Aleksey Vasilyevich Lukyanuk is a Russian rally driver, European Rally Champion, a master of rally sports, the overall Champion of Russia and Estonia, the only holder of nine times Colin McRae Flat Out Trophy. From 2009 his co-driver is Aleksey Arnautov. 2011 – the winner of Russia Rally Cup in 2000N category 2014 – Russian Rally Champion in N4 category 2014 – Overall Rally Champion of Russia 2011 – 5th place in Rally Saaremaa overall standings, the final round of Estonian Rally Championship and Baltics Cup 2012 – 1st place in Rally Saaremaa overall standings, the final round of Estonian Rally Championship and Baltics Cup 2013 – Colin McRae Flat Out Trophy at ERC round Liepaja-Ventspils in Latvia 2013 – 1st place in category 3 at WRC round in Finland 2014 – Colin McRae Flat Out Trophy at ERC round auto24 Rally Estonia 2014 – 2nd place in auto24 Rally Estonia overall standings, the ERC round 2014 – Estonian Rally Champion in N4 category 2014 – Overall Rally Champion of Estonia 2018 - FIA European Rally Champion * Season still in progress.
Born in Moscow, Lukyanuk started rallying in 2005. His first car was Zhiguli VAZ 2105 at Club Rally round in Staraya Shuya Rally, he started 2–3 times a year. He finished sometimes but more Lukyanuk retired by technical reasons although his rivals could not ignore his pace; the great powerful car Opel Astra GTC came a little bit but it had troubles with reliability. In 2009 Lukyanuk met his co-driver Aleksey Arnautov. In December the crew won Rally “Svetogorsk-2009”. “Rally Yakkima” – Opel engine exploded at the first special stage. “Rally Golubye Ozera” – the same story. The crew started in Zhiguli as the “zero” crew and entertained spectators at the wheel of rear drive car. “Rally Vyborg” – a small mistake in notes led to a dramatic hitting the trees. The crew was not injured, the car did not need a long repair. “Strugi Krasnye” “Saint Petersburg” – finish in Opel on the third place in overall standings! Many crews in four-wheel drive cars were not satisfied with their performance. “Rally Strugi Krasnye Winter” – 1st place in category “Rally Yakkima” – 1st place in category “Rally Golubye Ozera” – 1st place in category “Strugi Krasnye Summer” – retiment because of technical problems with drive gear “Rostov Veliky” – the race took place on the base of working open-cut mining.
Good Ohlins shock absorbers did not cope with a road that favoured only local Belaz so the crew had to retire. “Rally Vyborg” – the drive gear was broken again and the gas pump was worn. New retirement. “Saint Petersburg” – finish in Opel on the first place in category and the third place in overall standings! Many crews in four-wheel drive cars were not satisfied with their performance. “Pskov” – new engine failure. The crew retired again, but guys came to the final race armed with maximum possible 80 points, they only did not have time to prepare the car... “Tuapse”. It was a dramatic rally: the crew had 80 points and their closest rival Irek Dautov only 60, it was enough for victory just to finish, but the car let them down... The flywheel unscrewed on the road to technical check. Retirement? No, mechanics went to Krasnodar at night, found the spare parts and prepared the car to start, but substandard clutch crept, it was decided to retire on the first day and to use a Superally because time penalty was not a problem.
The mechanics prepared it for the next day start. Heavy rains turned not the best mountain Tuapse roads into an awful mix of water and stones that crushed rally cars. Irek retired on the first day because of problems with gearbox, so the battle thickened on the second day; the crew drove to save the car, but at a steep descent the gearbox broke in half because of the overload... Retirement. Irek finished the third. Lukyanuk and Arnautov won Russia Rally Cup in 2000N category!!! With races in Russia the crew competed abroad, in nearby Estonia; this country is reach in rally traditions, it offers perfect roads, good race organisation and close competition in all categories. Crews that had performed well in Russia achieved high results in Baltics, but Alexey Lukyanuk showed he deserved more: “Tallinn” – the crew did not reach the finish line, they retired because of troubles with gearbox. But in E10 category – 2-litre cars – the crew was among leaders. “Otepaa” – the first race of such a high level the European Championship.
