Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as an element in nature, it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels, by the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite contained a new element, johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, which he did by reducing the dioxide with carbon. Manganese phosphating is used for rust and corrosion prevention on steel, ionized manganese is used industrially as pigments of various colors, which depend on the oxidation state of the ions. The permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers, Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode material in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. In biology, manganese ions function as cofactors for a variety of enzymes with many functions.
Manganese enzymes are essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals in organisms that must deal with elemental oxygen. Manganese functions in the complex of photosynthetic plants. The element is a trace mineral for all known living organisms but is a neurotoxin. In larger amounts, and apparently with far greater effectiveness through inhalation, Manganese is a silvery-gray metal that resembles iron. It is hard and very brittle, difficult to fuse, Manganese metal and its common ions are paramagnetic. Manganese tarnishes slowly in air and oxidizes like iron in water containing dissolved oxygen, naturally occurring manganese is composed of one stable isotope, 55Mn. Eighteen radioisotopes have been isolated and described, the most stable being 53Mn with a half-life of 3.7 million years, 54Mn with a half-life of 312.3 days, and 52Mn with a half-life of 5.591 days. All of the radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than three hours, and the majority of less than one minute. Manganese has three meta states, Manganese is part of the iron group of elements, which are thought to be synthesized in large stars shortly before the supernova explosion.
53Mn decays to 53Cr with a half-life of 3.7 million years, because of its relatively short half-life, 53Mn is relatively rare, produced by cosmic rays impact on iron. Manganese isotopic contents are combined with chromium isotopic contents and have found application in isotope geology
The sultana is a white, oval seedless grape variety called the sultanina, Thompson Seedless, Lady de Coverly, and oval-fruited Kishmish. It is assumed to originate from the Levant, which became part of the Ottoman Empire. These are typically larger than Zante currants, and the Thompson variety is smaller than many seeded raisins, Thompson sultana raisins are small and sweet, and have a golden colour. Another seedless grape variety from the former Ottoman Empire, the round-fruited Kishmish, is dried to make a larger sultana raisin. The sultana raisin was traditionally imported to the English-speaking world from the Ottoman Empire and Australia are major producers. According to the U. S. Code of Federal Regulations, virtually all of California raisin production and roughly one-third of Californias total grape area is of this variety, making it the single most widely planted variety. The Ottomans took the grape variety to the island of Crete in the 19th century. In the US, most raisins, including those with the dark brown colour, are made from the sultana grape.
The term sultana refers to golden-coloured dried grapes, which may be called golden raisins, any kind of grape may be used to produce golden raisins, and any kind of golden raisins from any kind of grape may be marketed as sultanas. Moreover, the colour may come from a treatment with sulfur dioxide rather than traditional drying. Most nonorganic sultana grapes in California and elsewhere are treated with the plant hormone gibberellin. In other grapes, gibberellin is released by the seeds, in some jurisdictions, seedless dried grapes are classified as sultana and Thompson raisins according to the drying method used. Sultanas are steeped in a solution of water, potassium carbonate, Thompson raisins are not treated with this solution, but are dried naturally, thus they require more drying time than sultanas. Because of this, Thompsons are a darker colour than sultanas, the sultana grape is used to make white wine, in which use it is known for its sweet blandness. It is referred to as a three-way grape because it is used as table grape, to make raisins, in the United States it is the base for wine generically called chablis.
This wine is named for the Chablis region of France, in the EU, Chablis wine must be made from the Chardonnay grape produced in the region of the Yonne département. Sultana grape juice was fraudulently sold as being of Chardonnay grapes in Australia for wine making, the fraud was discovered in 2003 by the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation. It was considered the largest case of deception in Australian history
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon and oxygen atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2,1, in other words, with the empirical formula Cmn. This formula holds true for monosaccharides, some exceptions exist, for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula C5H10O4. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon, structurally it is accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, the saccharides are divided into four chemical groups, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides and disaccharides, the smallest carbohydrates, are referred to as sugars. The word saccharide comes from the Greek word σάκχαρον, meaning sugar, while the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose. For example, grape sugar is the glucose, cane sugar is the disaccharide sucrose.
Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms, polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy and as structural components. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA, the related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the system, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting. In food science and in informal contexts, the term carbohydrate often means any food that is particularly rich in the complex carbohydrate starch or simple carbohydrates. Often in lists of information, such as the USDA National Nutrient Database, the term carbohydrate is used for everything other than water, fat, ash. This will include chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, carbohydrates are found in wide variety of foods. The important sources are cereals, sugarcane, table sugar, milk and sugar are the important carbohydrates in our diet.
