Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, held in custody by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field, demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved; the first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite and the Gaul.
Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted. Little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture a practice known as raptio. Women had no rights, were held as chattel. In the fourth century AD, Bishop Acacius of Amida, touched by the plight of Persian prisoners captured in a recent war with the Roman Empire, who were held in his town under appalling conditions and destined for a life of slavery, took the initiative of ransoming them, by selling his church's precious gold and silver vessels, letting them return to their country. For this he was canonized. During Childeric's siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response.
Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. Many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; this was done in retaliation for the French killing of the boys and other non-combatants handling the baggage and equipment of the army, because the French were attacking again and Henry was afraid that they would break through and free the prisoners to fight again. In the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies. In Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the Northern Crusades; when asked by a Crusader how to distinguish between the Catholics and Cathars once they'd taken the city of Béziers, the Papal Legate Arnaud Amalric famously replied, "Kill them all, God will know His own". The inhabitants of conquered cities were massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed. In feudal Japan, there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed.
The expanding Mongol Empire was famous for distinguishing between cities or towns that surrendered, where the population were spared but required to support the conquering Mongol army, those that resisted, where their city was ransacked and destroyed, all the population killed. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, divided in accordance with their usual custom they were all slain"; the Aztecs were at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, with the goal of this constant warfare being to collect live prisoners for sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted, most were enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.
The freeing of prisoners was recommended as a charitable act. On certain occasions where Muhammad felt the enemy had broken a treaty with the Muslims, he ordered the mass execution of male prisoners, such as the Banu Qurayza. Females and children of this tribe were divided up as spoils of war by Muhammad; the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands. There evolved the right of parole, French for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Ea
Battle of the Mona Passage
The Battle of the Mona Passage was a naval engagement on 19 April 1782 between a British fleet under Rear-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood, a small French fleet. It took place in the Mona Passage, the strait separating Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, shortly after the British victory at the Battle of the Saintes; the British captured four ships, two of which were 64-gun ships of the line. Between 9 April 1782 and 12 April 1782 a British fleet under Admiral George Brydges Rodney engaged and defeated a French fleet under the Comte de Grasse at the battle of the Saintes, thus frustrating French plans for an invasion of Jamaica. Rear-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood fought under Rodney during the battle, was critical of his commander for not pushing home his victory against the retreating enemy fleet; the British fleet made its way to Jamaica, from where Rodney ordered Hood to seek out any disabled or damaged French ships that had escaped the battle. Hood's division of thirteen ships set out toward Saint-Domingue; the French 64-gun ship of the line Caton had been damaged in the initial encounter between the fleets on 9 April, the Jason 64 guns, had been damaged on 10 April when it collided with the heavily-damaged Zélé.
Both of these ships were in the Mona Passage, making sail for Cap-Français along with several smaller ships, when Hood's squadron spotted them. Hood chased down the French ships, the faster copper-sheathed British ships outpacing the damaged French ships. HMS Valiant captured both Jason and Caton at the cost of four men killed and six wounded, whilst HMS Magnificent captured the frigate Aimable at the cost of four killed and eight wounded. Champion captured the frigate Astrée; the captured French ships were taken back to England for further use. Jason was renamed HMS Argonaut, while Caton was used as a prisoner of war hospital ship and moored off Saltash in Cornwall, she continued in this role well into the Napoleonic Wars. Aimable was renamed HMS Aimable and served in the Royal Navy until 1811. Cérès, a former British sloop by the same name, became HMS Raven. Allen, Joseph. Battles of the British Navy publisher Henry Bohn 1852, London, ISBN. Demerliac, Alain La Marine De Louis XVI: Nomenclature Des Navires Français De 1774 À 1792..
