Rajput is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent. The term Rajput covers various patrilineal clans associated with warriorhood: several clans claim Rajput status, although not all claims are universally accepted; the term "Rajput" acquired its present meaning only in the 16th century, although it is anachronistically used to describe the earlier lineages that emerged in northern India from 6th century onwards. In the 11th century, the term "rajaputra" appeared as a non-hereditary designation for royal officials; the Rajputs emerged as a social class comprising people from a variety of ethnic and geographical backgrounds. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the membership of this class became hereditary, although new claims to Rajput status continued to be made in the centuries. Several Rajput-ruled kingdoms played a significant role in many regions of central and northern India until the 20th century.

The Rajput population and the former Rajput states are found in north, west and east India. These areas include Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu, Uttarakhand and Madhya Pradesh; the origin of the Rajputs has been a much-debated topic among the historians. Colonial-era writers characterised them as descendants of the foreign invaders such as the Scythians or the Hunas, believed that the Agnikula myth was invented to conceal their foreign origin. According to this theory, the Rajputs originated when these invaders were assimilated into the Kshatriya category during the 6th or 7th century, following the collapse of the Gupta Empire. While many of these colonial writers propagated this foreign-origin theory in order to legitimise the colonial rule, the theory was supported by some Indian scholars, such as D. R. Bhandarkar; the Indian nationalist historians, such as C. V. Vaidya, believed the Rajputs to be descendants of the ancient Vedic Aryan Kshatriyas. A third group of historians, which includes Jai Narayan Asopa, theorized that the Rajputs were Brahmins who became rulers.

However, recent research suggests that the Rajputs came from a variety of ethnic and geographical backgrounds. The root word "rajaputra" first appears as a designation for royal officials in the 11th century Sanskrit inscriptions. According to some scholars, it was reserved for the immediate relatives of a king. Over time, the derivative term "Rajput" came to denote a hereditary political status, not very high: the term could denote a wide range of rank-holders, from an actual son of a king to the lowest-ranked landholder. Before the 15th century, the term "Rajput" was associated with people of mixed-caste origin, who were considered inferior in rank to "Kshatriya"; the term Rajput came to denote a social class, formed when the various tribal and nomadic groups became landed aristocrats, transformed into the ruling class. These groups ranks; the early medieval literature suggests that this newly formed Rajput class comprised people from multiple castes. Thus, the Rajput identity is not the result of a shared ancestry.

Rather, it emerged when different social groups of medieval India sought to legitimize their newly acquired political power by claiming Kshatriya status. These groups started identifying as Rajput in different ways. Scholarly opinions differ on when the term Rajput acquired hereditary connotations and came to denote a clan-based community. Historian Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya, based on his analysis of inscriptions, believed that by the 12th century, the term "rajaputra" was associated with fortified settlements, kin-based landholding, other features that became indicative of the Rajput status. According to Chattopadhyaya, the title acquired "an element of heredity" from c. 1300. A study by of 11th–14th century inscriptions from western and central India, by Michael B. Bednar, concludes that the designations such as "rajaputra", "thakkura" and "rauta" were not hereditary during this period. During its formative stages, the Rajput class was quite assimilative and absorbed people from a wide range of lineages.

However, by the late 16th century, it had become genealogically rigid, based on the ideas of blood purity. The membership of the Rajput class was now inherited rather than acquired through military achievements. A major factor behind this development was the consolidation of the Mughal Empire, whose rulers had great interest in genealogy; as the various Rajput chiefs became Mughal feduatories, they no longer engaged in major conflicts with each other. This decreased the possibility of achieving prestige through military action, made hereditary prestige more important; the word "Rajput" thus acquired its present-day meaning in the 16th century. During 16th and 17th centuries, the Rajput rulers and their bards sought to legitimize the Rajput socio-political status on the basis of descent and kinship, they fabricated genealogies linking the Rajput families to the ancient dynasties, associated them with myths of origins that established their Kshatriya status. This led to the emergence of what Indologist Dirk Kolff calls the "Rajput Great Tradition", which accepted only hereditary claims to the Rajput identity, fostered a notion of eliteness and exclusivity.

The legendary epic poem Prithviraj Raso, which depicts warriors from several different Rajput clans as associates of Prithviraj Chauhan, fostered a sense

Order of battle for the Central Hubei Operation (November 1940)

Order of battle for the Central Hubei Operation, a battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War. 11th Army – Lt. General Waichiro Sonobe Kayashima Force – Lt. Gen Takashi Kayashima 1939–1941 at Tang-yang 18th Independent Mixed Brigade – Lt. Gen Taka Kayashima 1939–1941 92nd Independent infantry battalion 93rd Independent infantry battalion 94th Independent infantry battalion 95th Independent infantry battalion 96th independent infantry battalion artillery troops labor troops signal communication unit. Elements of the 40th Division Lt-General Naojiro Amaya, Manchuria 10/2/39 – 8/25/1941, 40th Infantry Brigade group: 234th Infantry regiment 235th Infantry regiment 236th Infantry regiment 40th Cavalry regiment 40th mountain artillery regiment 40th military engineer regiment 40th Transport regiment Murakami Force – Lt. Gen Keisaku Murakami4,5 at Chingmen 39th Division – - Lt. Gen Keisaku Murakami 39th Infantry Brigade Group 231st Infantry Rregiments 232nd Infantry Regiments 233rd Infantry Regiments 39th Recon Regiment 39th Field Artillery Regiment 39th Military Engineer Regiment 39th Transport Regiment Hirabayashi Force – Lt-General Morito Hirabayashi at Chung-hsiang Elements of 17th Division – Lt-General Morito Hirabayashi 17th Infantry Brigade Group 53rd Infantry Regiment 54th Infantry Regiment 81st Infantry Regiment 23rd Field Artillery Regiment 7th Military Engineer Regiment 17th Transport Regiment Kurahashi Detachment – Col. Kurahashi 60th Infantry Regiment, detached from 15th Division in the Nanchang area.