The crew showed good results and dramatic driving, but the broken drive gear quenched all hopes for successful finish. The season final turned to be unexpected. Thanks to businessman Vadim Kuznetsov support Lukyanuk had the opportunity to participate in legendary rally “Saaremaa” in four-wheel drive Mitsubishi Lancer Evo 7, he took the fifth place in overall standings. Rally Virumaa – 1st place in category and 7th in overall standings. Rally Tallinn in 2012 was not in Estonian Championship calendar, but turned to be successful for Lukyanuk and Arnautov — they secured the victory in overall standings Rally Madona – 1st place in category and 5th in overall standings Rally Estonia became the significant race for Aleksey Lukyanuk, he started there for the first time in Lancer Evo 9 prepared by ASRT team. The crew was showing good results during the whole rally and it claimed for the highest podium step in category, they were losing only 3.4 sec to category leader Estonian Kaspar Koitla, but the rear drive broke and the crew had to finish two last special stages with three-wheel drive.
In this difficult situation guys were able to secure the second place in category and the seventh in overall standings. Note that the top five pl
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Tartu is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn. Tartu is considered the intellectual centre of the country since it is home to the nation's oldest and most renowned university, the University of Tartu; the city houses the Supreme Court of Estonia, the Ministry of Education and Research, the new building of the Estonian National Museum, opened to the public in October 2016. It is the birthplace of Estonian Song Festivals. Situated 186 kilometres southeast of Tallinn and 245 kilometres northeast of Riga, Tartu lies on the Emajõgi, which connects the two largest lakes of Estonia; the city is served by Tartu Airport. Since 1918, the Estonian name Tartu has been used, but as the town has come under control of various rulers throughout its history, there have been various names for it in different languages. Most of them derive from the earliest attested form, the Estonian Tarbatu. In German and Polish the town has been known and is sometimes still referred to as Dorpat, a variant of Tarbatu.
In Russian, the city has been known as Юрьев and as Дерпт. The city has been known as Tērbata in Latvian, while Finnish-speakers use the toponym Tartto. Archaeological evidence of the first permanent settlement on the site of modern Tartu dates to as early as the 5th century AD. By the 7th century, local inhabitants had built a wooden fortification on the east side of Toome Hill; the first documented record of the area was made in 1030 by chroniclers of Kievan Rus. Yaroslav I the Wise, Prince of Kiev, invaded the region that year, built his own fort there, named it Yuryev. Kievan rulers collected tribute from the surrounding ancient Estonian county of Ugaunia until 1061, according to chronicles, Yuryev was burned down by Estonian tribe called Sosols. Kievan Rus' again controlled Tartu from 1133 for an unknown period up to 1176/1177. In the 12th century Tartu was the most notable Slavic settlement in Chud territory. Estonian amateur historian Enn Haabsaar speculates that the "Yuryev" mentioned in this context is Bila Tserkva, Ukraine, a town, founded by Yaroslav I the Wise as Yuriev about the same time, 1032.
His views have been criticized by historian Ain Mäesalu. During the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century the fort of Tarbatu was captured by the crusading Livonian Knights — known as the Brothers of the Sword — and recaptured by Estonians on several occasions. In 1224, after Ugaunia had recognized the supremacy of Novgorod and Pskov princes who sent additional troops led by prince Vyachko of Kukenois to the fort, it was besieged and conquered for one last time by the German crusaders. Subsequently, known as Dorpat, Tartu became a commercial centre of considerable importance during the Middle Ages and the capital of the semi-independent Bishopric of Dorpat. In 1262 the army of Prince Dmitri of Pereslavl, son of Alexander Nevsky launched an assault on Dorpat and destroying the town, his troops did not manage to capture the bishop's fortress on Toome Hill. The event was recorded both in German and Old East Slavic chronicles, which provided the first record of a settlement of German merchants and artisans which had arisen alongside the bishop's fortress.
In medieval times, after the Livonian Order was subsumed into the Teutonic Knights in 1236, the town became an important trading city. In the 1280s Dorpat joined the Hanseatic League; as in all of Estonia and Latvia, the German-speaking nobility, but in Tartu/Dorpat more so, the Baltic German bourgeoisie, the literati, dominated culture, architecture and politics until the late 19th century. For example, the town hall of Dorpat was designed by an architect from Rostock in Mecklenburg, while the university buildings were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, another German. Many, if not most, of the students, more than 90 percent of the faculty members were of German descent, numerous statues of notable scholars with German names can still be found in Tartu today. Most Germans left during the first half of the 20th century, in particular as part of the Heim ins Reich program of the Nazis, following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in 1939. In 1558, tsar Ivan the Terrible invaded Tartu beginning the Livonian War.