ISBN 2-906381-23-3 Harvey, Robert. A Few Bloody Noses: The American Revolutionary War. Constable and Robinson. Lavery, Brian The Ship of the Line - Volume 1: The development of the battlefleet 1650–1850. Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-252-8. Winfield, Rif British Warships in the Age of Sail 1714-1792: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84415-700-6. Ships of the Old Navy: HMS Aimable
A militia is an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or members of a warrior nobility class. Unable to hold ground against regular forces, it is common for militias to be used for aiding regular troops by skirmishing, holding fortifications, or irregular warfare, instead of being used in offensive campaigns by themselves. Militia are limited by local civilian laws to serve only in their home region, to serve only for a limited time. With the emergence of professional forces during the Renaissance, Western European militias wilted; the civic humanist ideal of the militia was spread through Europe by the writings of Niccolò Machiavelli Beginning in the late 20th century, some militias act as professional forces, while still being "part-time" or "on-call" organizations. For instance, the members of some U.
S. Army National Guard units are considered professional soldiers, as they are trained to maintain the same standards as their "full-time" counterparts. Militias thus can be paramilitary, depending on the instance; some of the contexts in which the term "militia" is used include: Forces engaged in defense activity or service, to protect a community, its territory and laws. The entire able-bodied population of a community, county, or state, available to be called to arms. A subset of these who may be penalized for failing to respond to a call-up. A subset of these who respond to a call-up, regardless of legal obligation. A private, non-government force, not directly supported or sanctioned by its government. An irregular armed force enabling its leader to exercise military and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state. An official reserve army, composed of citizen soldiers. Called by various names in different countries, such as the Army Reserve, National Guard, or state defense forces.
The national police forces in several former communist states such as the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries, but in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia. The term was inherited in other former CIS countries, where they are known as militsiya. In France the equivalent term "Milice" has become tainted due to its use by notorious collaborators with Nazi Germany. A select militia is composed of a small, non-representative portion of the population politicized. Militia derives from Latin roots: miles /miːles/: soldier -itia /iːtia/: a state, quality or condition of being militia /mil:iːtia/: Military serviceThe word militia dates back to ancient Rome, more to at least 1590 when it was recorded in a book by Sir John Smythe, Certain Discourses Military with the meanings: a military force, it should be noted that the term is used by several countries with the meaning of "defense activity" indicating it is taken directly from Latin. In the early 1800s Buenos Aires, by the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, was attacked during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.
As regular military forces were insufficient to counter the British attackers, Santiago de Liniers drafted all males in the city capable of bearing arms into the military. These recruits included the criollo peoples, who ranked low down in the social hierarchy, as well as some slaves. With these reinforcements, the British armies were twice defeated; the militias became a strong factor in the politics of the city afterwards, as a springboard from which the criollos could manifest their political ambitions. They were a key element in the success of the May Revolution, which deposed the Spanish viceroy and began the Argentine War of Independence. A decree by Mariano Moreno derogated the system of promotions involving criollos, allowing instead their promotion on military merit; the Argentine Civil War was waged by militias again, as both federalists and unitarians drafted common people into their ranks as part of ongoing conflicts. These irregular armies were organized at a provincial level, assembled as leagues depending on political pacts.
This system had declined by the 1870s due to the establishment of the modern Argentine Army, drafted for the Paraguayan War by President Bartolome Mitre. Provincial militias were outlawed and decimated by the new army throughout the presidential terms of Mitre, Sarmiento and Roca. Armenian militia, or fedayi played a major role in the independence of various Armenian states, including Western Armenia, the First Republic of Armenia, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh. Armenian militia played a role in the Georgia-Abkhazia War of 1992–1993. In the Colony of New South Wales Governor Lachlan Macquarie proposed a colonial militia but the idea was rejected. Governor Ralph Darling felt. A military volunteer movement attracted wide
Battle of Fort Royal
The Battle of Fort Royal was a naval battle fought off Fort Royal, Martinique in the West Indies during the Anglo-French War on 29 April 1781, between fleets of the British Royal Navy and the French Navy. After an engagement lasting four hours, the British squadron under Sir Samuel Hood broke off and retreated. Admiral Comte de Grasse offered a desultory chase before seeing the French convoys safe to port. In March 1781, a large French fleet under the command of Comte de Grasse left the port of Brest. Most of this fleet was headed for the West Indies. Of the 26 ships of the line, one was sent to North America, five, under the command of the Bailli de Suffren, were destined for India; the remaining twenty arrived off to Martinique on April 28. Before sailing to the lee side of the island, de Grasse anchored the fleet and sent someone ashore for news, he learned that a British fleet of 17 ships of the line under Samuel Hood was blockading Fort Royal, preventing the four French ships anchored there from leaving.
