Autodesk 3ds Max
Autodesk 3ds Max 3D Studio and 3D Studio Max, is a professional 3D computer graphics program for making 3D animations, models and images. It is produced by Autodesk Media and Entertainment, it has modeling capabilities and a flexible plugin architecture and can be used on the Microsoft Windows platform. It is used by video game developers, many TV commercial studios and architectural visualization studios, it is used for movie effects and movie pre-visualization. For its modeling and animation tools, the latest version of 3ds Max features shaders, dynamic simulation, particle systems, normal map creation and rendering, global illumination, a customizable user interface, new icons, its own scripting language; the original 3D Studio product was created for the DOS platform by Gary Yost and the Yost Group, published by Autodesk. The release of 3D Studio made Autodesk's previous 3D rendering package AutoShade obsolete. After 3D Studio DOS Release 4, the product was rewritten for the Windows NT platform, renamed "3D Studio MAX".
This version was originally created by the Yost Group. It was released by Kinetix, at that time Autodesk's division of media and entertainment. Autodesk purchased the product at the second release update of the 3D Studio MAX version and internalized development over the next two releases; the product name was changed to "3ds max" to better comply with the naming conventions of Discreet, a Montreal-based software company which Autodesk had purchased. When it was re-released, the product was again branded with the Autodesk logo, the short name was again changed to "3ds Max", while the formal product name became the current "Autodesk 3ds Max". MAXScript MAXScript is a built-in scripting language that can be used to automate repetitive tasks, combine existing functionality in new ways, develop new tools and user interfaces, much more. Plugin modules can be created within MAXScript. Character Studio Character Studio was a plugin which since version 4 of Max is now integrated in 3D Studio Max; the system works using a character rig or "Biped" skeleton which has stock settings that can be modified and customized to fit the character meshes and animation needs.
This tool includes robust editing tools for IK/FK switching, Pose manipulation and Keyframing workflows, sharing of animation data across different Biped skeletons. These "Biped" objects have other useful features that help accelerate the production of walk cycles and movement paths, as well as secondary motion. Scene Explorer Scene Explorer, a tool that provides a hierarchical view of scene data and analysis, facilitates working with more complex scenes. Scene Explorer has the ability to sort and search a scene by any object type or property. Added in 3ds Max 2008, it was the first component to facilitate. NET managed code in 3ds Max outside of MAXScript. DWG import 3ds Max supports both linking of DWG files. Improved memory management in 3ds Max 2008 enables larger scenes to be imported with multiple objects. Texture assignment/editing 3ds Max offers operations for creative texture and planar mapping, including tiling, decals, rotate, blur, UV stretching, relaxation; the texture workflow includes the ability to combine an unlimited number of textures, a material/map browser with support for drag-and-drop assignment, hierarchies with thumbnails.
UV workflow features include Pelt mapping, which defines custom seams and enables users to unfold UVs according to those seams. General keyframing Two keying modes — set key and auto key — offer support for different keyframing workflows. Fast and intuitive controls for keyframing — including cut and paste — let the user create animations with ease. Animation trajectories may be edited directly in the viewport. Constrained animation Objects can be animated along curves with controls for alignment, velocity and looping, along surfaces with controls for alignment. Weight path-controlled animation between multiple curves, animate the weight. Objects can be constrained to animate with other objects in many ways — including look at, orientation in different coordinate spaces, linking at different points in time; these constraints support animated weighting between more than one target. All resulting constrained animation can be collapsed into standard keyframes for further editing. Skinning Either the Skin or Physique modifier may be used to achieve precise control of skeletal deformation, so the character deforms smoothly as joints are moved in the most challenging areas, such as shoulders.
