Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 2-8-0 represents the wheel arrangement of two leading wheels on one axle in a leading truck, eight powered and coupled driving wheels on four axles and no trailing wheels. In the United States and elsewhere, this wheel arrangement is known as a Consolidation, after the Lehigh and Mahanoy Railroad’s Consolidation, the name of the first 2-8-0. Of all the locomotive types that were created and experimented with in the 19th century, the 2-8-0 was a relative latecomer; the first locomotive of this wheel arrangement was built by the Pennsylvania Railroad. Like the first 2-6-0s, this first 2-8-0 had a leading axle, rigidly attached to the locomotive's frame, rather than on a separate truck or bogie. To create this 2-8-0, PRR master mechanic John P. Laird modified an existing 0-8-0, the Bedford, between 1864 and 1865; the 2-6-0 Mogul type, first created in the early 1860s, is considered as the logical forerunner to the 2-8-0. However, a claim is made that the first true 2-8-0 engine evolved from the 0-8-0 and was ordered by the United States' Lehigh and Mahanoy Railroad, which named all its engines.
The name given to the new locomotive was Consolidation, the name, almost globally adopted for the type. According to this viewpoint, the first 2-8-0 order by Lehigh dates to 1866 and antedates the adoption of the type by other railways and coal and mountain freight haulers. From its introduction in 1866 and well into the early 20th century, the 2-8-0 design was considered to be the ultimate heavy-freight locomotive; the 2-8-0's forte was starting and moving "impressive loads at unimpressive speeds" and its versatility gave the type its longevity. The practical limit of the design was reached in 1915, when it was realised that no further development was possible with a locomotive of this wheel arrangement; as in the United States, the 2-8-0 was a popular type in Europe, again as a freight hauler. The type was used in Australia, New Zealand, Southern Africa; the 2-8-0 locomotive was used extensively throughout Australia. It served on the 5 ft 3 in broad gauge, 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge and 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge and was employed as a freight locomotive, although it was also employed in passenger service in Victoria.
The first Australian locomotive class with this wheel arrangement consisted of 20 standard-gauge New South Wales Government Railways J Class engines, which arrived from Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1891. The Js remained in service in New South Wales until 1915. Wartime shortages between 1916 and 1920 had six engines re-entering service after being shopped and fitted with superheaters; the last engine of this class was withdrawn in 1934 and all were scrapped by 1937. The second batch of 2-8-0 locomotives to appear in Australia, between 1896 and 1916, was the NSWGR T class engines; the class was delivered from one local and several overseas builders, 151 locomotives from Beyer and Company, 84 from North British Locomotive Company, 10 from Neilson and Company, 30 from Clyde Engineering in Australia, five from Dübs and Company. During World War II, 14 of these locomotives were equipped with superheaters, which raised their tractive effort from 28,777 lbf to 33,557 lbf. From 1899, the Victorian Railways used a range of broad-gauge 2-8-0 locomotives.
The first of these locomotives were the Baldwin-built Victorian Railways V class. These engines were built at Phoenix Foundry in Victoria. By 1930, they had disappeared from the VR; the VR's next type was the 26 C class engines, which saw passenger service. In 1922, a smaller and lighter 2-8-0, the K class, was introduced for branchline freight and also passenger services; the VR introduced sixty light 2-8-0 J class engines in 1954. These worked both freight and passenger services; the first 2-8-0 engines in private service on the Midland Railway of Western Australia arrived in 1912. These were 3 ft 6 in gauge locomotives; the five in the class operated until 1958. All were gone by 1963. In 1912, some of the NSWGR T class types were purchased by the private East Greta Railway to become the South Maitland Railway, but these were converted to 2-8-2 tank locomotives; the class proved to be successful throughout its long service life, until being retired from government revenue service in 1973. During 1916, several of these same T class engines were purchased from NBL by the Commonwealth Railways for the Trans-Australian Railway.