Kitano Force – Lt. Gen Kenzo Kitano, north of Chung-hsiang in the vicinity of modern Shuanghe Elements of 4th Division – Lt. Gen Kenzo Kitano 4th Infantry Brigade group: 8th Infantry Regiment 37th Infantry Regiment 61st Infantry Regiment 4th Recon Regiment 4th Field Artillery Regiment 4th Military Engineer Regiment 4th Transport Regiment Kususe Armored force –? 7th Tank Regiment 13th Tank Regiment? Tank Regiment Teshima Force – Lt. General Fusataro Teshima, at Sui Hsien 3rd Division – Lt. General Fusataro Teshima 5th Infantry Brigade 6th Infantry Regiment 68th Infantry Regiment 29th Infantry Brigade 18th Infantry Regiment 34th Infantry Regiment 3rd Field Artillery Regiment 3rd Cavalry Regiment 3rd Engineer Regiment 3rd Transport RegimentNotes 15th Division – Lt-General Keiichi Kumagai 1940–1941 7th and 13th were two of three Tank regiments assigned to 11th Army in late 1940. 5th War Area – Li Tsung-jen River West Group / 33rd Army Group – Feng Chih-an 77th Corps – Feng Chih-an 37th Division – Li Chiu-sze 179th Division – Liu Chen-shan 30th Corps – Wang Chung-lien or Chih Feng-cheng 27th Division – Hsu Wen-yao 30th Division – Liu Chen-shan 31st Division –?

Right Army Group / 29th Army Group – Wang Tsan-hsu 44th Corps – Liao Chen 149th Division 150th Division 67th Corps – Hsu Shao-tsung 161st Division 162nd Division Central Army Group / 22nd Army Group – Sun Chen 41st Corps – Chen Ting-hsun 125th Division 127th Division 45th Corps – Sun Chen 122nd Division 124th Division 59th Corps- Huang Wei-kang 38th Division – Li Chiu-sze 180th Division – Liu Chen-shan Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War 2nd Ed. 1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing. Pg. 339–342. Map 22. Post subject: Re: Central Hopei Operation November 25–30, 1940 Correct names for the Japanese commanders From: Senshi Sōshō 11th Army – Lt. General Waichiro Sonobe – Kayashima Force – Lt. Gen Takashi Kayashima 1939–1941 at Tang-yang—18th Independent Mixed Brigade – Lt. Gen Takashi Kayashima 1939– 1941—40th Division – Lt-General Naojiro Amaya, – Murakami Force – Lt. Gen Keisaku Murakami at Chingmen—39th Division – Lt. Gen Keisaku Murakami -Teshima Force – Lt. General Fusataro Teshima – 3rd Division – Fusataro Teshima Generals from Japan The Japanese Mutumi troop encyclopedia

Billericay Dickie

"Billericay Dickie" is a song by Ian Dury, from his debut album New Boots and Panties!!. It is narrated by a bragging bricklayer from Billericay, is filled with name-checks for places in Essex; the song is based around naughty rhymes such as: I had a love affair with Nina In the back of my Cortina A seasoned up hyena could not have been more obscenerEach verse tells a different short story, relating one of Dickie's sexual conquests around south-eastern England, while in the choruses the character insists he is a caring, conscientious lover and'not a thickie' giving the names of two girls as references to attest this. Dickie is a character most referred to in the media as an'Essex lad'; the song the best example of Dury's'Englishness' and'Essexness', was given its oompah, fairground like arrangement by an American, Steve Nugent. Ian Dury stated on numerous occasions that he saw Dickie as a pathetic figure, he would reflect this on-stage by breaking down, as if he were about to cry during the final part of the song, before returning to normal, to shout the final lines of the final verse.

The song was used as an opening track for live sets, but it does open the set recorded live at the Hammersmith Odeon, in 1985, released as the Hold Onto Your Structure VHS/DVD. Live versions can be found on both of Dury's live albums Warts'n' Audience and Straight from the Desk. In Australia, the song formed the basis of the jingle in ads for cleaning product Ajax Spray n' Wipe; the ad campaign ran from 1998 to 2010. Sex And Drugs And Rock And Roll: The Life Of Ian Dury by Richard Balls, first published 2000, Omnibus Press Ian Dury & The Blockheads: Song By Song by Jim Drury, first published 2003, Sanctuary Publishing. Reasons To Be Cheerful 2-Disc Compilation first released 1996, Repertoire Records New Boots And Panties!! — label credit on Stiff Records SEEZ 4, released 1977