Skin deformation can be controlled using direct vertex weights, volumes of vertices defined by envelopes, or both. Capabilities such as weight tables, paintable weights, saving and loading of weights offer easy editing and proximity-based transfer between models, providing the accuracy and flexibility needed for complicated characters; the rigid bind skinning option is useful for animating low-polygon models or as a diagnostic tool for regular skeleton animation. Additional modifiers, such as Skin Wrap and Skin Morph, can be used to drive meshes with other meshes and make targeted weighting adjustments in tricky areas. Skeletons and inverse kinematics Characters can be rigged with custom skeletons using 3ds Max bones, IK solvers, rigging tools powered by Motion Capture Data. All animation tools — including
Hiroshima University, in the Japanese cities of Higashihiroshima and Hiroshima, was established 1929 by the merger of a number of national educational institutions. Under the National School Establishment Law, Hiroshima University was established on May 31, 1949. After World War II, the school system in Japan was reformed and each of the institutions of higher education under the pre-war system was reorganized; as a general rule, one national university was established in each prefecture, Hiroshima University became a national university under the new system by combining the pre-war higher educational institutions in Hiroshima Prefecture. The new university combined eight component institutions: Hiroshima University of Literature and Science, Hiroshima School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education, Hiroshima Women's School of Secondary Education, Hiroshima School of Education for Youth, Hiroshima Higher School, Hiroshima Higher Technical School, Hiroshima Municipal Higher Technical School.
In 1953, the Hiroshima Prefectural Medical College was added to the new Hiroshima University. Some of these institutions were notable. Above all, Hiroshima School of Secondary Education, founded in 1902, had a distinguished place as one of the nation's two centers for training middle school teachers; the Hiroshima University of Literature and Science was founded in 1929 as one of the national universities and, with the Hiroshima School of Secondary Education, affiliated to it, were notable. The present Hiroshima University, created from these two institutions as well as three other "old-system" training institutions for teachers, continues to hold an important position among the universities and colleges in Japan. Hiroshima Higher Technical School, which has many alumnae in the manufacturing industry, was founded in 1920 and was promoted to a Technical College in 1944. Hiroshima Higher School was founded in 1923 as one of the pre-war higher schools which prepared students for Imperial and other government-supported universities.
Although these institutions suffered a great deal of damage due to the atomic bomb, dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, they were reconstructed and combined to become the new Hiroshima University. Graduate schools were established in 1953. After completing the reconstruction, in order to seek wider campus, the relocation to local area was planned and decided by 1972. Hiroshima University relocated to Higashihiroshima from Hiroshima City between 1982 and 1995. In Hiroshima City, there are still some Campuses. School of Law School of Economics School of Letters School of Education School of Integrated Arts and Sciences School of Engineering School of Science School of Medicine School of Dentistry School of Pharmaceutical Sciences School of Applied Biological Science Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences Graduate School of Biosphere Science Graduate School of Education Graduate School of Engineering Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences Graduate School of International Development and Cooperation Graduate School of Letters Graduate School of Science Graduate School of Social Sciences Law School Miyajima Natural Botanical Garden Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine Institute for Peace Science Research Institute for Higher Education Higashi-Hiroshima Campus, Kagami-yama 1-chome, Higashihiroshima Kasumi Campus, 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima Higashisenda Campus, 1-1-89, Higashi-senda-machi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima List of universities in Japan Hiroshima University Hiroshima University Study Abroad Program: Information for incoming exchange students from partner universities
Battlefield 3 is a first-person shooter video game developed by EA DICE and published by Electronic Arts. It is a direct sequel to 2005's Battlefield 2, the eleventh installment in the Battlefield franchise; the game was released in North America on 25 October 2011 and in Europe on 28 October 2011 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360. EA Mobile confirmed a port for the iOS platform; the game sold 5 million copies in its first week of release, received positive reviews from most game reviewers. It is the first game in the series that does not support versions of Windows prior to Windows Vista as the game only supports DirectX 10 and 11; the PC version is exclusive to EA's Origin platform, through which PC users authenticate when connecting to the game. The game's sequel, Battlefield 4, was released on 29 October 2013. In Battlefield 3's campaign, players take on the personas of several military roles: a U. S. Marine, an F/A-18F Super Hornet weapon systems officer, an M1A2 Abrams tank operator, a Spetsnaz GRU operative.
