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Rail transport in France

Rail transport in France is marked by a clear predominance of passenger traffic, driven in particular by high-speed rail. The SNCF, the national state-owned railway company, operates most of the passenger and freight services on the national network managed by its subsidiary SNCF Réseau. France operates the second-largest European railway network, with a total of 29,901 kilometres of railway.. The first rail line in the country opened in 1827 from Saint-Étienne to Andrézieux; the network has undergone a major modernization since 1981 with the arrival of the TGV high-speed rail service, expanded in subsequent years. In 2017, there were 1.762 billion journeys on the French national rail network, among which 1.270 billion on SNCF services and 493 million on RATP sections of the RER, the express regional network operating in the Paris area, shared between both companies. The Paris suburban rail services represents alone 82% of the French rail annual ridership. With a total of 100.2 billion passenger-kilometres, France has the fifth-most used passenger network worldwide, second-most used in Europe after that of Russia.

France is a member of the International Union of Railways. The UIC Country Code for France is 87. National and regional services are complemented by an important network of urban rails, still growing. Six cities are served by metro systems. 28 metropolitan areas are additionally served by tram networks, among which 20 were inaugurated in the 21st century. In 1814, the French engineer Pierre Michel Moisson-Desroches proposed to the Emperor Napoleon to build seven national railways from Paris, in order to travel "short distances within the Empire". However, the history of railways in France begins in 1827, when the first trains operated on the Saint-Etienne to Andrezieux Railway, the first French line, granted by order of King Louis XVIII in 1823. Since Legrand Star rail plan of 1842, French railways are focused on Paris. Traffic is concentrated on the main lines: 78% of activity is done on 30% of the network, the 46% of smaller lines only drive 6% of the traffic; the 366 largest stations account for 85% of passenger activity, the smallest 56% of stations take only 1.7% of traffic.

Freight transport has declined since the early 1980s. Today the network is predominantly passenger-centric. Since 1 January 2007, the freight market has been open to conform to European Union agreements. New operators had reached 15% of the market at the end of 2008; the Transport express régional is directed by the administrative Regions of France. They contract with the SNCF for lines exploitation; the SNCF directly manage this class of trains. The TGV is used on the most important destinations, while Intercités carriages are still used for other lines; the French railway network, as administered by SNCF Réseau, as of June 2007, is a network of commercially usable lines of 29,213 kilometres, of which 15,141 km is electrified. 1,876 km of those are 16,445 km dispose of two or more tracks. 5,905 km are supplied with 1,500 V DC, 9,113 km with 25 kV AC at 50 Hz. 122 km are electrified by third rail or other means.1,500 V is used on the south, HSR lines and the northern part of the country use 25 kV electrification.

Trains drive on the left, except in Alsace and Moselle where tracks were first constructed while those regions were part of Germany. Same gauge Belgium — voltage change 25 kV AC/3 kV DC Germany — voltage change 25 kV AC/15 kV AC Great Britain via the Channel Tunnel — voltage change 25 kV AC/750 V DC third rail Italy — voltage change 25 kV AC or 1.5 kV DC/3 kV DC Luxembourg — same voltage Monaco — same voltage Spain via the LGV Perpignan-Figueres — same voltage Switzerland — voltage change 25 kV AC or 1.5 kV DC/15 kV AC Break-of-gauge, 1,435 mm /1,668 mm Spain — voltage change 1.5 kV DC/3 kV DC No rail link to Andorra The French non-TGV intercity service is in decline, with old infrastructure and trains. It is to be hit further as the French government is planning to remove the monopoly that rail has on long-distance journeys by letting coach operators compete. Travel to the UK through the Channel Tunnel has grown in recent years, from May 2015 passengers have been able to travel direct to Marseille and Lyon.

Eurostar is introducing new Class 374 trains and refurbishing the current Class 373s. The International Transport Forum described the current status of the French railways in their paper "Efficiency indicators of Railways in France": The success of the TGV is undeniable. Work started in September 1975 on the first high-speed rail line, between Paris and Lyon, it was inaugurated in September 1981. New high-speed lines were opened in 1993, etc.. The high-speed network extent was 2,600 km in 2017, after the opening of four new lines; the regionalisation of intercity and local services was tested in 1997 and deployed in the early 2000s. Since TERs have seen traffic rise steeply as, to a lesser extent, have services in the Ile de France region. Rail freight has been far less successful; the French network carried 55 billion tonne-km in 2001, but this figure scarcely reached 32 billion tonne-km in 2013. This weak performance contrasts with the ambitious public policy of the last fifteen years; the Grenelle Environment Foru

Les Ihara Jr.