In 1924, a private coal company, J&A Brown in NSW, obtained three ex-British military Railway Operating Division ROD 2-8-0 locomotives. Brown ordered another 10 of these locomotives, but only nine of that order arrived in Australia; the last was withdrawn in 1973. To compensate for wartime losses, Belgian railways acquired 300 2-8-0 locomotives in 1946, they were built in North America, 160 by Montreal Locomotive Works in Canada, 60 by the Canadian Locomotive Company, 80 by the American Locomotive Company in the United States. These machines proved to be reliable and were used for mixed traffic until the end of the steam era, when number 29.013 hauled the last scheduled steam passenger train from Ath to Denderleeuw on 20 December 1966. This locomotive is used on special excursions. On 16 December 2006, number 29.013 re-enacted the last 1966 run on the same route. The Canadian Pacific Railway N-2-a, b, c class locomotives were a class of altogether 182 Consolidation type locomotives, built by Montreal Locomotive Works between 1912 and 1914.
They were numbered in the range from 3600 to 3799 and were used everywhere around the sy
Military surplus are goods matériel, that are sold or otherwise disposed of when no longer needed by the military. Entrepreneurs buy these goods and resell them at surplus stores; the goods sold by the military are clothing and tools of a nature, useful to the civilian population, as well as embroidered patches, name tags, other items that can be used for a faux military uniform. Vehicles will be sold as well; some military surplus dealers sell military surplus firearms, spare parts, ammunition alongside surplus uniforms and equipment. Demand for such items comes from various collectors and players of airsoft and paintball, as well as those seeking high quality, military issue garb; the goods may be used, or not. Some merchants of surplus goods sell goods that are manufactured in military standards; the history of army surplus in the United States dates back to the American Civil War. This was the first large American war. In earlier wars, most troops were a militia wearing whatever they had with them.
This required mass-produced arms for both sides. After the war, to recoup some money they sold the supplies in stores, thus the military surplus store was born. In the 1870s Francis Bannerman VI operated "Bannerman's surplus", his surplus company was one of the largest to operate. He built Bannerman's Castle, a massive storage facility on Pollepel Island in the Hudson River to store his goods. Surplus store Diminishing manufacturing sources and material shortages Performance-based logistics Spare part Military Surplus Act Surplus Property Act Radical Dance Faction, band known as|Military Surplus Media related to Military surplus at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Surplus stores at Wikimedia Commons
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Baldwin Locomotive Works
The Baldwin Locomotive Works was an American manufacturer of railroad locomotives from 1825 to 1956. Located in Philadelphia, it moved to nearby Eddystone, Pennsylvania, in the early 20th century; the company was for decades the world's largest producer of steam locomotives, but struggled to compete as demand switched to diesel locomotives. Baldwin produced the last of its 70,000-plus locomotives in 1956 and went out of business in 1972; the company has no relation to the E. M. Baldwin and Sons locomotive builder of Australia; the Baldwin Locomotive Works had a humble beginning. Matthias W. Baldwin, the founder, was a jeweller and whitesmith, who, in 1825, formed a partnership with a machinist, engaged in the manufacture of bookbinders' tools and cylinders for calico printing. Baldwin designed and constructed for his own use a small stationary engine, the workmanship of, so excellent and its efficiency so great that he was solicited to build others like it for various parties, thus led to turn his attention to steam engineering.
The original engine was in use and powered many departments of the works for well over 60 years, is on display at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. In 1831, at the request of the Philadelphia Museum, Baldwin built a miniature locomotive for exhibition, such a success that he received that year an order from a railway company for a locomotive to run on a short line to the suburbs of Philadelphia; the Camden and Amboy Railroad Company had shortly before imported a locomotive from England, stored in Bordentown, New Jersey. It had not yet been assembled by Isaac Dripps, he made notes of the principal dimensions. Aided by these figures, he commenced his task; the difficulties attending the execution of this first order were such that they are not understood by present-day mechanics. Modern machine tools did not exist, it was under such circumstances that his first locomotive, christened Old Ironsides, was completed and tried on the Philadelphia and Norristown Railroad on November 23, 1832.