Hood was under orders from the fleet's station commander, Admiral George Brydges Rodney, to maintain the blockade of the port on the lee side, despite his protests that this would put him at a disadvantage should any other fleet arrive. Though disadvantaged by his position and his inferior firepower, the fact that all of his ships had copper bottoms, which required little maintenance compared to the alternative, that he was not burdened with the responsibility of escorting a convoy both allowed him to focus his efforts on maintaining the blockade. De Grasse ordered his fleet to prepare for action on the morning of April 29, sailed for Fort Royal with the convoy ships hugging the coast and the armed ships in battle line. Hood's fleet was spotted bearing toward them around 8:00 AM, but de Grasse held the advantageous weather gauge. At about 9:20 AM, Hood was joined by the Prince William, a 64-gun ship, at St. Lucia; the two fleets continued to push for advantageous positions, however Hood's leeward position meant he was unable to prevent de Grasse from bringing the convoy to the harbor, de Grasse's fleet and the four blockaded ships soon met.
Around 11 AM, de Grasse's van began firing with no effect. By 12:30 PM the two fleets were aligned, but de Grasse refused to take advantage of the weather gauge to close with Hood, despite Hood's efforts to bring the French to him; the fleets exchanged cannonades and broadsides for the next hour. The four British ships on the southern end of the line suffered the most damage due to being targeted and outnumbered by eight French ships. Hood drew away toward St. Lucia. Hood dispatched the Russell, holed below the waterline to St. Eustatius for repairs, to bring news of the action to Admiral Rodney. Hood spent the next day in fruitless attempts to gain the windward and made sail to the north, he met Rodney on May 11 between St. Kitts and Antigua, the latter having left St. Eustatius on May 5. Reports of French casualties vary from as few as 74 killed and wounded to more than 250. British order of battle as provided by Clowes, p. 482. Alfred, 74, Captain William Bayne Belliqueux, 64, Captain James Brine Alcide, 74, Captain Charles Thompson Invincible, 74, Captain Sir Richard Bickerton Monarch, 74, Captain Francis Reynolds Barfleur, 90, Captain John Knight, Rear-Admiral Samuel Hood Terrible, 74, Captain James Ferguson Princessa, 70, Captain Sir Thomas Rich Ajax, 74, Captain John Symons Resolution, 74, Captain Lord Robert Manners Montagu, 74, Captain John Houlton Gibraltar, 80, Captain Charles Knatchbull, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Samuel Drake Centaur, 74, Captain John Neale Pleydell Nott Prince William, 64, Captain Stair Douglas Torbay, 74, Captain John Lewis Gidoin Intrepid, 64, Captain Anthony James Pye Molloy Shrewsbury, 74, Captain Mark Robinson Castex, Jean-Claude.
Dictionnaire des batailles navales franco-anglaises. Presses Université Laval. ISBN 978-2-7637-8061-0. Clowes, William Laird; the royal navy: a history from the earliest times to the present, Volume 3. London: S. Low, Marston. OCLC 20348745
Capture of St. Lucia
The Capture of St Lucia was the result of a campaign from 18–28 December 1778 by British land and naval forces to take over the island, a French colony. Britain's actions followed the capture of the British-controlled island of Dominica by French forces in a surprise invasion in September 1778. During the Battle of St. Lucia, the British fleet defeated a French fleet sent to reinforce the island. A few days French troops were soundly defeated by British troops during the Battle of Morne de la Vierge. Realising that another British fleet would soon arrive with reinforcements, the French garrison surrendered; the remaining French troops were evacuated, the French fleet returned to Martinique, another French colony. St. Lucia stayed in the hands of the British. France formally recognized the United States on February 6, 1778, with the signing of the Treaty of Alliance. Britain declared war on France on March 17, 1778 spurring France's entry into the American Revolutionary War. On September 7, 1778, the French governor of Martinique, Marquis de Bouille, launched a surprise attack on the British-held Island of Dominica, took control of the former French colony.