The campaign takes place including Iran and New York City. Battlefield 3 features the combined arms battles across single-player, co-operative and multiplayer modes, it reintroduces several elements absent from the Bad Company games, including fighter jets, the prone position and 64-player battles on PC. To accommodate the lower player count on consoles, the ground area is limited for Xbox 360 and PS3, though fly space remains the same. During an interview with Game Informer, EA stated that Commander Mode is unlikely to be included, met with some criticism on the EA forum; the game features maps set in Paris, Sulaymaniyah, New York City, Wake Island, Oman and other parts of the Persian Gulf. The maps cover urban streets, metropolitan downtown areas, open landscapes suited to vehicle combat. Battlefield 3 introduces the "Battlelog". A demo featuring the new co-op mode was featured at Gamescom 2011. DICE general manager Karl Magnus Troedsson confirmed that a split screen option will not be available in co-op mode.
Battlefield 3's new Battlelog social network, DICE noted, would be tied to all co-op matches, allowing players to try to beat friends' scores and to track their performance. Participating in co-op mode allows the player to collect points that unlock additional content that can be used in multiplayer. Battlefield 3's multiplayer matches see players take on one of four roles: Assault, Support and Recon; the Assault class focuses on assault rifles and healing teammates. The Support class focuses on light machine guns and supplying ammunition; the Engineer class focuses on destroying vehicles. The Recon class focuses on spotting enemies; the mechanics of the weapons have been changed to utilize the new engine: compatible weapons may have bipods attached which can be deployed when in the prone position or near suitable scenery, provide a significant boost to accuracy and recoil reduction. Suppressive fire from weapons blurs the vision and reduces the accuracy of those under fire, as well as health regeneration.
The Recon class can put a radio beacon anywhere on the map and all squad members will be able to spawn on the location of the beacon. Several game modes are present, including Conquest, Squad Deathmatch, Squad Rush and for the first time since Battlefield 1942, Team Deathmatch. However, more game modes are available through the purchase of extra downloadable content packs; the PC version of Battlefield 3 is by default launched via a web browser from the Battlelog web site. A server browser is present in console versions of the game, however. Battlefield 3's Campaign story is set during the fictional "War of 2014" and covers events that occur over the span of nine months. Most of the story takes place in the Iran–Iraq region. Other locations include the Azerbaijani border. Most missions occur as flashbacks on part of the interrogation of Staff Sergeant Henry Blackburn, do not occur in order of events; the Campaign puts the player in control of four different player characters. For most of the story, the player controls SSgt.
Henry "Black" Blackburn, a member of the U. S. Marine Corps 1st main protagonist; the player controls Cpl. Jonathan "Jono" Miller, a M1 Abrams tank operator deployed in Tehran; the main antagonist, Solomon, is an overseas asset for the Central Intelligence Agency. Non-player characters include: Blackburn's squad. On 14 November 2014, an unidentified Marine jumps onto the roof of a hijacked train in New York City. Fighting his way through armed men to the engine, he is detained and held at gunpoint by their leader. Eight hours earlier, the Marine, revealed to be Sgt. Henry Blackburn, is held in an interrogation room in Hunters Point, where he is questioned by two C. I. A. Agents about a supposed terror plot in New York surrounding a man named Solomon. Blackburn begins to tell his story of how he first heard of Solomon and the events that led him to his current situation. On 15 March 2014, Sgt. Blackburn's squad, Misfit 1-3, attempt
Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. Its application to 3D graphics was pioneered by Edwin Catmull in 1974. Texture mapping referred to a method that wrapped and mapped pixels from a texture to a 3D surface. In recent decades, the advent of multi-pass rendering and complex mapping such as height mapping, bump mapping, normal mapping, displacement mapping, reflection mapping, specular mapping, occlusion mapping, many other variations on the technique have made it possible to simulate near-photorealism in real time by vastly reducing the number of polygons and lighting calculations needed to construct a realistic and functional 3D scene. A texture map is an image applied to the surface of a polygon; this may be a procedural texture. They may be stored in common image file formats, referenced by 3d model formats or material definitions, assembled into resource bundles, they may have 1-3 dimensions.