It was at once put in active service, did duty for over 20 years. It was a four-wheeled engine; the wheels were of heavy cast iron hubs, with wooden spokes and rims, wrought iron tires, the frame was made of wood placed outside the wheels. It had a 30 inches diameter boiler. Top speed was 28 mph. Baldwin struggled to survive the Panic of 1837. Production fell from 40 locomotives in 1837 to just nine in 1840 and the company was in debt; as part of the survival strategy, Matthias Baldwin took on two partners, George Vail and George Hufty. Although the partnerships proved short-lived, they helped Baldwin pull through the economic hard times. Zerah Colburn was one of many engineers. Between 1854 and 1861, when Colburn went to work more or less permanently in London, the journalist was in frequent touch with M. W. Baldwin, as recorded in Zerah Colburn: The Spirit of Darkness. Colburn was full of praise for the quality of Baldwin's work. In the 1850s, railroad building became a national obsession, with many new carriers starting up in the Midwest and South.
While this helped drive up demand for Baldwin products, it increased competition as more companies entered the locomotive production field. Still, Baldwin had trouble keeping pace with orders and in the early 1850s began paying workers piece-rate pay. Taking advantage of human nature, this increased incentives and productivity. By 1857, the company employed 600 men, but another economic downturn, this time the Panic of 1857, cut into business again. Output fell by 50 percent in 1858; the Civil War at first appeared disastrous for Baldwin. According to John K. Brown in The Baldwin Locomotive Works, 1831-1915: A Study in American Industrial Practice, at the start of the conflict Baldwin had a great dependence on Southern railways as its primary market. In 1860, nearly 80 percent of Baldwin's output went to carriers in states that would soon secede from the Union; as a result, Baldwin's production in 1861 fell more than 50 percent compared to the previous year. However, the loss in Southern sales was counterbalanced by purchases by the U.
S. Military Railroads and the Pennsylvania Railroad, which saw its traffic soar, as Baldwin produced more than 100 engines for carriers during the 1861–1865 war. By the time Matthias Baldwin died in 1866, his company was vying with Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works for the top spot among locomotive producers. By 1870 Baldwin had taken the lead and a decade it was producing 2½ times as many engines as its nearest competitor, according to the U. S. Manufacturing Census. In 1897 the Baldwin Locomotive Works was presented as one of the examples of successful shop management in a series of articles by Horace Lucian Arnold; the article described the Piece Rate System used in the shop management. Burton commented, that "in the Baldwin Locomotive Works... piecework rates are altered... Some rates have remained unchanged for the past twenty years, a workman is there more esteemed when
The Railway Operating Division ROD 2-8-0 is a type of 2-8-0 steam locomotive, the standard heavy freight locomotive operated in Europe by the ROD during the First World War. During the First World War the Railway Operating Division of the Royal Engineers requisitioned about 600 locomotives of various types from thirteen United Kingdom railway companies; as the war became prolonged it became clear that the ROD needed its own standard locomotive, so the ROD adopted the Great Central Railway Class 8K 2-8-0 designed by John G. Robinson in 1911. There were three batches of orders; the first batch of orders were June 1917 for 223 locomotives. The second batch of orders was for 100 locomotives, placed between February and August 1918; the 521 ROD 2-8-0s were built as follows: 369 by the North British Locomotive Company, 82 by Robert Stephenson and Company, 32 by Nasmyth and Company, 32 by Kitson and Company and six by the Great Central Railway's Gorton Works. Of the initial order for 325 locomotives, 311 were shipped to France for war service.
