ČD Class 810
ČD Serie 810 or ŽSR 810, earlier name ČSD M 152.0 is a Czechoslovak diesel multiple unit series. It was produced from 1975 to 1982 by Vagonka Studénka. Http://www.zeleznicne.info/view.php?cisloclanku=2008010025 810-info
The Deutsche Reichsbahn known as the German National Railway, the German State Railway, German Reich Railway, the German Imperial Railway, was the name of the German national railway system created after the end of World War I from the regional railways of the individual states of the German Empire. The Deutsche Reichsbahn has been described as "the largest enterprise in the capitalist world in the years between 1920 and 1932" its importance "arises from the fact that the Reichsbahn was at the center of events in a period of great turmoil in German history." The company was founded on 1 April 1920 as the Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen when the Weimar Republic, which still used the nation-state term of the previous monarchy, Deutsches Reich, took national control of the German railways, run by the German states. In 1924 it was reorganised under the aegis of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft, a nominally private railway company, 100% owned by the German state. In 1937 the railway was reorganised again as a state authority and given the name Deutsche Reichsbahn.
After the Anschluss in 1938 the DR took over the Bundesbahn Österreich. The East and West German states were founded in 1949. East Germany took over the control of the DR on its territory and continued to use the traditional name Deutsche Reichsbahn, while the railway in West Germany became the Deutsche Bundesbahn; the Austrian Österreichische Bundesbahnen was founded in 1945, was given its present name in 1947. In January 1994, following the German union, the East German Deutsche Reichsbahn merged with the West German Deutsche Bundesbahn to form Germany's new national carrier, Deutsche Bahn AG, technically no longer a government agency but still a 100% state-owned joint stock company; the first railways to be owned by the German Empire, founded in 1871, were the Imperial Railways in Alsace-Lorraine, whose Imperial General Division of Railways in Alsace-Lorraine had its headquarters in Straßburg. It was formed after France had ceded the territory of Alsace-Lorraine in 1871 to the German Empire and the newly created Third French Republic had formally purchased the French Eastern Railway Company and sold it again to the German Empire.
After the end of the First World War this national "imperial railway" was taken back by France. In the remaining German states, by contrast, the existing state railways continued to be subject to their respective sovereigns, despite the fact that Otto von Bismarck had tried in vain to purchase the main railway lines for the Empire. A similar attempt failed in 1875 as a result of opposition from the middle powers when Albert von Maybach presented a draft Reich Railway Act to the Bundesrat. In the wake of the stipulations of the Weimar Constitution of 11 August 1919 the state treaty on the foundation of the Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen came into force on 1 April 1920; this resulted in the merger of the existing state railways of Prussia, Saxony, Württemberg, Baden and Oldenburg under the newly formed German Reich. The state railways that merged were the: Baden state railways Mecklenburg state railways Oldenburg state railways Bavarian state railways Saxon state railways Württemberg state railways Prussian-Hessian state railwaysInitially called the Reichseisenbahnen or Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen, the Reich Minister of Transport, Wilhelm Groener gave them the name "Deutsche Reichsbahn" in his decree of 27 June 1921.
In 1922 the old railway divisions were renamed as Reich railway divisions. Among the provisions of the 1924 Dawes Plan was a plan to utilize the state railway for the payment of war reparations. Following the plan's publication, on 12 February 1924, the Reich government announced the creation of the Deutsche Reichsbahn as a state enterprise under the Reich Ministry of Transport; as this was not enough to satisfy the reparations creditors, on 30 August 1924 a law was enacted providing for the establishment of a state-owned Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft as a public holding company to operate the national railways. The aim was to earn profits which, under the Dawes Plan, were to be used to contribute to Germany's war reparations. At the same time as the Reichsbahn law was enacted, the company was handed a bill of eleven billion Goldmarks to be paid to the Allied powers, while its original capital was valued at fifteen billion Goldmarks; these terms were amended in the Young Plan. The Great Depression and the regular payment of war reparations put a considerable strain on the Reichsbahn.