For use with modern hardware, texture map data may be stored in swizzled or tiled orderings to improve cache coherency. Rendering APIs manage texture map resources as buffers or surfaces, may allow'render to texture' for additional effects such as post processing, environment mapping, they contain RGB color data, sometimes an additional channel for alpha blending for billboards and decal overlay textures. It is possible to use the alpha channel for other uses such as specularity. Multiple texture maps may be combined for control over specularity, displacement, or subsurface scattering e.g. for skin rendering. Multiple texture images may be combined in texture atlases or array textures to reduce state changes for modern hardware.. Modern hardware supports cube map textures with multiple faces for environment mapping. Texture maps may be acquired by scanning/digital photography, authored in image manipulation software such as GIMP, Photoshop, or painted onto 3D surfaces directly in a 3D paint tool such as Mudbox or zbrush.
This process is akin to applying patterned paper to a plain white box. Every vertex in a polygon is assigned a texture coordinate; this may be done through explicit assignment of vertex attributes, manually edited in a 3D modelling package through UV unwrapping tools. It is possible to associate a procedural transformation from 3d space to texture space with the material; this might be accomplished via planar projection or, cylindrical or spherical mapping. More complex mappings may consider the distance along a surface to minimize distortion; these coordinates are interpolated across the faces of polygons to sample the texture map during rendering. Textures may be repeated or mirrored to extend a finite rectangular bitmap over a larger area, or they may have a one-to-one unique "injective" mapping from every piece of a surface. Texture mapping maps the model surface into texture space. UV unwrapping tools provide a view in texture space for manual editing of texture coordinates; some rendering techniques such as subsurface scattering may be performed by texture-space operations.
Multitexturing is the use of more than one texture at a time on a polygon. For instance, a light map texture may be used to light a surface as an alternative to recalculating that lighting every time the surface is rendered. Microtextures or detail textures are used to add higher frequency details, dirt maps may add weathering and variation. Modern graphics may use more than 10 layers, for greater fidelity. Another multitexture technique is bump mapping, which allows a texture to directly control the facing direction of a surface for the purposes of its lighting calculations. Bump mapping has become popular in recent video games, as graphics hardware has become powerful enough to accommodate it in real-time; the way that samples are calculated from the texels is governed by texture filtering. The cheapest method is to use the nearest-neighbour interpolation, but bilinear interpolation or trilinear interpolation between mipmaps are two used alternatives which reduce aliasing or jaggies. In the event of a texture coordinate being outside the texture, it is either wrapped.
Anisotropic filtering better eliminates directional artefacts when viewing textures from oblique viewing angles. As an optimization, it is possible to render detail from a high resolution model or expensive process into a surface texture; this is known as render mapping. This technique is most used for lightmapping but may be used to generate normal maps and displacement maps; some video games have used this technique. The original Quake software engine used on-the-fly baking to combi
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat
LightWave 3D is a 3D computer graphics software developed by NewTek. It has been used in film, motion graphics, digital matte painting, visual effects, video games development, product design, architectural visualizations, virtual production, music videos, pre-visualizations and advertising. LightWave is a software package used for rendering both animated and static, it includes a fast rendering engine that supports such advanced features as realistic reflection, caustics, 999 render nodes. The 3D modeling component supports subdivision surfaces; the animation component has features such as inverse and forward kinematics for character animation, particle systems and dynamics. Programmers can expand LightWave's capabilities using an included SDK which offers Python, LScript scripting and C language interfaces. In 1988, Allen Hastings created a rendering and animation program called VideoScape 3D, his friend Stuart Ferguson created a complementary 3D modeling program called Modeler, both sold by Aegis Software.
