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SNCF

The Société nationale des chemins de fer français is France's national state-owned railway company. Founded in 1938, it operates the country's national rail traffic along with Monaco, including the TGV, on France's high-speed rail network, its functions include operation of railway services for passengers and freight, maintenance and signalling of rail infrastructure. The railway network consists of about 32,000 km of route, of which 1,800 km are high-speed lines and 14,500 km electrified. About 14,000 trains are operated daily. In 2010 the SNCF was ranked 22nd in 214th globally on the Fortune Global 500 list, it is the main business of the SNCF Group, which in 2017 had €33.5 billion of sales in 120 countries. The SNCF Group employs more than 260,000 people. Since July 2013, the SNCF Group headquarters are located in a Parisian suburb at 2 Place aux Étoiles in Saint-Denis; the President of SNCF Group has been Jean-Pierre Farandou since 2019. SNCF operates all of France's railway traffic, including the TGV.

In the 1970s, the SNCF began the TGV high-speed train program with the intention of creating the world's fastest railway network. It came to fruition in 1981 with the completion of the first high-speed line LGV Sud-Est, where the first TGV service, from Paris to Lyon, was inaugurated. Today, the SNCF operates 1,850 km of designated high-speed track that accommodate more than 800 high-speed services per day. SNCF's TGV trains carry more than 100 million passengers a year. TGV lines and TGV technology are now spread across several European countries; the SNCF's TGV has set many world speed records, the most recent on 3 April 2007, when a new version of the TGV dubbed the V150 with larger wheels than the usual TGV, was able to cover more ground with each rotation and had a stronger 25,000 hp engine, broke the world speed record for conventional railway trains, reaching 574.8 km/h. The SNCF has a remarkable safety record. After nearly 30 years in operation, SNCF's TGV system has only experienced one fatal accident, which occurred during pre-opening testing and not in regular operation.

In 2011 SNCF in partnership with Keolis, unsuccessfully bid for the InterCity West Coast franchise. In April 2017 SNCF took a 30% shareholding in a joint venture with Stagecoach Group and Virgin Group to bid for the West Coast Partnership that will operate services on the West Coast Main Line from May 2020 and the High Speed 2 line from 2026. In April 2019 Stagecoach were banned from bidding for any franchises including the West Coast Partnership which has meant that Virgin and SNCF have now had to withdraw from the shortlist. Since the 1990s, SNCF has been selling railway carriages to regional governments, with the creation of the Train Express Régional brand. SNCF maintains a broad scope of international business that includes work on freight lines, inter-city lines and commuter lines. SNCF experts provide logistics, construction and maintenance services. SNCF operates the international ticketing agency Oui.sncf Voyages-sncf.com and Rail Europe. SNCF has employees in 120 countries offering extensive overseas and cross border consulting.

Those projects include: Israel: Training. SNCF International provides assistance to Israel Railways in every area of rail operations including projects to upgrade the network's general safety regulations. Other assistance and training programmes involve the Traction Division. Taiwan: Operations Training. SNCF supervised the prime contractor responsible for construction of the Taiwan Railways Administration's main high-speed rail line, it trained rail traffic controllers and crew members. On behalf of the Government of Taiwan, SNCF managed the high-speed railway Command Control Centre. United Kingdom: Maintenance. In 2007-2008, SNCF-International consultants audited the maintenance practices applied to the track and overhead electric power line on British high-speed rail lines connecting London to the Channel Tunnel. In addition, it conducted an audit of the maintainer's performance from the service quality and cost control standpoint, made recommendations for improvements, proposed a three-year Business Plan.

