Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom
The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom the Crown Jewels of England, are 140 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn by British kings and queens at their coronations. Symbols of 800 years of monarchy, the coronation regalia are the only working set in Europe – other present-day monarchies have abandoned coronations in favour of secular ceremonies – and the collection is the most complete of any regalia in the world. Objects used to invest and crown the monarch variously denote his or her roles as head of state, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, head of the British armed forces, they feature heraldic devices and national emblems of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland, recent pieces were designed to reflect the monarch's role as Head of the Commonwealth. Use of regalia by monarchs in England can be traced back to when it was converted to Christianity in the Middle Ages. A permanent set of coronation regalia, once belonging to Edward the Confessor, was established after he was made a saint in the 12th century.
They were holy relics kept at Westminster Abbey – venue of coronations since 1066. Another set was used at State Openings of Parliament. Collectively, these objects came to be known as the Jewels of the Crown. Most of the present collection dates from around 350 years ago; the medieval and Tudor regalia had been sold or melted down after the monarchy was abolished in 1649 during the English Civil War. Only four original items pre-date the Restoration: a late 12th-century anointing spoon and three early 17th-century swords. Upon the Acts of Union 1707, the English Crown Jewels were adopted by British monarchs; the regalia contain 23,578 stones, among them Cullinan I, the largest clear cut diamond in the world, set in the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross. It was cut from the largest gem-quality rough diamond found, the Cullinan, discovered in South Africa in 1905 and presented to Edward VII. On the Imperial State Crown are Cullinan II, the Stuart Sapphire, St Edward's Sapphire, the Black Prince's Ruby – a large spinel given to Edward the Black Prince by a Spanish king in 1367.
The Koh-i-Noor diamond from India, was acquired by Queen Victoria and has featured on three consort crowns. A small number of historical objects at the Tower set with glass and crystals. At a coronation the monarch is anointed using holy oil poured from an ampulla into the spoon, invested with robes and ornaments, crowned with St Edward's Crown. Afterwards, it is exchanged for the lighter Imperial State Crown, usually worn at State Openings of Parliament. Wives of kings are invested with a plainer set of regalia, since 1831 a new crown has been made specially for each queen consort. Regarded as Crown Jewels are state swords, ceremonial maces, church plate, historical regalia, banqueting plate, royal christening fonts, they are part of the Royal Collection and belong to the institution of monarchy, passing from one sovereign to the next. When not in use the Jewels are on public display in the Jewel House and Martin Tower where they are seen by 2.5 million visitors every year. The earliest known use of a crown in Britain was discovered by archaeologists in 1988 in Deal and dates to between 200 and 150 BC.
A sword, ceremonial shield, decorated bronze crown with a single arch, which sat directly on the head of its wearer, were found inside the tomb of the Mill Hill Warrior. At this point, crowns were symbols of authority worn by military leaders. Priests continued to use crowns following the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. A dig in a field at Hockwold cum Wilton, Norfolk, in 1957 revealed a bronze crown with two arches and depictions of male faces, dating from the period of Roman occupation. By the early 5th century, the Romans had withdrawn from Britain, the Angles and the Saxons settled. A heptarchy of new kingdoms began to emerge. One of the methods used by regional kings to solidify their authority over their territories was the use of ceremony and insignia; the tomb of an unknown king – evidence suggests it may be Rædwald of East Anglia – at Sutton Hoo provides insight into the regalia of a pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon king. Inside the early 7th-century tomb discovered in 1939 was found the ornate Sutton Hoo helmet, comprising an iron cap, a neck guard, a face mask, decorated with images of animals and warriors in copper-alloy and set with garnets.
He was buried with a heavy whetstone sceptre, on top of, an iron ring surmounted by the figure of a stag. In 597, a Benedictine monk had been sent by Pope Gregory I to start converting Pagan England to Christianity; the monk, became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. Within two centuries, the ritual of anointing monarchs with holy oil and crowning them in a Christian ceremony had been established, regalia took on a religious identity. There was still no permanent set of coronation regalia. In 9th-century Europe, gold crowns in the Byzantine tradition were replacing bronze, gold soon became the standard material for English royal crowns.Æthelstan ascended the throne in 924 and united the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to form the Kingdom of England. In the earliest known depiction of an English king wearing a crown, he is shown presenting a copy of Bede's Life of St Cuthbert to the saint himself; until his reign, kings had been portrayed on coins wearing
The Newseum is an interactive museum that promotes free expression and the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, while tracing the evolution of communication. The seven-level, 250,000-square-foot museum is located in Washington, D. C. and features fifteen theaters and fifteen galleries. Its Berlin Wall Gallery includes the largest display of sections of the wall outside Germany; the Today's Front Pages Gallery presents daily front pages from more than 80 international newspapers. Other galleries present topics including the First Amendment, world press freedom, news history, the September 11 attacks, the history of the Internet, TV, radio, it opened at its first location in Rosslyn, Virginia, on April 18, 1997, on April 11, 2008, it opened in its current location. The Newseum is a popular destination, attracting more than 815,000 visitors a year, its television studios host news broadcasts; the adult admission fee in 2017 was $26.38. Despite such high admission fees, it has seen years of financial losses.