Les S. Ihara Jr. is an American politician and a Democratic member of the Hawaii Senate since January 16, 2013 representing District 10. Ihara served consecutively from 1995 until 2013 in the District 9 and District 10 seats, having served consecutively in the Hawaii State Legislature from 1987 until 1995 in the Hawaii House of Representatives. Ihara attended George Washington University and earned his BA in liberal studies from the University of Hawaii. 1986 Ihara was elected the Hawaii House of Representatives in the November 4, 1986 General election. 1988 Ihara was re-elected in the November 8, 1988 General election. 1990 Ihara was re-elected in the November 1990 General election. 1992 Ihara won the House District 19 September 19, 1992 Democratic Primary with 2,583 votes, won the November 3, 1992 General election with 5,971 votes against Libertarian candidate Merrielea Dolle. 1994 Ihara won the Senate District 10 September 17, 1994 Democratic Primary with 4,637 votes, the November 8, 1994 General election with 8,032 votes against Republican nominee Steve Colt.

1998 Ihara was unopposed for the September 19, 1998 Democratic Primary, winning with 2,362 votes, won the November 3, 1998 General election with 9,241 votes against Republican nominee Darrel Gardner. 2002 Redistricted to District 9, with Democratic Senator Matt Matsunaga running for Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii, Ihara was unopposed for the September 21, 2002 Democratic Primary, winning with 6,264 votes, won the November 5, 2002 General election with 11,328 votes against Republican nominee Gladys Hayes. 2006 Ihara won the September 2006 Democratic Primary with 6,666 votes. Ihara won the November 2006 General election with 11,599 votes against Hayes. 2010 Ihara won the September 18, 2010 Democratic Primary with 7,841 votes, won the November 2, 2010 General election with 11,058 votes against Republican nominee Lisa Shorba. 2012 Redistricted back to District 10, with Democratic Senator Brian Taniguchi redistricted to District 11, Ihara was unopposed for the August 11, 2012 Democratic Primary, winning with 8,595 votes, won the November 6, 2012 General election with 13,703 votes against Republican nominee Eric Marshall, who had run for the seat in 2010.

Official page at the Hawaii State Legislature Campaign site Profile at Vote Smart

Monopoly Tycoon

Monopoly Tycoon is a construction and management simulation PC game published in 2001. The player operates a business that owns stores and apartments in a city derived from the Monopoly board game. Instead of using dice, the game relies more on the speed and innovativeness of the players. In the standard mode, the user plays against the AI opponents. In the multiplayer version, players go against other online players. There are various levels with varying difficulty; some involve just financial prosperity of the businesses while others involve success in the political arena. But the primary objective of most levels is to accumulate the most wealth in the given time. In Monopoly Tycoon, the player operates a business by owning businesses and being landlord to blocks; the player earns income from selling housing people in apartments and hotels. Income is generated from rent for any blocks that the player is landlord of, plus utilities and railroads. Monopoly Tycoon has the same set of blocks as the board game with an additional three.

When a player is landlord of all blocks of the same color, they are able to build hotels. In addition, being landlord of any property allows the player to build park space; as in the board game, there are railroads and utilities blocks that players can become landlord of and receive income from. To become landlord, there is an auction among the players with the property going to the highest bidder. At the end of the day, the player is offered a mystery card similar to those from the board game; some of the cards are a simple withdrawal of money from the player's account. Other cards allow the player to aid his businesses or harm the opponent, say by restocking one of his stores or giving an opponent block bad publicity. Monopoly Tycoon includes support for multiplayer game play over a LAN or Internet connection. Additionally, there is support for finding live online opponents through the included GameSpy Arcade software; the music of the game is lighthearted and changes as the game progresses through the different decades.

