Rajiv Ratna Gandhi was an Indian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989. He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, to become the youngest Indian Prime Minister at the age of 40. Gandhi was a scion of the politically powerful Nehru–Gandhi family, associated with the Indian National Congress party. For much of his childhood, his maternal grandfather Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister. Gandhi attended college in the United Kingdom, he became a professional pilot for the state-owned Indian Airlines. In 1968, he married Sonia Gandhi. For much of the 1970s, his mother Indira Gandhi was prime minister and his brother Sanjay Gandhi an MP. After Sanjay's death in a fighter plane crash in 1980, Gandhi reluctantly entered politics at the behest of Indira; the following year he won his brother's Parliamentary seat of Amethi and became a member of the Lok Sabha—the lower house of India's Parliament. As part of his political grooming, Rajiv was made general secretary of the Congress party and given significant responsibility in organising the 1982 Asian Games.
On the morning of 31 October 1984, his mother was assassinated by one of her bodyguards. His leadership was tested over the next few days as organised mobs rioted against the Sikh community, resulting in anti-Sikh riots in Delhi; that December, Congress party won the largest Lok Sabha majority to date, 411 seats out of 542. Rajiv Gandhi's period in office was mired in controversies. In 1988, he reversed the coup in Maldives, antagonising militant Tamil groups such as PLOTE, intervening and sending peacekeeping troops to Sri Lanka in 1987, leading to open conflict with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. In mid-1987, the Bofors scandal damaged his corruption-free image and resulted in a major defeat for his party in the 1989 election. Gandhi remained Congress President until the elections in 1991. While campaigning for the elections, he was assassinated by a suicide bomber from the LTTE, his widow Sonia became the president of the Congress party in 1998 and led the party to victory in the 2004 and 2009 parliamentary elections.
His son Rahul Gandhi is a Member of Parliament and the current President of Indian National Congress. In 1991, Indian government posthumously awarded Gandhi the Bharat Ratna, the country's highest civilian award. At the India Leadership Conclave in 2009, the Revolutionary Leader of Modern India award was conferred posthumously on Gandhi. Rajiv Gandhi was born in Bombay on 20 August 1944 to Feroze Gandhi. In 1951, Rajiv and Sanjay were admitted to Shiv Niketan school, where the teachers said Rajiv was shy and introverted, "greatly enjoyed painting and drawing", he was admitted to the Welham Boys' School and Doon School, Dehradun in 1954, where Sanjay joined him two years later. Rajiv was sent to London in 1961 to study A-levels. From 1962 to 1965 he studied engineering at Trinity College, but did not obtain a degree. In 1966 he began a course in mechanical engineering at Imperial College London, but did not complete it. Gandhi was not studious enough, as he went on to admit later. Gandhi returned to India in 1966, the year.
He became a member of the Flying Club, where he was trained as a pilot. In 1970, he was employed as a pilot by Air India. In 1968, after three years of courtship, he married Edvige Antonia Albina Màino, who changed her name to Sonia Gandhi and made India her home, their first child, a son, Rahul Gandhi was born in 1970. In 1972, the couple had Priyanka Gandhi, who married Robert Vadra. On 23 June 1980, Rajiv's younger brother. At that time, Rajiv Gandhi was in London as part of his foreign tour. Hearing the news, he cremated Sanjay's body; as per Agarwal, in the week following Sanjay's death, Shankaracharya Swami Shri Swaroopanand, a saint from Badrinath, visited the family's house to offer his condolences. He advised Rajiv not to fly aeroplanes and instead "dedicate himself to the service of the nation". 70 members of the Congress party signed a proposal and went to Indira, urging Rajiv to enter politics. Indira told them; when he was questioned about it, he replied, "If my mother gets help from it I will enter politics".
Rajiv entered politics on 16 February 1981. During this time, he was still an employee of Air India. On 4 May 1981, Indira Gandhi presided over a meeting of the All India Congress Committee. Vasantdada Patil proposed Rajiv as a candidate for the Amethi constituency, accepted by all members at the meeting. A week the party announced his candidacy for the constituency, he paid the party membership fees of the party and flew to Sultanpur to file his nomination papers and completed other formalities. He won the seat, he took his oath on 17 August as Member of Parliament. Rajiv Gandhi's first political tour was to England, where he attended the wedding ceremony of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer on 29 July 1981. In December the same year, he was put in charge of the Indian Youth Congress, he first showed his organisational ability by "working round the cl
Philip Nigel Hawker is an English former footballer who played as a defender. He scored 11 goals in 213 appearances in the Football League playing for Birmingham City and West Bromwich Albion. Hawker was born in Solihull, he began his football career as an apprentice with Birmingham City where he turned professional in 1980. He deputised at left-back for Mark Dennis in the latter's absence, but was allowed to join Walsall in the 1982–83 season. Hawker spent eight seasons with the club, helping them to promotion to the Second Division in 1988, he scored in the play-off final against Bristol City heading home a corner from Mark Goodwin to make it 3-0 as Walsall won 4–0. He played one league game on loan for West Bromwich Albion before moving into non-league football with Kidderminster Harriers and Solihull Borough, he went on to run a car dealership
45 Years is a 2015 British romantic drama film directed and written by Andrew Haigh. The film is based on the short story "In Another Country" by David Constantine; the film premiered in the main competition section of the 65th Berlin International Film Festival. Charlotte Rampling won the Silver Bear for Best Actress and Tom Courtenay won the Silver Bear for Best Actor. At the 88th Academy Awards, Rampling received a nomination for Best Actress in a Leading Role, it was selected to be screened in the Special Presentations section of the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival and screened at the 2015 Telluride Festival. It was released in the United Kingdom on 28 August 2015; the film was released in the United States by Sundance Selects on 23 December 2015. The film takes place across six days, marked by intertitles. Five years after retirees Kate and Geoff Mercer had to cancel their 40th wedding anniversary because of his heart bypass surgery, the comfortably-off, childless Norfolk couple are preparing to celebrate their 45th anniversary with dozens of friends at the Assembly House in Norwich.