In February 2018, these losses led to an exploration of selling its building or moving to another location. In January 2019, the Freedom Forum announced that The Johns Hopkins University would purchase the building for $372.5 million in order to use the space for several graduate programs. Freedom Forum is a non-profit organization founded in 1991 by Al Neuharth, based on the previous Gannett Foundation. Freedom Forum opened the Newseum in Arlington, Virginia, in 1997. Prior to opening in Virginia, it maintained exhibition galleries in Nashville and Manhattan, the latter in the lobby of the former IBM Building at 580 Madison Avenue. In 2000, Freedom Forum decided to move the museum across the Potomac River to downtown Washington, D. C; the original site was closed on March 3, 2002, to allow its staff to concentrate on building the new, larger museum. The new museum, built at a cost of $450 million, opened its doors to the public on April 11, 2008. Tim Russert, a Newseum trustee, said, "The Newseum made a pretty good impression in Arlington, but at your new location on Pennsylvania Avenue, you will make an indelible mark."
The Newseum on Pennsylvania Avenue shares a block adjacent to the Canadian Embassy. After obtaining a landmark location at Pennsylvania Avenue and Sixth Street NW, the former site of National Hotel, the Newseum board selected noted exhibit designer Ralph Appelbaum, who had designed the original site in Arlington and architect James Stewart Polshek, who designed the Rose Center for Earth and Space with Todd Schliemann at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, to work on the new project; this design team had the following goals: To design a building that would be an architectural icon recognized and remembered by visitors from around the world. Highlights of the building design unveiled October 2002 include a façade featuring a "window on the world", 57 ft × 78 ft, which looks out on Pennsylvania Avenue and the National Mall while letting the public see inside to the visitors and displays, it features the 45 words of the First Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, etched into a four story tall stone panel facing Pennsylvania Avenue.
One feature carried over from the prior Arlington site was the Journalists Memorial, a glass sculpture that lists the names of 2,291 journalists from around the world killed in the line of duty. It is rededicated annually; the museum website is updated daily with images and PDF versions of newspaper front pages from around the world. Images are replaced daily, but an archive of front pages from notable events since 2001 is available. Hard copies of selected front pages, including one from every U. S. state and Washington, D. C. are displayed outside the front entrance. Jerry Frieheim, a 1956 graduate of the University of Missouri School of Journalism, was the first executive director of the Newseum and claims to have coined the name; the 643,000-square-foot Newseum includes a 90-foot high atrium, seven levels of displays, 15 theaters, a dozen major galleries, many more smaller exhibits, two broadcast studios, an expanded interactive newsroom. The structural engineer for this project was Leslie E. Robertson Associates.
The building features an 500-seat theater. The building is known for the largest and tallest hydraulic passenger elevators in the world, with a capacity of 18,000 pounds capable of carrying up to 72 passengers when loaded, a travel distance of 100 feet that covers 7 floors. A curving glass memorial to slain journalists is located above the ground floor. Showcase environments throughout the museum are climate controlled by four microclimate control devices; these units provide a flow of humidified air to the cases through a system of distribution pipes. ABC's This Week began broadcasting from a new studio in the Newseum on April 20, 2008, with George Stephanopoulos as host. ABC moved This Week back to its Washington, D. C. bureau in June 2013 citing the network's infrequent use of the Newseum studio compared to the cost of operating and maintaining a studio there. The studio was home to Al Jazeera America's Washington, D. C. bureau whic
Pratt Institute is a private, non-profit institution of higher learning located in the Clinton Hill neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, United States, with a satellite campus located at 14th Street in Manhattan and an extension campus in Utica, New York. The school originated in 1887 with programs in engineering and fine arts. Comprising six schools, the Institute is known for its ranked programs in architecture, interior design, industrial design, offers both undergraduate and Master's degree programs in a variety of fields, with a strong focus on research. U. S. News & World Report lists Pratt as one of the top 20 colleges in the Regional Universities North category. Princeton Review recognizes Pratt as being one of the best colleges in the northeast, making it among the top 25% of all four-year colleges and universities in the United States. Pratt Institute was founded in 1887 by American industrialist Charles Pratt, a successful businessman and oil tycoon and was one of the wealthiest men in the history of Brooklyn.