NewTek planned to incorporate Modeler into its video editing suite, Video Toaster. Intended to be called "NewTek 3D Animation System for the Amiga", Hastings came up with the name "LightWave 3D", inspired by two contemporary high-end 3D packages: Intelligent Light and Wavefront. In 1990, the Video Toaster suite was released, incorporating LightWave 3D, running on the Commodore Amiga computer. LightWave 3D has been available as a standalone application since 1994, version 9.3 runs on both Mac OS X and Windows platforms. Starting with the release of version 9.3, the Mac OS X version has been updated to be a Universal Binary. The last known standalone revision for the Amiga was LightWave 5.0, released in 1995. Shortly after the release of the first PC version, NewTek discontinued the Amiga version, citing the platform's uncertain future. Versions were soon released for the DEC Alpha, Silicon Graphics, Macintosh platforms. LightWave was used to create special effects for the Babylon 5, Star Trek: Voyager, Space: Above and Beyond, seaQuest DSV, Battlestar Galactica television series.
The program was utilized in the production of Titanic as well as Avatar, Sin City, 300. The short film 405 was produced by two artists from their homes using LightWave. In the Finnish Star Trek parody Star Wreck: In the Pirkinning, most of the visual effects were done in LightWave by Finnish filmmaker Samuli Torssonen, who produced the VFX work for the feature film Iron Sky; the film Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius was made in LightWave 6 and messiah:Studio. In 2007, the first feature film to be 3D animated by one person without the typical legion of animators made its debut, Flatland the Film by Ladd Ehlinger Jr, it was animated in LightWave 3D 7.5 and 8.0. In its ninth version, the market for LightWave ranges from hobbyists to high-end deployment in video games and cinema. NewTek shipped a 64-bit version of LightWave 3D as part of the fifth free update of LightWave 3D 8, was featured in a keynote speech by Bill Gates at WinHEC 2005. On February 4, 2009, NewTek announced "LightWave CORE" its next-generation 3D application via a streamed live presentation to 3D artists around the world.
It featured a customizable and modernized user interface, Python scripting integration that offered realtime code and view previews, an updated file format based on the industry standard Collada format, substantial revisions to its modeling technologies and a realtime iterative viewport renderer. It was planned to be the first LightWave product to be available on the Linux operating system. However, on June 23, 2011, CORE was cancelled as a standalone product and NewTek announced that the CORE advancements would become part of the ongoing LightWave platform, starting with LightWave 10. On December 30, 2010, NewTek shipped LightWave 10, it added an interactive viewport renderer, interactive stereoscopic camera rigs, linear color-space workflow, real time interactive physical teleoperation input, data interchange upgrades. On February 20, 2012, NewTek began shipping LightWave 11 Software, the latest version of its professional 3D modeling and rendering software. LightWave 11 incorporates many new features, such as instancing and fracturing tools, flexible Bullet Dynamics, Pixologic Zbrush support, more.
LightWave 11 is used for all genres of 3D content creation-from film and broadcast visual effects production, to architectural visualization, game design. On January 31, 2013, NewTek shipped LightWave 11.5 which debuted a new modular rigging system called Genoma. The flocking system was reworked, gaining prey behaviors; the bullet dynamics system was improved to include soft body dynamics, wind forces and to react to bone deformations. Interlinks to After Effects and ZBrush were added as well. New tools, based on a new experimental subsystem were added to Modeler, it was thought that this subsystem would allow further enhancements to Modeler, but disclosures by a developer in the main user forums indicated that this approach had been too problematic and another avenue was being considered to enable Modeler to evolve. FiberFX, the hair/fur system in LightWave saw improvements with the 11.5 release, to work with soft bodies and to directly support curves from Modeler for guiding hair. Additionally and twist support was added, to ease c
The Utah teapot, or the Newell teapot, is a 3D test model that has become a standard reference object and an in-joke within the computer graphics community. It is a mathematical model of an ordinary teapot that appears solid and convex. A teapot primitive is considered the equivalent of a "Hello, World" program, as a way to create an easy 3D scene with a somewhat complex model acting as a basic geometry reference for scene and light setup; some programming libraries, such as the OpenGL Utility Toolkit have functions dedicated to drawing teapots. The teapot model was created in 1975 by early computer graphics researcher Martin Newell, a member of the pioneering graphics program at the University of Utah. For his work, Newell needed a simple mathematical model of a familiar object, his wife, Sandra Newell, suggested modelling their tea service since they were sitting down for tea at the time. He sketched the teapot free-hand using a pencil. Following that, he went back to the computer laboratory and edited bézier control points on a Tektronix storage tube, again by hand.