Starch is abundant in potatoes, maize and other cereals, sugar appears in our diet mainly as sucrose which is added to drinks and many prepared foods such as jam and cakes. Glucose and fructose are found naturally in fruits and some vegetables. Glycogen is carbohydrate found in the liver and muscles, cellulose in the cell wall of all plant tissue is a carbohydrate. It is important in our diet as fibre which helps to maintain a healthy digestive system, formerly the name carbohydrate was used in chemistry for any compound with the formula Cm n
This stage of the development of the English language roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English developed out of Late Old English, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar and this largely forms the basis for Modern English spelling, although pronunciation has changed considerably since that time. Middle English was succeeded in England by the era of Early Modern English, by that time, a variant of the Northumbrian dialect was developing into the Scots language. During the Middle English period many Old English grammatical features were simplified or disappeared, noun and verb inflections were simplified, a process that included the reduction of most grammatical case distinctions. Middle English saw an adoption of Norman French vocabulary, especially in areas such as politics, law. Everyday English vocabulary remained mostly Germanic, with Old Norse influence becoming apparent, significant changes in pronunciation took place, especially for long vowels and diphthongs, which in the Middle English period began to undergo the Great Vowel Shift.
Little survives of early Middle English literature, most likely due to the Norman domination, poets wrote both in the vernacular and courtly English. It is popularly believed that William Shakespeare wrote in Middle English, the latter part of the 11th century was a period of transition from Late Old English to Early Middle English. The influence of Old Norse certainly helped move English from a synthetic language towards a more analytic or isolating word order and it was, after all, a salutary influence. The gain was greater than the loss, there was a gain in directness, in clarity, and in strength. The change to Old English from Old Norse was substantive, pervasive and it is most important to recognise that in many words the English and Scandinavian language differed chiefly in their inflectional elements. The body of the word was so nearly the same in the two languages only the endings would put obstacles in the way of mutual understanding. In the mixed population which existed in the Danelaw these endings must have led to confusion, tending gradually to become obscured.
This blending of peoples and languages resulted in simplifying English grammar. There are many Norman-derived terms relating to the cultures that arose in the 12th century. Sometimes, and particularly later, words were taken from Latin, giving such sets as kingly, French borrowings came from standard rather than Norman French, this leads to such cognate pairs as warden, guardian. The end of Anglo-Saxon rule did not, of course, change the language immediately, the general population would have spoken the same dialects as before the Conquest, these changed slowly until written records of them became available for study, which varies in different regions. Once the writing of Old English came to an end, Middle English had no standard language, Early Middle English has a largely Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, but a greatly simplified inflectional system
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient. The term cholines refers to the class of quaternary ammonium salts containing the N, N, the cation appears in the head groups of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, two classes of phospholipid that are abundant in cell membranes. Choline is the molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in many functions including memory. Some animals cannot produce choline, but must consume it through their diet to remain healthy, humans make choline in the liver. Whether dietary or supplemental choline is beneficial or harmful to humans is undefined, possible dangers include increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, while possible benefits include reducing the risk of neural tube defects and fatty liver disease. According to the US Institute of Medicine, there is not enough evidence to establish a Recommended Daily Intake for choline. The Australian and New Zealand national nutrition bodies note that while deficiency has been seen during experiments, all three have published an Adequate Intake value, discussed below.
The European Unions food safety authority says there are no Recommended Daily Intakes in the EU, methionine and folate are known to interact with choline while homocysteine is undergoing methylation to produce methionine. Recent studies have shown that choline deficiency may have effects, even when sufficient amounts of methionine. Choline was first isolated by Adolph Strecker from pig and ox bile in 1862, when it was first chemically synthesized by Oscar Liebreich in 1865, it was known as neurine until 1898 when it was shown to be chemically identical to choline. In 1998, choline was classified as an essential nutrient by the Food, Choline is a quaternary ammonium salt with the chemical formula 3N+2OHX−, where X− is a counterion such as chloride, hydroxide or tartrate. Choline chloride can form a deep eutectic solvent mixture with urea with unusual properties. The salicylate salt is used topically for pain relief of aphthous ulcers, Choline hydroxide is one of the class of phase transfer catalysts that are used to carry the hydroxide ion into organic systems, therefore, is considered a strong base.