Pratt was an early pioneer of the oil industry in the United States and was the founder of Astral Oil Works based in the Greenpoint section of Brooklyn, a leader in replacing whale oil with petroleum or natural oil. In 1867, Pratt established Company. In 1874, Pratt's companies were purchased by John D. Rockefeller and became part of his Standard Oil trust while Pratt continued to run the companies himself. Pratt, an advocate of education, wanted to provide the opportunity for working men and women to better their lives through education. Though Pratt never had the opportunity to go to college himself, he wanted to create an affordable college accessible to the working class. In 1884, Pratt began purchasing parcels of land in his affluent home town of Clinton Hill for the intention of opening a school; the school would end up being built only two blocks from Charles Pratt's residence on Clinton Avenue. From his fortunes with Astral Oil and Charles Pratt and Company, in 1886 he endowed and founded Pratt Institute.
In May 1887, the New York State Legislature granted Charles Pratt a charter to open the school. Tuition was $4 per class per term; the college was one of the first in the country open to all people, regardless of class and gender. In the early years, the Institute's mission was to offer education to those who never had it offered to them before. Pratt sought to teach people skills that would allow them to be successful and work their way up the economic ladder. Many programs were tailored for the growing need to train industrial workers in the changing economy with training in design and engineering. Early programs sought to teach students a variety of subjects such as architectural engineering, mechanics and furniture making. Graduates of the school were taught to become engineers and technicians. Drawing, whether freehand, mechanical, or architectural, thought of as being a universal language, united such diverse programs and thus all programs in the school had a strong foundation in drawing.
In addition, the curriculum at the Institute was to be complemented by a large Liberal Arts curriculum. Students studied subjects such as history, mathematics and literature in order to better understand the world in which they will be working in, still used in Pratt's curriculum. Enrollment grew since inception. Six months after inception the school had an enrollment of nearly 600 students. By the first anniversary of the school there were 1,000 students in attendance. In five years time the school had nearly 4,000 students. In 1888 Scientific American said of the school that "it is undoubtedly the most important enterprise of its kind in this country, if not in the world". Andrew Carnegie visited Pratt for inspiration and used the school as a model in developing Carnegie Technical Schools, now Carnegie Mellon University. At the first Founders Day celebration in 1888, Charles Pratt addressed what would become the school's motto: "be true to your work and your work will be true to you" meaning that students should educate and develop themselves diligently and go out into the world working hard, giving all of themselves.
As public interest grew in the school and demand increased the school began adding new programs including the Pratt High School, Library School, Music Department, Department of Commerce. Because of the overwhelming popularity of the Department of Commerce, the department broke off from the main Institute and formed its own school, under the guidance of Norman P. Heffley, personal secretary to Charles Pratt; the Heffley School of Commerce, the former Pratt Department of Commerce having shared facilities with Pratt evolved into what is now Brooklyn Law School. In 1891, the Institute's founder and first president, Charles Pratt and his eldest son, Charles Millard Pratt, assumed responsibility of president for the school. In 1893, Charles Pratt's other son, Frederic B. Pratt, was elected President of Pratt Institute taking over from his elder brother; because Charles Pratt Snr. died so soon after the college was founded, Frederic Pratt is ascribed with guiding the college through its early decades.
Under the direction of Pratt's sons, the Institute was able to thrive both financially and critically with many new construction projects and courses. By 1892, the number of students enrolled was 3,900. In 1897 the most popular major for students was domestic arts. In 1896, the school opened its monumental Victorian-Renaissance Revival library with interiors designed by the Tiffany Decorating and Glass Company and sprawling gardens outs
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust. Adjacent to the National Mall in Washington, D. C. the USHMM provides for the documentation and interpretation of Holocaust history. It is dedicated to helping leaders and citizens of the world confront hatred, prevent genocide, promote human dignity, strengthen democracy; the museum has an operating budget, of $104.6 million. In 2008, the museum had a staff of about 400 employees, 125 contractors, 650 volunteers, 91 Holocaust survivors, 175,000 members, it had local offices in New York City, Boca Raton, Los Angeles, Dallas. Since its dedication on April 22, 1993, the Museum has had nearly 40 million visitors, including more than 10 million school children, 99 heads of state, more than 3,500 foreign officials from over 211 countries; the Museum's visitors came from all over the world, less than 10 percent of the Museum's visitors are Jewish. Its website had 25 million visits in 2008 from an average of 100 different countries daily.