On November 4, Commodore William Hotham was sent from Sandy Hook, New Jersey, to reinforce the British fleet in the West Indies. Hotham sailed with "five men of war, a bomb vessel, some frigates, a large convoy." The convoy consisted of 59 types of transport carrying 5,000 British soldiers under Major General Grant. Admiral Samuel Barrington, the British naval commander stationed on the Leeward Islands, joined the newly arrived Commodore Hotham on December 10 on the island of Barbados. Grant's men were not spent the next several days aboard their transports. Barrington and Hotham sailed for the French island of St. Lucia on the morning of December 12, with the idea of capturing it and using it as a base for monitoring French activity in the area; the French Admiral Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector Comte d'Estaing had sailed for the West Indies, departing from the port of Boston, Massachusetts on November 4. However the French fleet was blown off course by a violent storm, preventing it from arriving in the Caribbean ahead of the British.
Upon the British ships' arrival on December 13, Major General James Grant ordered Brigadier General William Medows to land with a force of 1,400 at Grand Cul-de-Sac. This force consisted of the flank companies from the 5th Foot, they scaled the heights on the north side of the bay and captured an abandoned gun. Brigadier-General Prescott landed shortly afterward with the 27th, 35th, 40th, 49th Regiments of Foot and guarded the bay. On December 14, Medows' group took the fort at Morne Fortune and the capital, while Prescott's force remained in support; the third force of 1600 remained with the fleet under the command of Brigadier General Sir H. Calder; the French governor, Claude-Anne Guy de Micoud, had evacuated into the jungle without a fight, allowing the British to occupy the Carénage Bay, three miles north of Cul de Sac, without losses. On 13 December Admiral Barrington received news of the imminent arrival of the French Fleet. Barrington placed his transports inside the bay, but behind his battle line which took the entire evening of 14 December.
By 1100 hours the next day, most of the transports were safely behind his line By the evening of December 14, the French fleet under d'Estaing had arrived. The Battle of St. Lucia or the Battle of the Cul de Sac was fought between the British invasion fleet and French relief fleet on December 15, 1778, for control of the Island of St. Lucia. Admiral Barrington had organised his line of battle so that Isis and his three frigates were close to shore guarding the windward approach, he placed his flagship, Prince of Wales, toward the leeward. At 1100 hours 15 December Admiral d’Estaing approached St. Lucia with ten ships of the line, was fired on by one of the shore batteries. D’Estaing moved to engage Barrington from the rear, a “warm conflict” raged between the two fleets, with the British supported by two shore batteries. D'Estaing was succeeded in reforming his line of battle. At 1600 hours d’Estaing renewed his assault by attacking Barrington’s centre with twelve ships of the line. Again heavy fire was exchanged.
On 16 December Admiral d’Estaing appeared to be preparing for a third assault against Admiral Barrington’s line, but sailed away towards the windward. On the evening of 16 December d’Estaing anchored in Gros Islet Bay with "ten frigates and twelve sail of the line, &c."Admiral d’Estaing’s failure to break Barrington’s line on 15 December was a major setback for the French in their efforts to expel the British from St. Lucia. On December 18, 1778 a force of 9,000 French troops was landed near Castries, St. Lucia to attack General Medows' smaller force of 1,400. Medows ordered his troops to entrench themselves on a hill located on the neck of the Vigie peninsula; the British force consisted of the grenadier and light infantry companies of the 4th, 5th, 15th, 27th, 28th, 35th, 40th, 46th, 55th Regiments of Foot. The French were inexperienced soldiers and were unprepared to fight against experienced,entrenched British infantry who were veterans of fighting in America, they advanced in line on the British force several times.
