea because of the lack of fresh water on the island. While Spain maintained its claim on Catalina Island, foreigners were forbidden to trade with colonies. However, it lacked the ships to enforce this prohibition, the island served as home or base of operation for many visitors. Hunters from the Aleutian Islands and America set up camps on Santa Catalina and the surrounding Channel Islands to hunt otters and seals around the island for their pelts.

The pelts were sold for high prices in China. Smuggling took place on the island for a long period of time. Pirates found that the island's abundance of hidden coves, as well as its short distance to the mainland and its small population, made it suitable for smuggling activities. Once used by smugglers of illegal Chinese immigrants, China Point, located on the south western end of Catalina, still bears its namesake. Governor Pío Pico made a Mexican land grant of the Island of Santa Catalina to Thomas M. Robbins in 1846, as Rancho Santa Catalina. Thomas M. Robbins a sea captain who came to California in 1823, married the daughter of Carlos Antonio Carrillo. Robbins sold it in 1850 to José María Covarrubias. A claim was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1853, the grant was patented to José María Covarrubias in 1867. Covarrubias sold the island to Albert Packard of Santa Barbara in 1853. By 1864 the entire island was owned by James Lick, whose estate maintained control of the island for the next 25 years.

In the fall of 1857 the whaler Charles Melville Scammon, in the brig Boston, rendezvoused with his schooner-tender Marin in the "snug harbor" of Catalina. They left on November 30 for Laguna Ojo de Liebre to become the first to hunt the gray whales breeding there. Three otter hunters, George Yount, Samuel Prentiss, Stephen Bouchette, are responsible for the Island's short-lived gold rush. Yount found promising samples and, shortly before he died in 1854, told some discouraged 1849 Gold Rush miners. Samuel Prentiss, Catalina's first non-native permanent resident, was told of a buried gold treasure, he died in 1854 after spending 30 years unsuccessfully digging for it. Just before he died, he told Stephen Bouchette of the treasure; that same year, news of Yount's promising sample began to circulate. Bouchette announced he had found a rich vein, he secured generous backing and spent more than $10,000 for extensive tunnels stretching over 800 feet. Some believe that there was little, if any and that the claim was a ruse to get loans to dig for the lost treasure.

In 1878, he and his wife were never seen again. Experts are still unable to determine