Forces under the command of Pyotr Shuiski began heavy bombardment. In light of this and without any prospect of external help the town surrendered; the local bishop was imprisoned in Moscow, which ended the period of local self-government. In the effect of the Truce of Jam Zapolski of 1582 the city along with southern regions of Livonian Confederation became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1598 it became the capital of the Dorpat Voivodeship of the Duchy of Livonia. A Jesuit grammar school "Gymnasium Dorpatense" was established in 1583. In addition, a translators' seminary was organized in Tartu and the city received its red and white flag from the Polish king Stephen Báthory; the activities of both the grammar school and the seminary were stopped by the Polish–Swedish War. In late 1600 the forces of Charles IX of Sweden besieged the city defended by three banners of reiters and the city's burghers. Despite repeated assaults, the Swedes could not enter the city. In 1601 Capt. Hermann Wrangel switched sides, assaulted the cast
Markko Märtin is a rally driver from Estonia, who competed in the World Rally Championship from 2000 until 2005. Märtin, as understudy to then-team mates Colin McRae and Carlos Sainz, rose to prominence with the Ford World Rally Team in the 2002 season, he was on target to notch up a victory on that year's Acropolis Rally Greece, his career first, until suffering two punctures and instead being forced to concede to the more experienced McRae. Nonetheless, Märtin still impressed during his time as pilot of the Ford Focus RS WRC, he won the equivalent event in Greece the following year as well as being only the third driver in the history of the WRC to break the Scandinavian stranglehold on the Neste Rally Finland. In addition to this, Märtin was inaugural winner, again with Ford, of the Corona Rally Mexico in the 2004 season, he won the tarmac rallies of Corsica and Catalunya in the same year. These victories happened to be the last for the Märtin/Michael Park partnership. For 2005 Märtin departed the team for former constructors' champion its 307 car.
In comparison to the heights of previous seasons, initial promise was to give way to grief. Although 2005 was by no means an exemplary season by Märtin's standards, he and co-driver Park had still notched up four podium finishes for their new employers by the time they had arrived in Wales to contest the Wales Rally Great Britain. However, on Sunday, 18 September 2005, the final leg of the event, two kilometres from the start of Stage 15 at Margam Park, Märtin's Peugeot crashed into a tree. Although the Estonian driver was left unhurt by the shunt, co-driver Michael Park was killed in the accident, the first fatality for a competitor at WRC-level for over a decade; as a result, Märtin announced. Understandably shaken by the death of Park, Märtin left the WRC stage, he went on to manage a junior rallying team in the Estonian rally scene, indicating that he would refuse any offers to drive at the top level again. He has since spoken out against the FIA's treatment of the WRC, claiming that the series had lost much of its lustre and calling for a far-reaching rules overhaul.
However, Märtin made a limited return to competitive rallying in March 2006 at the 2006 Rally of Portugal. The invitational event was held as a candidate for full WRC status. Märtin competed in his first outing in an FIA-spec Group N car in nearly a decade, he was co-driven by David Senior, who worked with Alister McRae. Märtin partook in the 2006 Danish Touring Car Championship with Hans Hartmann's Honda Racing. Märtin signed a deal to become the official test driver for the Subaru World Rally Team in 2008, he has since test-driven for Mini. In 2009, Märtin was hired by Ford to work as a R&D factory driver, he helped to train WRC rookie Ken Block for the 2010 WRC season. On 7 June 2010, it was announced that Märtin would race in Rally Estonia, which took place on 16–18 July 2010 and, an IRC candidate event. Märtin drove a Ford Focus RS WRC 03, which he referred to as "the best rally car in the world." Märtin won all twelve stages, second place, Ott Tänak lost 2.50,3. Together with his father, Märtin runs a haulage company in Estonia.