A week before the anniversary party, they discuss the music that will be played. The first song from their wedding 45 years ago is their choice for the opening dance again — this is a song that Geoff has always liked, their morning is somewhat disturbed when Geoff opens a letter from Switzerland telling him that the body of Katya, his German lover in the early 1960s, has become visible in a melting glacier where she fell into a crevasse on their hike with a guide over five decades ago. Memories rush back to him and he realizes he has forgotten much of what little German he used to know and that he would need a dictionary to understand all that the letter says. Kate has been told about Katya by Geoff and seems unconcerned by his controlled disquiet, but Geoff's conduct begins to show that there is more on his mind than he says. Among other things, he tries to keep from Kate that he is beginning to take steps to fly to Switzerland without her to see Katya's body, which he imagines preserved in the now-transparent ice, still looking youthful.
Prompted by Kate, Geoff talks about his relationship with Katya and thoughts evoked by the discovery of her body. He tells Kate that he and Katya had pretended to be married in order to be able to share a room in the more puritanical early 1960s; because of this, the Swiss authorities consider him to be Katya's next of kin. Kate asks if they planned to be married and Geoff states confidently that they would have. While Kate is troubled by the revelation, she tells him: "I can hardly be cross about something that happened before we existed... still..." As the days pass and preparations for the party continue, Geoff continues to be moody and takes up smoking, which both had given up in the past. One night, Geoff climbs into the attic to look at his memorabilia of Katya and only reluctantly shows Kate a picture of Katya, when she angrily insists. Kate notices that in addition to their similar names, Katya appears to look much like Kate did when she was young, with the same dark hair. Kate starts to ponder all of her life with Geoff and their possible rebound relationship, begins "to smell Katya's perfume" in every room.
While Geoff is out at a reunion luncheon at his former workplace, Kate climbs the ladder to the attic to seek what he might be keeping there. She finds Geoff's scrapbook filled with memorabilia from his time with Katya, including pressed violets from their last hike, she finds a carousel slide projector, loaded with images of Switzerland and Katya, next to a makeshift screen to view them. Kate is shocked to see slides showing Katya with her hand on top of the curve of her abdomen: Katya was pregnant at the time of her death. Kate takes up smoking again and, upon learning of his visit to the local travel agency to inquire about trips to Switzerland, confronts Geoff about his recent behavior related to Katya, without revealing what she saw in the attic, she says that she now believes that many of their decisions as a couple, including their many German Shepherds, were influenced by Katya. Geoff promises that their marriage will "start again," which the next morning he marks by serving her tea in bed and making breakfast for her.
They attend their anniversary party in the historic Grand Hall. Kate is constrained and remains impassive during Geoff's speech in which he professes his love for Kate, while saying "the choices we make in our youth are most important", he brings himself to tears during the personal and emotional speech, just as Kate's friend Lena has predicted men always do at weddings and anniversaries. Kate seems fleetingly heartened by the conclusion of his speech; the first dance is announced, to be the same first song from their wedding, "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes" by The Platters. As Geoff and Kate slow dance, she becomes awkward and rigid, while he becomes silly and playful. Kate appears to be interpreting that the significance of the song, about loss, relates to Geoff's feelings for Katya; as the song ends, Geoff raises their hands together in the air as the party guests cheer, but Kate yanks her arm down. Geoff oblivious, dances away; the final close-up isolates Kate amid the mass of people on the dance floor as mixed emotions play across her face.
Charlotte Rampling as Kate Mercer Tom Courtenay as Geoff Mercer Geraldine James as Lena Dolly Wells as Charlotte Max Rudd as the Maître d' David Sibley as George Sam Alexander as Chris the postman Richard Cunningham as Mr. Watkins Kevin Matadeen as the Waiter Hannah Chalmers as the Travel Agent The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports a 97% approval rating with an average rating of 8.6/10, based on 186 revi