The locomotives were used to haul military supply and troop trains, plus some services for civilians. After the Armistice of 11 November 1918 many of the class returned from France to the UK in 1919 and 1920. One ROD 2-8-0 duty remaining. After the war British railway companies had a backlog of locomotives that required overhaul and repair: 498 ROD 2-8-0s were loaned to 9 railway companies between 1919 and 1921 to cover goods traffic while the backlog was cleared; the ROD 2-8-0s were placed into storage around the country until they were disposed of. They were sold as follows: The Great Western Railway bought 20 ROD locos in 1919 and a further 80 in 1925; the locomotives were spread over much of the GWR system, being used on heavy freight trains. The first withdrawals were made in 1927, but 45 survived to be taken over by British Railways in 1948 and the last three survivors were not withdrawn until October 1958; the London and North Western Railway bought 30 locos in 1920. In the grouping in 1923 these entered the stock of the London and Scottish Railway, which bought another 75 of the class in 1927.
The ROD's range of operations on the LMS was restricted by its high axle loading. Withdrawals began in 1928 and the last was gone by 1932; some of the LMS examples were exported to China as China Railway KD4. The largest purchaser of the RODs was the London and North Eastern Railway which bought 273 between late 1923 and early 1927 to supplement its 130 existing GCR Class 8K locos; the combined fleet served throughout the LNER system and many were modified over the years to prolong their useful life. In 1941 the War Department requisitioned 92 locomotives for use overseas. Withdrawal of the first ex-LNER RODs was made by British Railways in 1959 and the last was retired from the Doncaster area in April 1966. Thirteen RODs were purchased direct from the UK War Department in the 1920s by J & A Brown and shipped to Australia, for use on the owned Richmond Vale Railway; the last of the 13 RODs was withdrawn in three survive. During the Second World War the War Department needed heavy freight engines so in September 1941 it requisitioned 92 LNER locos.
61 were RODs bought by the LNER in the mid-1920s and 31 were GCR Class 8K locos. They were shipped to Egypt and Palestine, where they worked on Egyptian State Railways, Palestine Railways, the Haifa and Tripoli Railway between Palestine and Lebanon, the Chémin de Fer Damas-Hama et Prolongements in Syria, Iraqi State Railways. Iraqi State Railways had six examples and designated them class RD: in March 1967 at least one remained in storage at Shalchiyah works outside Baghdad awaiting disposal. In 1952 the UK shipped a final five RODs to the Middle East; some remained in service in the Suez Canal Zone until 1955 passed into Egyptian State Railways stock until withdrawal in 1961. J & A Brown, a coal mining company in the Hunter Valley area of New South Wales, bought thirteen RODs to replace the older locos used on their Richmond Vale railway line. Nine of these were built by the North British Locomotive Company, three by the Great Central Railway and one by Kitson and Company, they were bought between March 1925 and March 1927.
The first three locos arrived complete on the SS Boorara in February 1926 and were unloaded in Sydney and hauled to their home base at Hexham. In late 1927 the rest arrived in crates on Brown's new ship the SS Minmi on its maiden voyage to Hexham; the dismantled locos were reassembled with the last locos not being complete until 1931, but all thirteen locos were never in service at the one time. The maximum number in service at any one time was ten during 1954; the class survived until 28 June 1973. Three ROD 2-8-0s and one pre-war 8K have been preserved: J&A Brown 20 by the Dorrigo Steam Railway & Museum J&A Brown 23 was dismantled to investigate the feasibility of restoration in the mid 1990s. After the extent of works required was deemed too expensive at the time it was stored for nearly 20 years before undergoing a full static rebuild in 2016 and is now on public display at the Richmond Vale Railway Museum J&A Brown 24 by the Dorrigo Steam Railway & Museum https://web.archive.org/web/20150106175611/http://locodriver.co.uk/Vol06/Part09/03/index.html
GCR Class 8K
The Great Central Railway Class 8K 2-8-0 is a class of steam locomotive designed for heavy freight. Introduced in 1911, designed by John G. Robinson, 126 were built for the GCR prior to the First World War. Including wartime construction for the British Army ROD and the post-war GCR Class 8M, the class and its derivatives totalled 666 locomotives; the first of the 8K class was outshopped from the GCR's Gorton workshops in 1911. It was a superheated version of an earlier 0-8-0, the 8A class, with the addition of a pony truck; this both gave a steadier ride. The 8K was introduced to anticipate the increased traffic from the GCR's vast new docks complex at Immingham in North East Lincolnshire and by June 1914 126 were in traffic. During the First World War there were experiments with oil burning 8Ks with larger bogie tenders. Post-war, a further 19 locomotives were built in 1918–21 to a modified design with a larger boiler. In 1922 the GCR rebuilt two Class 8M to Class 8K. Robust and straightforward, the Class 8K 2-8-0 steamed well and proved outstandingly reliable, qualities that commended the design to the Ministry of Munitions.