For example, in the 1970s, music from the 1970s can be heard. This music will play. At that point, music from the 1930s can be heard from on. After every two days at midnight, the music from the previous decade becomes quieter and fades away, while the music from the next decade starts at normal volume. For example, when midnight of 1960 occurs, the music from the 1950s fades away and the music from the 1960s plays at normal volume. Other sounds indicate the time of day. People and the wind all make noises, in varying degrees depending on the time of day. For example, during the morning, footsteps of people waking up and coming out of their apartments is played to signify the time the city wakes up. Throughout the game the sound of coins falling can be heard when the player makes money. Enabling the music makes the game crash on Windows Vista and later; this is due to the usage of the DirectShow Windows Media Source Filter being used to stream.wma files directly, instead of from the CD. The filter is utilized by Windows Media Player 6.4, which gets installed alongside the game.

It was deprecated in favor of Media Foundation in Windows Vista, with higher quality streaming of.wma files. Only three games so far are known to use this filter. Monopoly Tycoon was a commercial success, selling nearly 2 million copies by 2006. Lead designer Clive Robert explained that these sales "took years" to achieve, that the game continued to sell as of 2006, after its release in September 2001. In the United States, Monopoly Tycoon sold 290,000 copies and earned $6.8 million by August 2006. Edge ranked it as the 66th best-selling computer game released in the country between January 2000 and August 2006. Monopoly Tycoon received positive reviews from critics, it received a'great' score of 8.5/10 from GameSpot and a'great' score from IGN of 8.2/10. Trey Walker at GameSpot said that "Monopoly Tycoon is the kind of game you might have imagined as a kid while you played the real board game."The developers of the game, were critical of their work saying that "I don’t think we got it right either."The Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences nominated Monopoly Tycoon for its 2001 "Online Game Play of the Year" and "Outstanding Achievement in Game Play Engineering" awards, which went to Return to Castle Wolfenstein and Grand Theft Auto III, respectively.

Monopoly Tycoon was a nominee for Computer Gaming World's 2001 "Best Strategy Game" award, although it lost to Kohan: Immortal Sovereigns. The editors presented Monopoly Tycoon with a special prize for the "Best Use of a License That Was Ignored", wrote, "Blessed with great AI and gameplay, Monopoly Tycoon was the most pleasant surprise of the year." Monopoly Tycoon at MobyGames Monopoly Tycoon at GameSpot Monopoly Tycoon Music Composers

Kailasanathar Temple, Tirumetrazhigai

Kailasanathar Temple, Tirumetrazhigai, is a Siva temple near Patteeswaram in Thanjavur District in Tamil Nadu. It is one of the shrines of the Vaippu Sthalams sung by Tamil Saivite Nayanar Sundarar; the presiding deity is known as Kailasanathar. His consort is known as Sabalanayagi. In front of the sanctum santorum Surya, Vinayaka and Sabalayanagi are found. Nandhi and balipeeta are found in front of the temple. Sculptures are found in the kosta. மூவர் தேவார வைப்புத்தலங்கள், ARaimERRaLi, Sl. No. 21 of 139 temples தேவார வைப்புத்தலங்கள், ஆறைமேற்றளி, Sl. No.14 of 133 temples, page1

Matthew Lesko

Matthew John Lesko is an American author known for his publications and infomercials on federal grant funding. He has written over twenty books instructing people how to get money from the United States government. Recognized for recording television commercials and interviews in colorful suits decorated with question marks, Lesko's signature fashion extends into his daily attire and transportation, earning him the nickname Question Mark Guy. Lesko grew up in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Lesko received his undergraduate degree from Marquette University in Milwaukee. Upon graduation he was commissioned as an officer in the Navy. In the Navy, he served as a navigator aboard the USS Oxford in the South China Sea during the Vietnam War; when Lesko returned he earned a master's degree in business administration from American University in Washington, D. C. In 1975, Lesko quit his job designing computerized information systems and co-founded Washington Researchers with his then-wife Leila K. Kight. After a slow start, Lesko hit upon the idea of sending out a professional newsletter telling people how to get free information.