35% of these visits were from outside the United States. The USHMM's collections contain more than 12,750 artifacts, 49 million pages of archival documents, 80,000 historical photographs, 200,000 registered survivors, 1,000 hours of archival footage, 84,000 library items, 9,000 oral history testimonies, it has teacher fellows in every state in the United States and 400 university fellows from 26 countries since 1994. Researchers at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum have documented 42,500 ghettos and concentration camps erected by the Nazis throughout German-controlled areas of Europe from 1933 to 1945. On November 1, 1978, President Jimmy Carter established the President's Commission on the Holocaust, chaired by Elie Wiesel, a prominent author and Holocaust survivor, its mandate was to investigate the creation and maintenance of a memorial to victims of the Holocaust and an appropriate annual commemoration to them. The mandate was created in a joint effort by Richard Krieger. On September 27, 1979, the Commission presented its report to the President, recommending the establishment of a national Holocaust memorial museum in Washington, D.
C. with three main components: a national museum/memorial, an educational foundation, a Committee on Conscience. After a unanimous vote by the United States Congress in 1980 to establish the museum, the federal government made available 1.9 acres of land adjacent to the Washington Monument for construction. Under the original Director Richard Krieger, subsequent Director Jeshajahu Weinberg and Chairman Miles Lerman, nearly $190 million was raised from private sources for building design, artifact acquisition, exhibition creation. In October 1988, President Ronald Reagan helped lay the cornerstone of the building, designed by the architect James Ingo Freed. Dedication ceremonies on April 22, 1993 included speeches by American President Bill Clinton, Israeli President Chaim Herzog, Chairman Harvey Meyerhoff, Elie Wiesel. On April 26, 1993, the Museum opened to the general public, its first visitor was the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. The museum has been the target of a fatal shooting. In 2002, a federal jury convicted white supremacists Leo Felton and Erica Chase of planning to bomb a series of institutions associated with American black and Jewish communities, including the USHMM.
On June 10, 2009, 88-year-old James von Brunn, an anti-Semite, shot Museum Special Police Officer Stephen Tyrone Johns. Special Police Officer Johns and von Brunn were both wounded and transported by ambulance to the George Washington University Hospital. Special Police Officer Johns died of his injuries. Von Brunn, who had a previous criminal record, died during his criminal trial in federal court, in Butner federal prison in North Carolina. Designed by the architect James Ingo Freed of Pei Cobb Freed & Partners, in association with Finegold Alexander + Associates Inc, the USHMM is created to be a "resonator of memory"; the outside of the building disappears into the neoclassical and modern architecture of Washington, D. C. Upon entering, each architectural feature becomes a new element of allusion to the Holocaust. In designing the building, Freed researched post-World War II German architecture and visited Holocaust sites throughout Europe; the Museum building and the exhibitions within are intended to evoke deception and solemnity, in contrast to the comfort and grandiosity associated with Washington, D.
C. public buildings. Other partners in the construction of the USHMM included Weiskopf & Pickworth, Cosentini Associates LLP, Jules Fisher, Paul Marantz, all from New York City; the structural engineering firm, chosen for this project was Severud Associates. The Museum's Meyerhoff Theatre and Rubenstein Auditorium were constructed by Jules Fisher Associates of New York City; the Permanent Exhibition was designed by Ralph Appelbaum Associates. The USHMM contains two exhibitions that have been open continuously since 1993 and numerous rotating exhibitions that deal with various topics related to the Holocaust and human rights; the Hall of Remembrance is the USHMM's official memorial to the victims and survivors of the Holocaust. Visitors can memorialize the event by lighting candles, visiting an eternal flame, reflecting in silence in the hexagonal hall. Using more than 900 artifacts, 70 video monitors, four theaters showing historic film footage and eyewitness testimonies, the USHMM
National Museum of Scotland
The National Museum of Scotland, Scotland, was formed in 2006 with the merger of the new Museum of Scotland, with collections relating to Scottish antiquities and history, the adjacent Royal Museum, with collections covering science and technology, natural history, world cultures. The two connected buildings stand beside each other on Chambers Street, by the intersection with the George IV Bridge, in central Edinburgh; the museum is part of National Museums Scotland. Admission is free; the two buildings retain distinctive characters: the Museum of Scotland is housed in a modern building opened in 1998, while the former Royal Museum building was begun in 1861, opened in 1866, with a Victorian Venetian Renaissance facade and a grand central hall of cast iron construction that rises the full height of the building. This building underwent a major refurbishment and reopened on 29 July 2011 after a three-year, £47 million project to restore and extend the building led by Gareth Hoskins Architects along with the concurrent redesign of the exhibitions by Ralph Appelbaum Associates.
