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Rail transport in China

Rail transport is an important mode of long-distance transportation in the People's Republic of China. As of 2015, the country has 121,000 km of the second longest network in the world. By the end of 2018, China had 29,000 kilometres of high-speed rail, the longest HSR network in the world. All rail operations are handled by the China State Railway Group Company, Limited, a state-owned company created in March 2013 from dissolution of the Ministry of Railways, it was converted into a joint-stock company and placed under the control of the Ministry of Finance in June 2019. China's railways are among the busiest in the world. In 2014, railways in China delivered 2.357 billion passenger trips, generating 1,160.48 billion passenger-kilometres and carried 3.813 billion tonnes of freight, generating 2,753 billion cargo tonne-kilometres. Freight traffic turnover has increased more than fivefold over the period 1980-2013 and passenger traffic turnover has increased more than sevenfold over the same period.

Driven by need to increase freight capacity, the railway network has expanded with the country budgeting $130.4 billion for railway investment in 2014, has a long term plan to expand the network to 274,000 km by 2050. China built 9,000 km of new railway in 2015; the first railway to be built in China was a 600-metre narrow gauge demonstration line that a British merchant assembled in Beijing in 1865 to demonstrate rail technology. The Qing government had the line dismantled; the first railroad to enter commercial service was the Woosung Railway, a 9 ¼ mi railway from Shanghai to Woosung which opened in 1876. This was built by the British, without approval from the Qing government, which had the line dismantled one year later; until the defeat of China in the First Sino-Japanese War, the government remained hostile toward railway construction. Beginning in 1895, the government began to grant rail concessions to foreigners, permitted direct connection to the capital Beijing. By 1911, there were about 9,000 km of railroads in China designed, built and operated by foreign companies.

This was still well behind the industrialized world, the United States had 380,000 km of rail at the time. The first indigenous-designed and -constructed railway by Chinese was the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway built from 1905 to 1909, a difficult job due to the mountainous terrain; the chief engineer of this railway was Zhan Tianyou, known as the Father of China's Railway. During the Republic of China era from 1912 until 1949, the development of the railway network in China slowed due to repeated civil wars and the invasion of Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War. One of the few exceptions was in Northeastern China; the Russians opened the Chinese Eastern Railway in 1901. During the reign of the Fengtian warlords from 1912 till 1931, numerous owned railway companies were formed. In 1935, the Japanese bought the northern portion of the Chinese Eastern Railway from the Soviet Union and merged it into the MNR. In addition to the MNR and SMR, several other railway companies were established in the Japanese-occupied parts of China, including the North China Transportation Company, the Central China Railway, the East Manchuria Railway.

In 1945, just after the Second Sino-Japanese War, there were 27,000 km of rail, of which nearly half - 13,000 km - was located in Manchuria. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the new government under Mao Zedong invested in the railway network. From the 1950s to the 70s, lines those in western China, were expanded. One example is the 1900 km railway from Lanzhou to Ürümqi, built between 1952 and 1962. In Southwestern China, where difficult terrain prevails, several mountain railways were constructed, such as the Baoji–Chengdu Railway, built in the 1950s, the Chengkun Railway, built in the 1970s; the railway to Tibet, one of the highest in the world, was completed and opened to the public in 2006. Today, every province-level entity of the People's Republic, with the exception of Macau, is connected to the railway network. Not only has the Chinese railway network expanded in size since 1949, but it has seen great technological advances. Before the 1980s, most of the railways were powered by steam.

China's first diesel locomotive, the Dongfeng, was introduced in 1958 and their first production model diesel, the DF4, was introduced in 1969. However, the early dieselization efforts were slowed by problems with the early DF4s and steam locomotive production continued into the late 1980s. During the 1980s and 90s, diesel and electric locomotives replaced the steam engines on main lines. However, steam locomotives didn't retire from some provincial railways until the 21st century. In December 2005, the world's last regular revenue mainline steam train finished its journey on the Jitong railway, marking the end of the steam era. There are still some steam locomotives used in the industrial railways in China. From 1990 to 2001, on average

Stephen Spring Rice (1856–1902)

Stephen Edward Spring Rice, was a British civil servant and academic. Spring Rice was the son of the Hon. Charles William Thomas Spring Rice, a civil servant in the Foreign Office, Elizabeth Margaret Marshall, he was the grandson of the Whig politician, Lord Monteagle of Brandon and the brother of the diplomat, Sir Cecil Spring Rice. He was brought up near Watermillock on the shore of Ullswater. Spring Rice was educated at Eton College and Trinity College and became a fellow of the college in 1879, he entered HM Treasury in 1878 and was Private Secretary to successive Financial Secretaries to the Treasury between 1881 and 1888. Spring Rice became Private Secretary to Sir William Harcourt when he was Chancellor of the Exchequer for the first time in 1886. In 1894, he became Principal Clerk in the Treasury and was given the additional role of Auditor of the Civil List in 1899, he was invested as a Companion of the Order of the Bath and was a contributor to the Encyclopædia Britannica. Spring Rice married on 12 January 1888 Julia FitzGerald, a daughter of Sir Peter FitzGerald, 19th Knight of Kerry.