After the third French attack, the British commander, Brigadier General Medows, wounded, realised that ammunition was low and fearing that they would be over-run, addressed his men "Soldiers, as long as you have a bayonet to point against an enemy's breast, defend the colours." But the French did not attack a fourth time. Despite being heavily
Battle of San Fernando de Omoa
The Battle of San Fernando de Omoa was a short siege and battle between British and Spanish forces fought not long after Spain entered the American Revolutionary War on the American side. On the 16 October 1779, following a brief attempt at siege, a force of 150 British soldiers and seamen assaulted and captured the fortifications at San Fernando de Omoa in the Captaincy General of Guatemala on the Gulf of Honduras; the British forces managed consisting of 365 men. The British only held the fort until November 1779, they withdrew the garrison, which tropical diseases had reduced, and, under threat of a Spanish counter-attack. When Spain entered the American Revolutionary War in June 1779, both Great Britain and Spain had been planning for the possibility of hostilities for some time. King Carlos III set the defence of the Captaincy General of Guatemala as one of his highest priorities in the Americas, after the conquest of British West Florida, his forces seized the initiative in North America, where they captured the British outpost at Baton Rouge in September 1779, before the British were able to marshal any kind of significant defensive force in the area.
The British sought to gain control over Spanish colonies in Central America, their first target was San Fernando de Omoa, a fortress that Matías de Gálvez, the Captain General of Guatemala, called "the key and outer wall of the kingdom". However, the Spanish struck first. In September the capture of Cayo Cocina gave them possession of the British settlement at St. George's Caye. Anticipating a British attack against the nearby port of Santo Tomás de Castilla, Gálvez withdrew the garrison there to Omoa; the Spanish had started building San Fernando de Omoa, principally with African slave labour, in the 1740s during the War of Jenkins' Ear. It became of the largest defensive fortifications in Central America, one of the Guatemalan Captaincy General's principal Caribbean ports; the decision by Gálvez to withdraw to Omoa upset British plans. Commodore John Luttrell, in command of three ships and 250 men, had intended an attack on the Santo Tómas, but his force was inadequate for an attack on Omoa.
When he and Captain William Dalrymple arrived at Omoa on the 25 September with 500 men, they were forced to retreat after a brief exchange of cannon fire. The British returned with twelve ships in early October; the British established some batteries to fire on the fort, supported them with fire from three ships. Simón Desnaux, the fort's commander, returned fire, he succeeded in damaging HMS Lowestoffe, which ran aground but was refloated. Although Desnaux was badly outnumbered, he refused an offer for surrender in the hope that Gálvez would be able to send reinforcements. On the night of the 20 October, a small number of British attackers climbed into the fort and opened one of the gates. After a brief exchange of small arms fire, Desnaux surrendered. Among the spoils the British won when they gained control of Omoa were two Spanish ships, anchored in the harbour, that held more than three million Spanish dollars of silver. Gálvez began planning a counterattack. On the 25 November his forces began besieging the fort, now under Dalrymple's control, engaging in regular exchanges of cannon fire.
Gálvez, whose force was smaller than Dalrymple's, magnified its apparent size by setting extra campfires around the fort. He attempted an assault on the 29 November but difficulties with his artillery caused him to call it off. Still, whose forces were reduced by tropical diseases, withdrew his men from the fort and evacuated them that same day; the British continued to make attacks on the Central American coast but were never successful in their goal of dividing the Spanish colonies and gaining access to the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish were unsuccessful in driving out the British settlements in Central America, most of which the British had recaptured by the war's end. Though a small engagement and a short lived victory, the storming of the fortifications at Omoa was the scene of an event that would be depicted by British engravers for years to come. Captain William Dalrymple, in his letter to Lord George Germain dated the 21 October 1779, wrote:Your lordship will pardon my mentioning an instance of an elevated mind in a British tar, which amazed the Spaniards, gave them a high idea of English valour: not content with one cutlass, he scrambled up the walls with two.
Beatson, Robert. Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain, from 1727 to 1783, Volume 6. Longman, Hurst and Orme. Contains surrender agreement. Chávez, Thomas E. Spain and the Independence of the United States: An Intrinsic Gift. UNM Press. ISBN 978-0-8263-2794-9. OCLC 149117944. Fernández Duro, Cesáreo. Armada Española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y Aragón. VII. Madrid, Spain: Est. tipográfico "Sucesores de Rivadeneyra". Fortescue, John William. A History of the British Army, Volume 3. Macmillan. Lovejoy, Paul E. Trans-Atlantic Dimensions of Ethnicity in the African Diaspora. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-4907-8. OCLC 475624274. Marley, David. Wars of the Americas: a chronolog
The Thirteen Colonies known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries. They formed the United States of America; the Thirteen Colonies had similar political and legal systems and were dominated by Protestant English-speakers. They were part of Britain's possessions in the New World, which included colonies in Canada, the Caribbean, the Floridas. Between 1625 and 1775, the colonial population grew from 2,000 to over 2.5 million, displacing American Indians. This population included people subject to a system of slavery, legal in all of the colonies prior to the American Revolutionary War. In the 18th century, the British government operated its colonies under a policy of mercantilism, in which the central government administered its possessions for the economic benefit of the mother country; the Thirteen Colonies had a high degree of self-governance and active local elections, they resisted London's demands for more control.