The National Museum incorporates the collections of the former National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland. As well as the national collections of Scottish archaeological finds and medieval objects, the museum contains artefacts from around the world, encompassing geology, natural history, technology and world cultures; the 16 new galleries reopened in 2011 include 8,000 objects, 80 per cent of which were not on display. One of the more notable exhibits is the stuffed body of Dolly the sheep, the first successful clone of a mammal from an adult cell. Other highlights include Ancient Egyptian exhibitions, one of Elton John's extravagant suits, the Jean Muir Collection of costume and a large kinetic sculpture named the Millennium Clock. A Scottish invention, a perennial favourite with school parties is The Maiden, an early form of guillotine. In 2017, the museum received 2,165,601 visitors, making it Scotland's most popular visitor attraction that year; the history of the museum can be said to begin in 1780 with the foundation of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, which still continues, but whose collection of archaeological and other finds was transferred to the government in 1858 as the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, based in Queen Street in the New Town, Edinburgh.
In 1861 construction of the Industrial Museum of Scotland began, with Prince Albert laying the foundation stone. In 1866, renamed the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art, the eastern end and the Grand Gallery were opened by Prince Alfred. In 1888 the building was finished and in 1904 the institution was renamed the Royal Scottish Museum; the organizational merger of the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland and the Royal Scottish Museum took place in 1985, but the two collections retained separate buildings until 1995 when the Queen Street building closed, to reopen as the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. In 1998 the new Museum of Scotland building opened, adjacent to the Royal Museum building, connected to it; the masterplan to redevelop the Victorian building and further integrate the architecture and collections was launched in 2004, in 2006 the two museums were formally merged as the National Museum of Scotland. The old Royal Museum building closed for redevelopment in 2008, before reopening in July 2011.
The Royal Scottish Museum displayed prank exhibits on April Fool's Day on at least one occasion. In 1975, a fictitious bird called; the exhibit included photos of blurry birds flying away. To make the exhibit more convincing, a mount of the bird was sewn together by a taxidermist from various scraps of real birds, including the head of a carrion crow, the body of a plover, the feet of an unknown waterfowl; the bare front was composed of wax. Staff at the museum took several days of strike action at points during 2015 and 2016, called by the Public and Commercial Services Union. Construction was started in 1861 and proceeded in phases, with some sections opening before others had begun construction; the original extent of the building was completed in 1888. It was designed by civil engineer Captain Francis Fowke of the Royal Engineers, responsible for the Royal Albert Hall; the exterior, designed in a Venetian Renaissance style, contrasts with the light-flooded main hall or Grand Gallery, inspired by The Crystal Palace.
Numerous extensions at the rear of the building in the 1930s, extended the museum greatly. 1998 saw the opening of the Museum of Scotland, linked internally to the Royal Museum building. The major redevelopment completed in 2011 by Gareth Hoskins Architects uses former storage areas to form a vaulted Entrance Hall of 1400 sq M at street level with visitor facilities; this involved lowering the floor level by 1.2 metres. Despite being a Class A listed building, it was possible to add escalators; the building is made up of geometric, Corbusian forms, but has numerous references to Scotland, such as brochs and castellated, defensive architecture. It is clad in golden Moray sandstone, which one of its architects, Gordon Benson, has called "the oldest exhibit in the building", a reference to Scottish geology; the building was a 1999 Stirling Prize nominee. The galleries in the newer building present Scottish history in an chronological arrangement, beginning at the lowest level with prehistory to the early medieval period, with periods on the higher levels.