Sir Sam Fay ensured that it became the standard locomotive during the First World War as the ROD 2-8-0, used by the Railway Operating Division of the Royal Engineers. 521 ROD locomotives were built in 1917-19 to the same design as the GCR's 8K locomotives, differing only in minor details, such as the fitting of Westinghouse Air Brakes and the use of steel for the boiler tubes and inner firebox. After the war, the surviving ROD locomotives were sold to various railway companies, with the GCR itself purchasing 3 in 1919, which were added to its indigenous 8K fleet. Other surplus ROD locomotives were sold to the London and North Western Railway, its successor the London and Scottish Railway, the Great Western Railway, to various purchasers in Australia and China. Many of these had short lives with their new owners – the LMS locomotives were all scrapped or sold by the 1930s, half of the GWR fleet was gone by 1930. However, other GWR engines survived well into the 1950s; the last of 13 locomotives sold to J & A Brown for use on the Richmond Vale railway line, in Australia, was retired in 1973, 3 locomotives in China were only retired in 1990.
Upon its formation in 1923 the London and North Eastern Railway inherited a total of 131 class 8K and 17 class 8M locomotives from the Great Central Railway. Under the LNER's ownership the 8Ks became known as Class O4, the 8Ms as Class O5, although all of the O5s were converted to Class O4s by 1946, they were joined by a further 273 former ROD locomotives purchased in 1923-27, bringing the total LNER O4 fleet to 421 locomotives. Some 92 of these were requisitioned by the War Department in 1941 for use in support of Commonwealth forces in the Middle East, none of which would return to Britain; the O4 locos served throughout the LNER system, many being modified to help extend their useful working life on heavy freight trains. Fifty-eight of the class were rebuilt into LNER Thompson Class O1s in 1944-49. 329 LNER O4 locomotives passed to British Railways ownership in 1948. Five locomotives were sold to the Government in 1952 for use in Egypt, routine withdrawals of BR's class O4s commenced in December 1958.
The last examples of the class were withdrawn from operations in the Doncaster area in April 1966, not long before the abandonment of steam altogether. One of the GCR-built 8Ks, BR number 63601, is preserved in Great Britain where it runs on the preserved Great Central Railway at Loughborough. There are three ROD 2-8-0s in New South Wales, Australia. Two are stored at the Dorrigo Steam Railway and Museum and one is being restored on the Richmond Vale Railway. In 2009 Bachmann Branchline announced a ready-to-run'00' scale model of the Class 8K, marketing it under the LNER class name of O4; the models being of preserved 63601, 2 long-gone examples BR 63635 and LNER 6190, -these have since been released. In October 2012 RailSimulator.com released a pay-ware add-on of the GCR 8K, again marketed under its LNER O4 classification, for Train Simulator 2013. It was released as a companion to the Woodhead Line add-on, released earlier in the year, features sounds from the preserved O4 63601 before its boiler ticket ran out, includes 4 scenarios for the Woodhead Line and Quickdrive compatibility.
Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 6B: Tender Engines—Classes O1 to P2. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-54-1. Railuk database LNER Encyclopedia