The teapot shape contained a number of elements that made it ideal for the graphics experiments of the time: it was round, contained saddle points, had a genus greater than zero because of the hole in the handle, could project a shadow on itself, could be displayed without a surface texture. Newell made the mathematical data that described the teapot's geometry publicly available, soon other researchers began to use the same data for their computer graphics experiments; these researchers needed something with the same characteristics that Newell had, using the teapot data meant they did not have to laboriously enter geometric data for some other object. Although technical progress has meant that the act of rendering the teapot is no longer the challenge it was in 1975, the teapot continued to be used as a reference object for advanced graphics techniques. Over the following decades, editions of computer graphics journals featured versions of the teapot: faceted or smooth-shaded, bumpy, refractive leopard-skin and furry teapots were created.
Having no surface to represent its base, the original teapot model was not intended to be seen from below. Versions of the data set fixed this; the real teapot is ~33% taller than the computer model. Jim Blinn stated that he scaled the model on the vertical axis during a demo in the lab to demonstrate that they could manipulate it, they preferred the appearance of this new version and decided to save the file out of that preference. The original, physical teapot was purchased from ZCMI in 1974, it was donated to the Boston Computer Museum in 1984 where it was on display until 1990. It now resides in the ephemera collection at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California where it is catalogued as "Teapot used for Computer Graphics rendering" and bears the catalogue number X00398.1984. Versions of the teapot are still sold today by Friesland Porzellan in Germany, who were the original makers of the teapot as they were once part of the Melitta Group. Versions of the teapot model — or sample scenes containing it — are distributed with or available for nearly every current rendering and modelling program and many graphic APIs, including AutoCAD, Lightwave 3D, MODO, POV-Ray, 3ds Max, the OpenGL and Direct3D helper libraries.
Some RenderMan-compliant renderers support the teapot as a built-in geometry by calling RiGeometry. Along with the expected cubes and spheres, the GLUT library provides the function glutSolidTeapot as a graphics primitive, as does its Direct3D counterpart D3DX; however version 11 of DirectX does not provide this functionality anymore. Mac OS X Tiger and Leopard include the teapot as part of Quartz Composer. BeOS included a small demo of a rotating 3D teapot, intended to show off the platform's multimedia facilities. Teapot scenes are used for renderer self-tests and benchmarks. One famous ray-traced image, by James Arvo and David Kirk in 1987, shows six stone columns, five of which are surmounted by the Platonic solids; the sixth column supports a teapot. The image is titled "The Six Platonic Solids", with Arvo and Kirk calling the teapot "the newly discovered Teapotahedron"; this image appeared on the covers of computer graphic journals. The Utah teapot sometimes appears in the "Pipes" screensaver shipped with Microsoft Windows, but only in versions prior to Windows XP, has been included in the "polyhedra" XScreenSaver hack since 2008.
Jim Blinn proves an amusing version of the Pythagorean theorem: Construct a teapot on each side of a right triangle and the area of the teapot on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the areas of the teapots on the other two sides. Loren Carpenter's 1980 CGI film Vol Libre features the teapot, appearing at the beginning and end of the film in the foreground with a fractal-rendered mountainscape behind it. Vulkan and OpenGL graphics APIs feature Utah teapot along with Stanford Dragon and Stanford Bunny on their badges. With the advent of the first computer generated short films and proceeding full-length feature films, it has become an in-joke to hide the Utah teapot in one of the film's scenes. For example, in the movie Toy Story, the Utah teapot appears in a short tea-party scene; the teapot appears in The Simpsons episode "Treehouse of Horror VI" in which Homer discovers the "third dim