The Victorian building, as reopened in 2011, contains four zones, covering nat
National World War I Museum and Memorial
The National World War I Museum and Memorial of the United States is located in Kansas City, Missouri. Opened to the public as the Liberty Memorial museum in 1926, it was designated in 2004 by the United States Congress as America's official museum dedicated to World War I; the Museum and Memorial are managed by a non-profit organization in cooperation with the Kansas City Board of Parks and Recreation Commissioners. The museum reopened to the public in December 2006 with an expanded, award-winning facility to exhibit an artifact collection that began in 1920; the National World War I Museum tells the story of the Great War and related global events from their origins before 1914 through the 1918 armistice and 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Visitors enter the exhibit space within the 32,000-square-foot facility across a glass bridge above a field of 9,000 red poppies, each one representing 1,000 combatant deaths; the declared mission of the museum and memorial is to be "dedicated to remembering and understanding the Great War and its enduring impact on the global community."
Soon after World War I ended, a group of 40 prominent Kansas City residents formed the Liberty Memorial Association to create a memorial to those who had served in the war. They chose lumber baron and philanthropist Robert A. Long, who had given a large sum of money, as president. Others included: James Madison Kemper was treasurer of the association. For a short time in 1919 he was President of City Center Bank, founded by his father, William T. Kemper, his brother, Rufus Crosby Kemper Sr. became president when he left to take over as president of Commerce Bancshares controlled by his father. Jesse Clyde Nichols, a real estate developer, was a lead proponent of the Liberty Monument. William Volker and philanthropist, helped the city acquire the land for the memorial. George Kessler, designer of the landscaping at the memorial. In 1919, the LMA spearheaded a fund drive that included 83,000 contributors and collected more than $2.5 million in less than two weeks, driven by what museum curator Doran Cart has described as "complete, unbridled patriotism".
There would not be the monetary problems that plagued the Bunker Hill Monument for the American Revolutionary War in Boston a century earlier. In attendance at the groundbreaking ceremony on November 1, 1921, were 200,000 people, including then-Vice President Calvin Coolidge, Lieutenant General Baron Jacques of Belgium, Admiral of the Fleet Lord Beatty of Great Britain, General Armando Diaz of Italy, Marshal Ferdinand Foch of France, General of the Armies John Pershing of the United States, along with sixty thousand members of the American Legion; the local veteran chosen to present flags to the commanders was a Kansas City haberdasher, Harry S. Truman, who would serve as 33rd President of the United States; the finished monument was dedicated on November 11, 1926, by now 30th President Coolidge, in the presence of Queen Marie of Romania. Coolidge announced that the memorial "...has not been raised to commemorate war and victory, but rather the results of war and victory which are embodied in peace and liberty….
Today I return in order that I may place the official sanction of the national government upon one of the most elaborate and impressive memorials that adorn our country. The magnitude of this memorial, the broad base of popular support on which it rests, can scarcely fail to excite national wonder and admiration." In 1935, bas reliefs by Walker Hancock of Jacques, Diaz and Pershing were unveiled. In 1961 the monument was rededicated by President Harry S. Truman; the local effort to restore the fading monument was headed by Armand Glenn the local head of the central district legion. Local company Hallmark provided support, on November 11, 1961 on its 40th anniversary there was a large dedication ceremony held on the grounds of the memorial. 15,000 watched Truman preside over the service. In 1981-1982, corresponding to its 60th anniversary, the building revealed new exhibits under improved lighting sources; the memorial was closed in 1994 due to safety concerns, after aging revealed problems with drainage and the original construction.
Local shopping malls voluntarily helped to put part of the museum collection on display while the memorial was unavailable. When the poor condition of the building became an embarrassment for the city, Kansas City voters in 1998 passed a limited-run sales tax to support the restoration. Plans were made at this time to expand the site with a museum to accommodate the LMA's growing collection. Local and international support provided $102 million for this undertaking revealed at its 2006 reopening. In 2004, Congress named the Liberty Memorial museum as the nation's official World War I Museum, construction started on a new 80,000-square-foot expansion and the Edward Jones Research Center underneath the original memorial; the year that this was completed, Liberty Memorial was designated a National Historic Landmark. Another substantial renovation, with a cost estimate of $5 million was undertaken beginning in December 2011, it included $170,000 in energy-efficiency upgrades to the building as well as improvements to the artificial flame atop the tower.
After several months of dormancy, the flame was "relit" on February 1, 2013. Other portions of the overall renovation included security upgrades along with repairs to certain limestone sections and brush removal. An addition planned for completion in 2018 is the Wylie Gallery, which will occupy existing unused space on the east side of the museum building, it is part of a $6.4 million upgrade made possible by a fundraising campaign coinciding with the tenth anniversary of the museum's 2006 reopening