South Korea: HSR Electrification Design. SNCF advised Korean Railroads on the electrification of tracks between Daegu and Busan and on linking existing conventional tracks to the new high-speed line. SNCF assisted in selecting and inspecting high-speed rolling stock and trained 400 senior manager and executives in a broad range of skills, including signalling, track, rolling stock maintenance, HSR operation, safety management and passenger information systems; until the end of 2009, SNCF assisted Korea in maintaining its high-speed. Spain: Signalling System. SNCF partnered with ADIF in the study, supply and maintenance of the standard EU railway signaling system along the Madrid-Lleida high-speed line. On behalf of the Spanish Government, SNCF designed and led maintenance operations on this line over a two-year period. France: Lead Infrastructure and Rolling Stock Maintainer – The SNCF maintains 32,000 km of track, 26,500 main sets of points and crossings, 2,300 signal boxes, 80,000 track circuits, over 1 million relays, etc.

It maintains 3,900 locomotives and 500 high-speed trains. Each of SNCF's TGV trains travels more than 39,000 km a month – enough to circle the globe; each year SNCF's Human Resources Department provides over 1.2 million hours of training to its over 25,000 employees

Sea Mills railway station

Sea Mills railway station is on the Severn Beach Line and serves the district of Sea Mills and nearby Westbury on Trym in Bristol, England. It is 6 miles from Bristol Temple Meads, situated at the confluence of the River Avon and River Trym and near the A4 Bristol Portway, its three letter station code is SML. The station has a single platform; as of 2015 it is managed by Great Western Railway, the third franchise to be responsible for the station since privatisation in 1997. They provide all train services at the station a train every forty minutes in each direction between Bristol Temple Meads and Avonmouth; the station was opened in 1865 by the Bristol Port Railway and Pier, had a single platform. It became part of the Clifton Extension Railway, had a second platform built; the station was expanded over the years, at one point had four porters staffing it. However the Severn Beach Line declined over the latter half of the twentieth century and by the 1970s the station had no staff and only one platform.

Services however have increased since 2000. The station is located in the Sea Mills area of Bristol, additionally serves residents of Stoke Bishop; the surrounding area is residential, with allotments to the west and a small football ground to the north. The station is less than 100 metres from the River Avon to the west, directly south of a small harbour at the mouth of the River Trym, which the railway crosses on a bridge; the station has road access to the east from Sea Mills Lane, which runs parallel to the Trym, can be accessed via a footpath along the Avon to the west. The A4 Bristol Portway is less than 200 metres east of the station, crosses the railway south of the station; the station is on the Severn Beach Line from Bristol Temple Meads to Severn Beach, 6 miles 0 chains from Temple Meads and 7 miles 43 chains from Severn Beach. It is the sixth station from Temple Meads; the next station towards Temple Meads is Clifton Down. The station is on an alignment of 160 degrees, curving towards the south.

There is a single 118-yard -long platform which serves trains in both directions, situated on the east side of the track. The station's western platform is overgrown. A user-worked level crossing at the north end of the station allows vehicles and pedestrians to cross the railway, alternatively pedestrians may cross the line using a footpath which goes under the bridge over the River Trym. Facilities at the station are minimal – there is a brick shelter and a few seats. Timetable information is provided. There is no ticket office or other means for buying or collecting tickets, nor is there any car park or cycle storage facility; the nearest bus stops are 300 metres away on the A4 Portway. The line through Sea Mills has a speed limit of 30 miles per hour for locomotive-hauled trains and 50 miles per hour for diesel multiple units; the line handles less than 5 million train tonnes per year, has a loading gauge of W6 and a route availability of 7. In the 2012/13 financial year 58,000 passengers used Sea Mills station, making it the 1,863rd busiest station in the country and the tenth busiest within the Bristol unitary authority area.

This was an increase of 70% from the 2002-03 financial year, reflected a general rise in usage of the Severn Beach Line. Services at Sea Mills are all operated by Great Western Railway, using diesel Class 166 Turbo units. On Monday to Friday, three trains every two hours run from Bristol Temple Meads to Avonmouth, with one extended to St Andrew's Road and Severn Beach, giving a service at Sea Mills of one train in each direction every 40 minutes. Most services start at Bristol. On Saturdays there is a similar level of service. Sunday sees a hourly service to and from Bristol, with only two services extending to Severn Beach, except during the May–September timetable period when all services are extended; the first and last Sunday trains towards Bristol are extended to Taunton via Weston-super-Mare, there are similar workings in the other direction. As Clifton Down is the Severn Beach Line's passing point, trains to Avonmouth arrive ten minutes after trains to Bristol. Most trains call at all stations.