The newsletter started bringing in clients, by 1979 Washington Researchers employed 30 people in its Washington, D. C. office. As side lines of business, Lesko began publishing directories for those who preferred to do their own research, such as the Researcher's Guide to Washington, conducting seminars on the types of information available from the government. Lesko was able to interest publisher Viking in his idea to publish a directory of government information sources in 1980; that book, Getting Yours: The Complete Guide to Government Money, was published by Viking's Penguin subsidiary in 1982. He claims to have researched government grants for over 25 years. Lesko lives in Kensington, with his third wife Wendy Schaetzel Lesko and their two sons and Morgan. Critics claim. A 2004 report by the New York State Consumer Protection Board claimed that most of the grants mentioned in Lesko's books were public assistance programs that many people were not eligible for, that Lesko misrepresented examples of people who had taken advantage of government programs.

The New York Times criticized him for having implied a current association with the paper long after ending a 1992–1994 NYT column. In 2005, Lesko was named #99 in Bernard Goldberg's book 100 People Who Are Screwing Up America because, "He is a symbol for self-centered free-riders."In an interview with the Washington Post in July 2007, Lesko admitted having assembled his books from government guides to grants and loans, quoting Lesko as saying of his first book "I plagiarized the whole thing" and "I didn't write a lick." Lesko added "I get stuff for free and I sell it for as much as I can get." In the season four episode of The Venture Bros. titled "The Better Man", Jefferson Twilight trains with cardboard cut-outs of various villains. When one of the cut-outs turns out to be Matthew Lesko, Jefferson explains that he mistook Lesko for a villain "he was wearing punctuation on his suit", like that worn by Batman villain Riddler; the Alchemist contends that he "helps people get free money from the government" and therefore is a good guy.

In the season two episode of Drawn Together titled "Little Orphan Hero", The question mark suit that Spanky Ham wears in the TV commercial is a reference to Lesko. Comedian Andy Dick parodied Lesko on his short-lived MTV sketch comedy program The Andy Dick Show. In season 6, episode 21 of the television series Scrubs, Dr. Cox refers to Lesko in a rant: "Pregnant women are among a select group of people who are allowed to act insane, much like sports mascots, local weathermen, theme park performers and that guy with the question mark jacket who teaches people how to get free money from the government." In MAD Classic #45, Lesko is placed second on the 50 Worst Things About Advertising. Lesko appeared as himself in advertisements for the album Danger Doom. In an episode of the podcast Chapo Trap House, Lesko is discussed as a possible left-wing counter to Donald Trump's irreverent populist appeal and a potential Democratic presidential candidate for the 2020 presidential election. Matthew Lesko's company, Information USA, has published several reference books including: Information U.

S. Getting Yours 1001 Free Goodies and Cheapies Free College Money, Term Papers, Sex Ed Lesko's Info-Power Free Health Care, Free Medical Information and Free Prescription Drugs Gobs and Gobs of Free Stuff Free Legal Help Free Stuff for Busy Moms! Free College and Training Money For Women Free Money and Help for Women Entrepreneurs Free Money For Your Retirement Free Stuff for Women's Health and Nutrition Free Money To Change Your Life Free Money To Pay Your Bills Free Money To Get A Better Home Free Money To Quit Your Job Free Money for Entrepreneurs American Benefits for Seniors: Getting the Most Out of Your Retirement All of his books claim to contain information about how to get free money from the United States government. Better Business Bureau of Washington, D. C. Report 14 November 2007 Matthew Lesko infomercials "Questions for Matthew Lesko, the Question Mark Man" - 29 September 2005 Interview with Matthew Lesko "The Culler of

Sir George Savile, 7th Baronet

Sir George Savile, 7th Baronet of Thornhill FRS, of Rufford Nottinghamshire, was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1728 to 1734. Savile was the son of Rev. John Savile, rector of Thornhill and his second wife Barbara Jenison, daughter of Thomas Jenison of Newcastle, he was admitted at Middle Temple in 1691 and matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford in 1696. He succeeded his cousin Sir John Savile, 6th Baronet in 1704, he had two sisters. Savile was appointed High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire for the year 1706 to 1707, he was returned as Member of Parliament for Yorkshire at a by-election in 1728 and sat until the 1734 British general election. Savile was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in November, 1721. Savile had three children. Twitter feed of Gertrude's diairies