The French and Indian War against France and its Indian allies led to growing tensions between Britain and the Thirteen Colonies. In the 1750s, the colonies began collaborating with one another instead of dealing directly with Britain; these inter-colonial activities cultivated a sense of shared American identity and led to calls for protection of the colonists' "Rights as Englishmen" the principle of "no taxation without representation". Grievances with the British government led to the American Revolution, in which the colonies collaborated in forming the Continental Congress; the colonists fought the American Revolutionary War with the aid of France and, to a smaller degree, the Dutch Republic and Spain. In 1606, King James I of England granted charters to both the Plymouth Company and the London Company for the purpose of establishing permanent settlements in America; the London Company established the Colony and Dominion of Virginia in 1607, the first permanently settled English colony on the continent.
The Plymouth Company founded the Popham Colony on the Kennebec River. The Plymouth Council for New England sponsored several colonization projects, culminating with Plymouth Colony in 1620, settled by English Puritan separatists, known today as the Pilgrims; the Dutch and French established successful American colonies at the same time as the English, but they came under the English crown. The Thirteen Colonies were complete with the establishment of the Province of Georgia in 1732, although the term "Thirteen Colonies" became current only in the context of the American Revolution. In London beginning in 1660, all colonies were governed through a state department known as the Southern Department, a committee of the Privy Council called the Board of Trade and Plantations. In 1768, a specific state department was created for America, but it was disbanded in 1782 when the Home Office took responsibility. Province of New Hampshire, established in the 1620s, chartered as crown colony in 1679 Province of Massachusetts Bay, established in the 1620s, a crown colony 1692 Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, established 1636, chartered as crown colony in 1663 Connecticut Colony, established 1636, chartered as crown colony in 1662 Province of New York, proprietary colony 1664–1685, crown colony from 1686 Province of New Jersey, proprietary colony from 1664, crown colony from 1702 Province of Pennsylvania, a proprietary colony established 1681 Delaware Colony, a proprietary colony established 1664 Province of Maryland, a proprietary colony established 1632 Colony and Dominion of Virginia, proprietary colony established 1607, a crown colony from 1624 Province of Carolina, a proprietary colony established 1663 Divided into the Province of North-Carolina and Province of South Carolina in 1712, each became a crown colony in 1729 Province of Georgia, proprietary colony established 1732, crown colony from 1752.
The first successful English colony was Jamestown, established May 1607 near Chesapeake Bay. The business venture was financed and coordinated by the London Virginia Company, a joint stock company looking for gold, its first years were difficult, with high death rates from disease and starvation, wars with local Indians, little gold. The colony flourished by turning to tobacco as a cash crop. In 1632, King Charles I granted the charter for Province of Maryland to Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. Calvert's father had been a prominent Catholic official who encouraged Catholic immigration to the English colonies; the charter offered no guidelines on religion. The Province of Carolina was the second attempted English settlement south of Virginia, the first being the failed attempt at Roanoke, it was a private venture, financed by a group of English Lords Proprietors who obtained a Royal Charter to the Carolinas in 1663, hoping that a new colony in the south would become profitable like Jamestown.
Carolina was not settled until 1670, then the first attempt failed because there was no incentive for emigration to that area. However, the Lords combined their remaining capital and financed a settlement mission to the area led by Sir John Colleton; the expedition located fertile and defensible ground at what became Charleston Charles Town for Charles II of England. The Pilgrims were a small group of Puritan separatists who felt that they needed to physically distance themselves from the corrupt Church of England. After moving to the Netherlands, they decided to re-establish themselves in America; the initi