They had a son, Edward Dominck Spring Rice, a daughter, Mary Honora Spring Rice. Spring Rice died of an illness at Abinger-hall, Dorking, on 6 September 1902, at the age of 46, was buried in the parish church at Watermillock, he is commemorated by a memorial bridge at Aira Force with his brothers Gerald and Cecil

Jam Ghulam Qadir Khan

Jam Mir Ghulam Qadir Khan Aliani, who belonged to Koreja Family of Samma Tribe who ruled over Sindh. One of his ancestor Jam Arradin Migrated from Sindh and settled in Kanrach during the riegn of Mughal emperor Jahangir one of his descendants of Jam Arradin, Jam Rabdino was known for his bravery and generosity. At that time Lasbela was under the rule of Burfats Finally Jam comes over and They ruled over Lasbela for our two centuries and produced nine able rulers namely Jam Aali Korejo Jam Ghulam Shah Korejo Jam Mir Khan Korejo Jam Aali Khan II,Jam Mir Khan II,Jam Mir Khan III,Jam Kamal khan,Jam Ghulam Muhammad Khan CIE, OBE was the last Jam of Lasbela, the title of the rulers of the princely state of Las Bela in Balochistan, Pakistan. Jam Mohammad Yousaf Jam family of Lasbela The Daily Dawn


Tvorchi is an Ukrainian electronic music band from Ternopil formed in 2018 by sound producer Andrew Hutsuliak and vocalist Jeffery Augustus Kenny. They have two studio albums: Disco lights; the band perform songs in English. Andrew Hutsuliak and Jeffery Kenny get acquainted on the street accidentally when Andriy approached Jeffrey on the street to check his level of English and to take with him, and Nigerian a songwriter and vocalist. The acquaintance grew into a collaboration where the Ukrainian became a music producer and the Nigerian a songwriter and vocalist. Both studied at the Faculty of Pharmacy of Ternopil National Medical University. On May 30, 2017, the world saw the band's first single, "Slow". On September 4, the second single. On February 2, 2018, the band released their debut album, dubbed The Parts. On September 20, 2018, the band released a video for the song "Youth'". On February 14, 2019, the second album named. On February 21, the band released a video for the song "Believe". According to the guys, the shooting budget was $100.

Within a few days, the video garnered 400,000 views on YouTube, the song ranked 9th in Google Play charts in Ukraine. In the summer of that year, the band performed at music festivals Faine Misto, Atlas Weekend and Ukrainian Song Project. On September 9, the band released the single "#не танцюю" and on September 16, a music video for it. In February 2020, Tvorchi presented a "Bonfire" song on environmental issues and took part in the National Selection to Eurovision 2020 and made it to the finals. Tvorchi on Facebook Tvorchi on SoundCloud Tvorchi on Instagram Tvorchi at

Boating on the Yerres

Boating on the Yerres is a 1877 painting by French impressionist and realist painter Gustave Caillebotte. From Urban Milwaukee: "The three boats — sporty, kayak-like craft — glide on a stream that opens in a wedge shape; the tilt of the riverbank exaggerates the downhill flow of the water. The geometry of the painting, a rough wedge expanding from the top right to the lower left, promotes the sense of downward, leftward flow; the lead boat cuts an arrowhead of light into the shadow cast by the large tree." During the weeks leading up to Super Bowl XLV between the Green Bay Packers and the Pittsburgh Steelers, the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh and the Milwaukee Art Museum made a friendly wager to loan one piece from their permanent collection to the winning team's museum, with the Carnegie Museum of Art agreeing to loan Pierre Auguste Renoir's Bathers With Crab and the Milwaukee Art Museum agreeing to loan Boating on the Yerres

Koreasat 1

Koreasat 1 was a South Korean communications satellite launched by a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA. Owned by KT Corporation. One of the boosters of the rocket Delta failed to separate from the first stage of the spacecraft, placing it 5,000 km short of its planned GTO apogee; the satellite had to use up 7.5 years worth of its 12-year lifetime fuel supply to make up the deficiency, shortening Koreasat 1's expected life to about 4.5 years. In order to extend its lifetime, it gave up North-South station-keeping operating in "inclined mode." In the end, the satellite managed to function for 10 years. The satellite was equipped with a Star 30 solid apogee motor, it carried 625 kg of fuel for 187 kg of hydrazine propellant. It was positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 116° E from 1995-2000. In 2000, Koreasat 1 was sold to Europe*Star which renamed it Europe*Star B and operated it at 47.5° E where it was focused on Hungary. The satellite was moved to the graveyard orbit.

As of March 9, 2007, it was located at 152.88° E drifting at 2.155° W per day. Asia Broadcast Satellite THE KOREASAT PROGRAM