Not until the Lausanne Conference of 1932 was the Reichsbahn released from its financial obligations. In total, about 3.87 billion Goldmarks was paid in reparations to the Allied powers. During the DRG period the following milestones occurred: 1 Oct 1930: the DRG took over the Bremen Port Railway 27 June 1933: the DRG's sister company the Reichsautobahn was founded 1 March 1935: the railways of the Saar were incorporatedThe beginning of the DRG was characterised by the acquisition of new rolling stock built to standard type
Rail replacement bus service
A rail replacement bus service uses buses to replace a passenger train service either on a temporary or permanent basis. The train service, replaced may be of any type such as light rail, streetcar, commuter rail, regional rail or heavy rail, intercity passenger service; the rail service may be replaced if the line is closed due to rail maintenance, a breakdown of a train, a rail accident, strike action, or if the rail service is not economically viable. Terms for a rail replacement bus service include bus bridge. Substitution of rail services by buses can be unpopular and subject to criticism, so the term bustitution is used pejoratively. A similar concept in some ways is motorization, but that term more broadly refers to the rise of the automobile as well as bus transportation. In Australia, a permanent or temporary rail-replacement service change is referred to as bustitution. In November 1941, the Western Australian Government Railways introduced its first rail replacement service, operating a service from Perth to Kojonup via Boddington.
By 1949, there were 28 buses, by 1959, more than fifty. On the Queensland Rail network, to relieve congestion on the single track Sunshine Coast line, the rail service is supplemented by a bus service operated by Kangaroo Bus Lines on weekdays between Caboolture and Nambour as route 649. NSW TrainLink, Transwa and V/Line all introduced extensive networks in New South Wales, Western Australia and Victoria in the 1970s and 1980s that replaced regional trains. Via Rail, the operator of the national passenger rail network, uses the term "bustitution" to refer to rail replacement with buses; as in the United Kingdom buses replaced rail services on closed lines. The most recent example can be found in County Wexford whereupon the suspension of rail services between Rosslare Europort and Waterford in 2010 Bus Éireann route 370 was introduced; however the bus takes longer than the train journey and fails to serve Waterford railway station. Bus have been used to replace rail in Japan when rail service have to be suspended due to disaster, economics, or engineering works.
Notably, in some cases where those rail lines are closed permanently, some of the former rail right-of-way are converted into bus right-of-way to provide grade-separated Bus Rapid Transit service. When train services operated by Transdev in Auckland train services are sometimes replaced by a bus, the resulting service is called Rail Bus. New Zealand Railways Road Services replaced many train routes with buses. During the British Railways Board's railway rationalisation in the 1960s, known as the Beeching cuts, bus substitution was an official policy for replacing train services on closed lines; this policy was unsuccessful, however, as the bus services were far slower than the train services they replaced, causing many passengers to give up on public transport altogether. Rail replacement bus services have been used to operate Parliamentary train services; when North London Railways services between Watford Junction and Croxley Green were withdrawn in March 1996, to avoid the legal complications and costs of actual closure, train services were replaced by buses.
The service was withdrawn when the branch was formally closed in September 2003. Following the withdrawal of Central Trains services between Stafford and Stoke-on-Trent to facilitate the West Coast Main Line upgrade at the request of the Strategic Rail Authority in May 2003, BakerBus route X1 was introduced to serve Norton Bridge, Stone and Wedgwood stations; when the train service was reintroduced by London Midland in December 2008, only Stone regained a rail service with the other stations continuing to be served by route X1. In October 2017, the Department for Transport declared Norton Bridge station closed, but will continue to fund the replacement bus service until March 2019. Following the withdrawal of services by Arriva CrossCountry between Reading and Brighton in December 2008 that were the only passenger services on three short sections of line between Ealing Broadway and Wandsworth Road, a replacement weekly bus service was introduced; the service ceased in June 2013. Rail-replacement bus services occurred on a large scale following the dismantling of the street railway systems of many cities in North America in the mid-20th century.
Temporary substitution of buses for trains may be done with Amtrak's Thruway Motorcoach service. Rail-replacement bus services are common among urban rail transit systems due to unexpected service disruptions. For example, one of the effects of Hurricane Sandy in New York was that the New York City Subway required replacement bus service for several subway routes; as the subway runs 24/7/365, replacement bus service is provided when subway lines were closed for scheduled maintenance, so interruptions in subway service require replacement bus service during off-peak hours. Planning rail-replacement services in a high-patronage environment, such as a high-capacity rapid transit network, requires efficient use and management of time and resources in order to prevent major travel disruptions; this was exemplified by a July 2015 shutdown on the Toronto subway during rush hour caused by a communication system breakdown, in which the local transit operator opted not to use replacement buses as "it wasn't possible to replace the entire subway's capacity with buses".