It is the phase transfer catalyst, and is used as an effective method of stripping photoresists in circuit boards. Choline hydroxide is not completely stable, and it breaks down into trimethylamine. Choline is a precursor to trimethylamine, which some persons are not able to break due to a genetic disorder called trimethylaminuria. Persons suffering from this disorder may suffer from a strong fishy or otherwise unpleasant body odor, a body odor will occur even on a normal diet – i. e. one that is not particularly high in choline. Persons with trimethylaminuria are advised to restrict the intake of foods high in choline, the following are choline values for a selection of foods in quantities that people may consume in a day
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Their colors ranges from white, to yellow, to pink to near black. Muscat grapes and wines almost always have a sweet floral aroma. It is used in the production of many of the French fortified wines known as vin doux naturels, in Australia, this is the main grape used in the production of Liqueur Muscat, from the Victorian wine region of Rutherglen. Young and unfortified examples of Muscat blanc tend to exhibit the characteristic Muscat grapey aroma as well as citrus, rose and aged examples tend to be very dark in color due to oxidation with aroma notes of coffee, fruit cake and toffee. Elsewhere it is used to make off-dry to sweet wines, often labeled as Moscato in Australia, California. In Alsace and parts of Central Europe, Muscat Ottonel is used to produce usually dry, Anglicus Latin work was translated into French in 1372 with the wine being described by Anglicus as vin extrait de raisins muscats. Because the exact origins of the Muscat family cannot be pinpointed, the most commonly cited belief is the name is derived from the Persian word muchk.
Similar etymology follows the Greek moskos, Latin muscus and French musc, in Italy, the Italian word mosca for fly could be one possibility with the sweet aroma and high sugar levels of Muscat grapes being a common attractant for insects such as fruit flies. Other theories suggest that the family originated in the Arabian country of Oman and was named after the city of Muscat located on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. Of the more than 200 grape varieties sharing Muscat in their name, the exception are the members of the Muscat blanc à Petits Grains and Muscat of Alexandria families. Rarely seen outside of Greece, Axina de Tres Bias is grown in Malta and these include the Italian wine grapes Aleatico, Moscato Giallo, Moscato rosa del Trentino and Moscato di Scanzo. DNA analysis was able to identify the Tuscan wine grape Mammolo as the parent variety that crossed with Muscat blanc à Petits Grains to produce Muscat rouge de Madère. More than 40 different monoterpenes have been discovered in Muscat grapes and these include the German wine grape Morio Muskat which, despite its name, is not related to the Muscat family and is, instead, a crossing of Silvaner x Pinot blanc.
Additionally, the Bordeaux wine grape Muscadelle that is used for sweet and dry wines is often mistaken for a Muscat variety due to its aromatic qualities. While made from a more aromatically neutral grape, Melon de Bourgogne grape, the Muscat grape can be confused in name only with Vitis rotundifolia, which is commonly known as a muscadine grape. The Muscat family is highly populous, with more than 200 distinct members, among these many different grapes only a handful of Muscat varieties are widely used in wine production. These include Muscat blanc à Petits Grains, Muscat of Alexandria, Muscat of Scanzorosciate, Muscat of Hamburg, in some vineyards, vines of Muscat blanc à Petits Grains are known to produce clusters of berries of different colors that change every vintage. The precise origins of Muscat blanc à Petits Grains are not known, though Greece, nearly all the most notable sweet Muscats of Greece, particularly those from the island of Samos and the city of Patras on the Peloponnese are made from Muscat blanc à Petits Grains
Zante currants, Corinth raisins, or Corinthian raisins, called simply currants, are dried berries of the small, seedless grape cultivar Black Corinth. The name comes from the Anglo-French phrase raisins de Corinthe and the Ionian island of Zakynthos and it is not related to black, red or white currants, which are berries of shrubs in the Ribes genus and not usually prepared in dried form. The currant is one of the oldest known raisins, the first written record was in 75 AD by Pliny the Elder, who described a tiny, thick-skinned grape with small bunches. The next mention is a later, when the raisins became a subject of trade between Venetian merchants and Greek producers from Ionian coasts. Gradually, the name got corrupted into currant, however, by the 17th century, trade shifted towards the Ionian islands, particularly Zakynthos, at which time it was named Zante currant. The first attempts to introduce the Black Corinth cultivar in the United States date back to 1854, the first successful vineyards of White and Red Corinth, were established in California in 1861 by Colonel Agoston Haraszthy.
Around 1901, David Fairchild of USDA imported high-quality black currant cuttings from the Greek village of Panariti, a renowned producer, the plantings reached 3,000 acres by 1936, which is approximately its current level. In wild grapes, the species is dioecious, the sexes grow on vines with male flowers on one plant. Black Corinth is an almost male variety in that the flowers have well-developed anthers, clusters of Black Corinth are small, averaging 6.3 oz and ranging from 3.2 to 9.5 oz. They are cylindrical, with prominent shoulder or winged, the berries are very small 0. 012–0.021 oz, and of a reddish black color. The skin is thin, and the flesh is juicy. It is practically seedless, except in a large berry. When dried, the raisins weigh 0. 0032–0.0049 oz and are brown or black. Leaves are medium-sized, heart-shaped, and oblong and they are five-lobed with deep sinuses. To yield sufficient fruit, Black Corinth grapes need to be carefully managed, Black Corinth stock was probably kept for its pollen-producing abilities, so other female flowered varieties would set full crops.