The typical journey time to Bristol Temple Meads is 25 minutes, 10 minutes to Avonmouth. In 2012, the single fare to Clifton Down or Severn Beach was £1.50, £3 return for the whole line. The station was opened on 6 March 1865 when services began on the Bristol Port Railway and Pier, a self-contained railway which ran along the north bank of the River Avon to a deep water pier on the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth; the route was 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge single track, with Sea Mills the first station along the line, 2 miles 01 chain from the southern terminus at Hotwells. A single 150 feet -long uncovered platform was provided on the north side of the line, with a wooden building containing the booking office and porter's office; the station staff consisted of a stationmaster with a porter being brought in from Hotwells when needed. A south-facing goods siding was provided, but the station dealt with passengers and parcels; the initial service was six trains per day in each direction. The BPRP ran into trouble by 1871 when the terminal pier at Avonmouth became difficult to use due to a build-up of silt.

With no prospect of a proper dock being funded

Wallace County, Kansas

Wallace County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. Its county seat is Sharon Springs; as of the 2010 census, the county population was 1,485, making it the second-least populous county in Kansas. As of 2018, it is tied with Greeley County as the least densely populated county in the state; the county was created in 1868 and named in honor of Brigadier general W. H. L. Wallace, a veteran of the Mexican–American War and a casualty of the Battle of Shiloh. Wallace County has the lowest population of any county in Kansas, it is one of four Kansas counties to practice Mountain Standard Time rather than Central Standard Time. Wallace County is home to the highest point in Kansas at 4,039 feet. Mount Sunflower is located 15 miles north-northwest of Weskan, less than one mile from the Colorado state line. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America.

In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1868, Wallace County was established. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 914 square miles, of which 914 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. Sherman County Logan County Wichita County Greeley County Cheyenne County, Colorado Kit Carson County, Colorado As of the census of 2000, there were 1,749 people, 674 households, 477 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 791 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.63% White, 0.63% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 2.52% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races.

4.80 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 674 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.60% were married couples living together, 4.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.20% were non-families. 27.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.10% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 18.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 99.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,000, the median income for a family was $42,022. Males had a median income of $25,610 versus $18,333 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,016. About 10.70% of families and 16.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.50% of those under age 18 and 12.70% of those age 65 or over.

Wallace has long been one of the most overwhelmingly Republican of all the state's counties. Only two Democratic Presidential nominees have won Wallace CountyWoodrow Wilson in 1916 and Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932. Since 1944 only three Democratic Presidential candidates have won 31 percent of Wallace County's vote – Harry S. Truman in 1948, Lyndon Johnson in 1964 and Jimmy Carter in 1976 – whilst since 1980 only Michael Dukakis during the drought-affected 1988 election has obtained so much as seventeen percent for the Democratic Party. Indeed, in the 2016 election Hillary Clinton recorded less than six percent of the county's vote, whilst the last five Republican nominees have all exceeded 84 percent. Although the Kansas Constitution was amended in 1986 to allow the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with the approval of voters, Wallace County has remained a prohibition, or "dry", county. Wallace USD 241 Weskan USD 242 Sharon Springs Wallace Weskan Wallace County is divided into four townships.

None of the cities within the county are considered governmentally independent, all figures for the townships include those of the cities. In the following table, the population center is the largest city included in that township's population total, if it is of a significant size. Standard Atlas of Wallace County, Kansas. A. Ogle & Co. CountyWallace County - Official Website Wallace County - Directory of Public OfficialsMapsWallace County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Railroad Maps: Current, 1996, 1915, KDOT and Kansas Historical Society