A similar incident as Toronto happened in Singapore on 7 July 2015 after a mass shutdown on the North South East West Lines after a power system failure. Operator SMRT and rival SBS Transit did not activate bus bridging but made all buses free islandwide due to the sheer scale of t
Bolivia the Plurinational State of Bolivia is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre; the largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales a flat region in the east of Bolivia. The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments, its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, the 27th largest in the world and the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere; the country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Africans.
The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages have official status, of which the most spoken are Guarani and Quechua languages. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in large part upon the silver, extracted from Bolivia's mines. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879.
Bolivia remained politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer. Banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Banzer was ousted in 1978 and returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001. Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA and USAN. For over a decade Bolivia has had one of the highest economic growth rates in Latin America, it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index, a poverty level of 38.6%, one of the lowest crime rates in Latin America. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing and manufacturing goods such as textiles, refined metals, refined petroleum. Bolivia is rich in minerals, including tin and lithium. Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish American wars of independence.
The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either unite Charcas with the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from Spain as a wholly independent state. Sucre opted to create a brand new state and on 6 August 1825, with local support, named it in honor of Simón Bolívar; the original name was Republic of Bolívar. Some days congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed: "If from Romulus comes Rome from Bolívar comes Bolivia"; the name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825. In 2009, a new constitution changed the country's official name to "Plurinational State of Bolivia" in recognition of the multi-ethnic nature of the country and the enhanced position of Bolivia's indigenous peoples under the new constitution; the region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, in Western Bolivia.
The capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. The community grew to urban proportions between AD 600 and AD 800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. According to early estimates, the city covered 6.5 square kilometers at its maximum extent and had between 15,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. In 1996 satellite imaging was used to map the extent of fossilized suka kollus across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people. Around AD 400, Tiwanaku went from being a locally dominant force to a predatory state. Tiwanaku expanded its reaches into the Yungas and brought its culture and way of life to many other cultures in Peru and Chile. Tiwanaku was not a violent culture in many respects. In order to expand its reach, Tiwanaku exercised great political astuteness, creating colonies, fostering trade agree
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Harden, New South Wales
Harden-Murrumburrah is a township and community in the Hilltops Region and is located in the South West Slopes of New South Wales in Australia and is adjacent to both the Canberra region of the Australian Capital Territory and the Riverina Region in the southwest area of NSW. The town is a twin town between Murrumburrah; the town is traversed by the Burley Griffin Way, the major link from and between the Riverina and the Hume Highway near Yass, Sydney and the coast. Cunningham Creek runs along the edge of the town; the Olympic Highway traverses the western end of the shire and is the major link through the central west to the Blue Mountains and from there to the Sydney region. Harden is 3½ hours away by road from Sydney, 1½ hours from Canberra and Wagga Wagga. Before European settlement the Harden area was inhabited by the Wiradjuri people. Hume and Hovell passed nearby in 1824. In the late 1820s, the'Murrumburra' was established, its superintendent, James Kennedy, established an inn on the townsite in the late 1840s.
Gold was found in the area in the 1850s. Harden railway station was opened one km east of Murrumburrah on the Main Southern line in 1877 as Murrumburrah, but changed its name to Harden a year after the opening of a new station in Murrumburrah in 1879. Harden has remained as the main station and, as a result, became the main town. Harden Post Office opened on 1 January 1870; the first Australian Lighthorse was founded in Harden-Murrumburrah, with the Lighthorse festival occurring annually. From 1906 until 2016 Harden-Murrumburrah was the seat of its own local council, but was amalgamated in 2016 to form Hilltops Council; the town's rugby league team competed for the Maher Cup. Harden has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Main Southern railway: Harden railway station According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 2,030 people in Harden. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 8.4% of the population. 86.5% of people were born in Australia and 91.9% of people only spoke English at home.