He bought a car dealership in 2005 and has started selling Subarus. On the same year he created MM Motorsport, which won several Estonian Rally Championship titles; the team has numerous Ford Fiesta R5 for rent. Märtin lives in Monaco with Miss Model Estonia 2004 Mari-Liis Sallo and they welcomed their first child together in summer 2007. Märtin appeared in the 2019 documentary film Ott Tänak: The Movie as one of the interviewees. Article on Märtin's intention to retire Article on Märtin's joining with DTC Stats at Jonkka's World Rally Archive Stats at ewrc-results.com
Kajetan Kajetanowicz is a Polish rally driver. He is a Four time Poland Rally Champion. In 2012 he became champion in the Central European Zone Rally Championship, he became the ERC European Drivers Champion in the 2015, 2016 and 2017 seasons with co-driver Jarosław Baran in Ford Fiesta R5 driving for Lotos Rally Team Since 2013, Kajetanowicz has won six ERC rallies. His first major victory was in 2013, when he won the Rally Poland in a brand-new Ford Fiesta R5 for the Lotos Rally Team, it was Kajetanowicz's third win of the Rally Poland. He would beat previous Polish Rally Champion Bryan Bouffier in a Peugeot 207 S2000 and eventual European champion that season, Jan Kopecký, in a Škoda Fabia S2000. In 2014, Kajetanowicz made the full-time step-up to the ERC, with his rallying team Lotos Rally Team signing a customer support deal with M-Sport Poland; this would supply Kajetanowicz and his team with a factory-prepared Ford Fiesta R5. For the 2014 season, Kajetanowicz ended 4th in the European Championship with two podiums, finishing in third place in the 2014 Acropolis Rally and second place in the Cyprus Rally.
In 2015 he won the ERC Drivers title over his main rival for the season, Peugeot factory driver Craig Breen, winning the Jänner Rallye, Cyprus Rally and the Acropolis Rally in the process. In 2016 he defended his ERC title with a win at the Rajd Rzeszowski, three second places and a third place at the Rallye Açores. In 2017 he claimed a third consecutive ERC championship with a win at the Acropolis Rally, taking three second-place finishes at the Canary Islands and Rome. After four years of success in the European Championship, Kajetanowicz began the 2018 season with an uncertain future over sponsorship, it wouldn't be until May that his rally team announced a schedule for the 2018 season, with Kajetanowicz set to participate in four rounds of the World Rally Championship in the WRC-2 class. As a result, he would not return to defend his streak of ERC titles. * Season still in progress. * Season still in progress. Http://kajto.pl/en?i=10&t=kajetan_kajetanowicz http://ewrc-results.com/profile.php?p=4113
Special stage (rallying)
A special stage is a section of closed road at a stage rallying event. Racers attempt to complete the stage in the shortest time. A race on a special stage is coordinated such that each competing racer begins after a set interval, to reduce the chance of impedance by other competitors; each special stage is a short section up to about 30 miles in length. A rally comprises 15–30 special stages; the driver with the lowest overall time for all special stages in an event is the winner. The roads on which special stages are held vary from rally to rally, from the asphalt mountain passes used on the Monte Carlo Rally to the rough forest tracks used on the Rally GB. Surfaces such as ice and snow or desert sand are common, with the aim of providing a challenge for the driver and crew as well as a test of the car's performance and reliability. While competing on a special stage, the drivers and co-drivers can have no support from their teams and must deal with any breakdowns or problems themselves; each car will be given a specific start time for a stage at four-minute intervals.
In the minutes before setting off, a car will wait stationary at the start point until the driver scheduled start time. The driver may begin at that time, an official and the co-driver will provide a ten-second countdown; the timing of a stage for a particular car starts at its scheduled time, not when it passes the start point. At the end of the stage, there are two sets of markers; the first is referred to as the flying finish, is the point at which timing for the stage ends. The name comes from the fact that a car will be traveling at full racing speeds when it passes this post. Several hundred meters further along the stage is the stop control point, where the car must come to a halt in order for officials to record their time and check paperwork. 50 meters after the stop point is the end of the special stage restrictions. The cars must travel between special stages on public roads known as transport stages. While on public roads, all local traffic laws must be obeyed, so all cars must be roadworthy and taxed and insured.
Drivers may be given a scheduled time to arrive at their destination to ensure they do not speed during the journey, with penalties for arriving too soon or too late. It is common to see rallies containing a "Super Special Stage" or "Spectator Stage." These are timed stages, like standard special stages, but are held on short purpose-built tracks in outdoor stadia, but in covered venues. Two cars will set off at the same time and at the halfway point of the stage will swap lanes; the short distance means that the difference in times between the top runners is negligible, so the stage is of little relevance to the overall classification. What Is WRC? Glossary