The Black Corinth cultivar is reputed to be prone to powdery mildew. Greece is still the producer of currants, amounting to about 80% of total world production, with California, South Africa. The fresh fruit of zante currants are very small and sweet, Black Corinth, White Corinth, and Red Corinth are often marketed under the name Champagne grapes in U. S. specialty stores, but despite the name, they are not used for making Champagne
Calcium in biology
Calcium ions play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell. Many enzymes require calcium ions as a cofactor, those of the blood-clotting cascade being notable examples, extracellular calcium is important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes, as well as proper bone formation. Calcium levels in mammals are tightly regulated, with acting as the major mineral storage site. Calcium ions, Ca2+, are released from bone into the bloodstream under controlled conditions, calcium is transported through the bloodstream as dissolved ions or bound to proteins such as serum albumin. Calcitriol, the form of vitamin D3, promotes absorption of calcium from the intestines. Calcitonin secreted from the cells of the thyroid gland affects calcium levels by opposing parathyroid hormone, however. Calcium storages are intracellular organelles, that constantly accumulate Ca2+ ions, intracellular Ca2+ storages include mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.
Characteristic concentrations of calcium in model organisms are, in E. coli 3mM, 100nM, in budding yeast 2mM, in mammalian cell 10-100nM and this is evidenced by human plasma calcium, which is one of the most closely regulated physiological variables in the human body. Normal plasma levels vary between 1 and 2% over any given time, different tissues contain calcium in different concentrations. For instance, Ca2+ is the most important element of bone, in humans, the total body content of calcium is present mostly in the form of bone mineral. In this state, it is unavailable for exchange/bioavailability. The way to overcome this is through the process of bone resorption, the remainder of calcium is present within the extracellular and intracellular fluids. Within a typical cell, the concentration of ionized calcium is roughly 100 nM. The intracellular calcium level is relatively low with respect to the extracellular fluid, by an approximate magnitude of 12. This gradient is maintained through various plasma membrane calcium pumps that utilize ATP for energy, in electrically excitable cells, such as skeletal and cardiac muscles and neurons, membrane depolarization leads to a Ca2+ transient with cytosolic Ca2+ concentration reaching 400 nM and above.
Mitochondria are capable of sequestering and storing some of that Ca2+ and it has been estimated that mitochondrial matrix free calcium concentration rises to the tens of micromolar levels in situ during neuronal activity. The effects of calcium on human cells are specific, meaning that different types of cells respond in different ways, however, in certain circumstances, its action may be more general. Ca2+ ions are one of the most widespread second messengers used in signal transduction, levels of intracellular calcium are regulated by transport proteins that remove it from the cell
Old French was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these came to be collectively known as the langues doïl. The mid-14th century is taken as the period to Middle French. The areal of Old French in contemporary terms corresponded to the parts of the Kingdom of France, Upper Burgundy. As part of the emerging Gallo-Romance dialect continuum, the langues doïl were contrasted with the langue doc, in these examples, we notice a clear consequence of bilingualism, that sometimes even changed the first syllable of the Latin words. Pope estimated that perhaps still 15% of the vocabulary of modern French derives from Germanic sources, at the third Council of Tours in 813, priests were ordered to preach in the vernacular language, since the common people could no longer understand formal Latin. The second-oldest document in Old French is the Eulalia sequence, which is important for reconstruction of Old French pronunciation due to its consistent spelling.
The Capetians langue doïl, the forerunner of modern standard French, did not begin to become the common speech of all of France, until after the French Revolution. In the Late Middle Ages, the Old French dialects diverged into a number of distinct langues doïl, during the Early Modern period, French now becomes established as the official language of the Kingdom of France throughout the realm, including the langue doc-speaking territories in the south. Old French gives way to Middle French in the mid-14th century, the earliest extant French literary texts date from the ninth century, but very few texts before the 11th century have survived. The first literary works written in Old French were saints lives, the Canticle of Saint Eulalie, written in the second half of the 9th century, is generally accepted as the first such text. The first of these is the area of the chansons de geste. More than one hundred chansons de geste have survived in three hundred manuscripts. The oldest and most celebrated of the chansons de geste is The Song of Roland, a fourth grouping, not listed by Bertrand, is the Crusade cycle, dealing with the First Crusade and its immediate aftermath.
Jean Bodels other two categories—the Matter of Rome and the Matter of Britain—concern the French romance or roman, around a hundred verse romances survive from the period 1150–1220. From around 1200 on, the tendency was increasingly to write the romances in prose, the most important romance of the 13th century is the Romance of the Rose which breaks considerably from the conventions of the chivalric adventure story. The Occitan or Provençal poets were called troubadours, from the word trobar to find, lyric poets in Old French are called trouvères. By the late 13th century, the tradition in France had begun to develop in ways that differed significantly from the troubadour poets