The most common responses for religion were Catholic 35.5%, Anglican 31.0% and No Religion 13.3%. The Main Southern railway line passes through Harden, it became an important railway town with the line to Blayney branching off a few kilometres beyond Harden at Demondrille. Harden railway station is served by two daily NSW TrainLink XPT services to Melbourne and Sydney in each direction and a weekly Xplorer service to Griffith and Sydney. NSW TrainLink operates a road coach service between Cootamundra and Canberra. Busabout Wagga Wagga have a depot in the town. List of reduplicated Australian place names Media related to Harden, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons Hilltops Council Hilltops Region Visitor Information Harden-Murrumburrah Website
Federal Railroad Administration
The Federal Railroad Administration is an agency in the United States Department of Transportation. The agency was created by the Department of Transportation Act of 1966; the purpose of FRA is to promulgate and enforce rail safety regulations, administer railroad assistance programs, conduct research and development in support of improved railroad safety and national rail transportation policy, provide for the rehabilitation of Northeast Corridor rail passenger service, consolidate government support of rail transportation activities. The FRA is one of 10 agencies within DOT concerned with intermodal transportation, it operates through seven divisions under the offices of the Deputy Administrator. These divisions are: Financial Management and Administration, Chief Counsel, Civil Rights, Public Affairs, Public Engagement, Railroad Policy and Development, Safety, it has a staff of about 850. All passenger and freight rail travel in the United States on the national interconnected rail infrastructure is subject to regulation by the FRA.
FRA regulates public and intercity rail services, but does not regulate "closed" railways that operate on private property, such as a rail system between buildings at a steel mill, nor does it regulate subways, light rail or elevated intra-city passenger rail systems that do not connect to any public rail networks. Most notably, the FRA enforces safety regulations, such as speed limits and requirements for safety features such as positive train control. Non-legislative recommendations for FRA policy come from the Rail Safety Advisory Committee, established in 1996, though much of FRA policy is created via congressional legislation; these regulations include enforcement of positive train control and enforcement of more stringent conductor certification requirements. In 2011, the FRA began the process of updating its electronic device policy for active train operators. In June 2015, the FRA announced a railway safety initiative with Google that would include the FRAs GIS data into its mapping services.
The data pinpoints the location of over 250,000 rail crossings in the United States. The FRA believes that providing the location of rail crossings in maps will enhance crossing safety by people who are using navigation systems while driving. Sarah Feinberg was the Administrator of the FRA from 2015 to 2017. Feinberg was the second woman to lead the agency, her appointment was announced by United States Secretary of Transportation Anthony Foxx on January 12, 2015 and confirmed on October 28, 2015. Feinberg had served as Foxx's Chief of Staff, managing DOT's ten modal organizations, spearheading its legislative and communications efforts. Feinberg's tenure as Administrator featured a greater emphasis on the enforcement of safety rules and regulations relative to her predecessors. Joe Szabo was the first FRA Administrator to be chosen from the ranks of railroad employment.. Patrick T. Warren, Executive Director of the FRA, was an acting Administrator pending the appointment and confirmation of a new Administrator.
On 10 February 2018, Heath Hall, the acting Federal Railroad Administration chief since June 2017, resigned "effective immediately" over a Politico report that he has a second job as a public relations consultant for a local sheriff’s department in Madison County, Mississippi. Head counsel Juan Reyes, named acting deputy administrator in January 2018, is now the acting chief. Presidential nominee Ronald Batory is awaiting confirmation for the position; the FRA’s Northeast Corridor Future is a long-term plan aimed at improving the nation’s Northeast Corridor. The NEC Future plan consists of four components known as the Selective Alternative, which are: Improve rail service, Modernize NEC infrastructure, Expand rail capacity, Study New Haven to Providence capacity; these four components all aim to improve the reliability and performance of the NEC system, whether it be through intercity or regional means. The Selective Alternative looks to do four major things: Improve rail service by increasing frequency of trains, decreasing travel time, making better passenger convenience.
The NEC Future ROD was issued in July 2017, which marked the completion of the Tier 1 environmental review process. The ROD lays out everything involved with the project, including the plan itself and feedback from individuals and stakeholders. There is no listed completion date for the NEC Selective Alternative; the need for an NRP was brought up in the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008. However, before the official plan could be drafted, the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act required a Preliminary National Rail Plan to be made first, submitted to congress on October 15, 2009. On December 16, 2009 the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2010 was enacted into law and established the delivery date for the NRP; the delivery date for the NRP was September 15, 2010. With the nation’s infrastructure growing, the transportation used in the nation needs to grow. With that in mind, the NRP’s main goal is to increase the size of the nation’s railway capacity to include 70 million more people and 2.8 billion tons more of freight within the next 25 years, 100 million more people and 4 billion tons more of freight within the next 40 years.