The Rama VIII Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge crossing the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok, Thailand. It was built to alleviate traffic congestion on the nearby Phra Pinklao Bridge. Construction of the bridge took place from 1999 to 2002; the bridge was opened on 7 May 2002 and inaugurated on 20 September, the birth anniversary of the late King Ananda Mahidol, after whom it is named. The bridge has an asymmetrical design, with a single pylon in an inverted Y shape on the west bank of the river, its eighty-four cables are arranged in pairs on the side of the main span and in a single row on the other. The bridge has a main span of 300 metres, was one of the world's largest asymmetrical cable-stayed bridges at the time of its completion. Bangkok is divided by the Chao Phraya River into the main eastern part and Thonburi in the west, with several road bridges linking both sides of the city. By the mid-1990s, traffic congestion on these crossings had become severe. Phra Pinklao Bridge, in particular, was regarded as the worst.
With suggestions from King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration commissioned studies for the construction of a new bridge north of Phra Pinklao Bridge to alleviate that congestion. The BMA contracted the British company Mott Macdonald and Thai companies Epsilon and P & Cigna to perform the preliminary survey and designs. Bidding on the project began in 1996, but was halted due to the 1997 Asian financial crisis; the project was revived in 1998 and was awarded as a lump-sum turnkey contract to a joint venture consisting of the Canadian company Buckland & Taylor Ltd. the China State Construction Engineering Corporation, Switzerland-based company BBR Systems Ltd. and the Bangkok-based PPD Construction Co. Ltd; the bridge's design was provided by Taylor. Both had worked on the Alex Fraser Bridge in Vancouver, the world's longest cable-stayed bridge for five years following its completion in 1986. Construction of the bridge was carried out by the China State Construction Engineering Corp.
BBR Systems supplied and installed the cables, PPD Construction designed the viaducts. London-based Yee Associates served as architect, Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick provided design management and site services. Construction of the bridge began in 1999, was completed in 2002, it was opened to traffic on 7 May that year. The bridge was named in tribute to King Bhumibol's brother, the late King Ananda Mahidol, known as Rama VIII as he was the eighth king of the Chakri Dynasty; the bridge was inaugurated by King Bhumibol on 20 September 2002, the anniversary of Ananda Mahidol's birth. The bridge is of an asymmetrical design, with a single pylon located on the Thonburi bank of the river; the pylon, 160 metres tall, is in the shape of an upside-down Y standing on two legs. The bridge deck passes through the legs of the pylon, carrying two carriageways of two lanes each, as well as shared pedestrian and cycle ways on both sides. Fifty-six cables, arranged in two planes in a semi-fan configuration, support the 300-metre -long main span, while another twenty-eight cables arranged in a single plane with a near-harp configuration connect the tower to the median of the anchor span.
Most of the bridge, 475 metres in length, is constructed of reinforced and prestressed concrete, except for the main span, which has a steel structure with a composite concrete deck. At its completion, the bridge was one of the world's largest asymmetric cable-stayed bridges; the bridge's architectural elements include lotus motifs, which appear in the pedestrian railings, as well as references to King Ananda Mahidol. The cables have gold-coloured sheaths, other steel elements are painted accordingly; the bases of the tower are enclosed in octagonal enclosures resembling the feet of an elephant. The top of the tower features a glass observation deck, enclosed in a 15-metre -tall metal frame in the shape of a lotus bud and is accessible by a lift inside the tower, it is the tallest bridge observation deck in the world, but is not open to the public. Viaducts connect the bridge to Wisut Kasat Road on the east side of the river and Arun Amarin Road and the Borommaratchachonnani Elevated Highway on the west side.
Lift towers and stairs allow pedestrian access to the bridge from each bank. The area around the base of the pylon has been developed into a public park, it features a larger-than-life statue of Ananda Mahidol, unveiled by king Bhumibol on 9 June 2012. The bridge received several engineering awards: the 2003 Eugene C. Figg Jr. Medal For Signature Bridges, given by the Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania; the bridge is depicted on the back of the Series 15 twenty baht banknotes, behind a portrait of King Ananda Mahidol. The 3 September 2017 issue of the front page of the Bangkok Post shows the Rama VIII bridge with the caption, "Troubled bridge over water." A one-sentence note explains that damage has been detected in several places on the bridge structure the suspension cables. The bridge will undergo "...major repairs and maintenance work." Torrejon, Jorge E.. "Design of the Rama 8 Bridge in Bangkok". IABSE Symposium Report. IABSE Conference, Seoul 2001: Cable-Supported Bridges - Challenging Technical Limits.
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineeri
The Communauté d'agglomération de Saint-Dié-des-Vosges is an administrative association of communes in the Vosges and Meurthe-et-Moselle departments of eastern France. It was created on 1 January 2017 by the merger of the former Communauté de communes de Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, Communauté de communes de la Vallée de la Plaine, Communauté de communes des Hauts Champs, Communauté de communes du Pays des Abbayes, Communauté de communes du Val de Neuné and Communauté de communes Fave, Galilée. On 1 January 2018 it gained 3 communes from the Communauté de communes Bruyères - Vallons des Vosges, it consists of 77 communes, has its administrative offices at Saint-Dié-des-Vosges. The communauté d'agglomération consists of the following 77 communes, of which 74 in the Vosges department and 3 in Meurthe-et-Moselle
East Fork Township is one of fifteen townships in Clinton County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 400 and it contained 236 housing units, its name changed to Morris on June 1, 1874 and back to East Fork. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 37.62 square miles, of which 31.58 square miles is land and 6.04 square miles is water. Boulder The township contains these eight cemeteries: Brewster, Ebenezer, New Carter, Old Carter, Prairie Chapel and Prichett. North Fork Kaskaskia River Carlyle Community Unit School District 1 Patoka Community Unit School District 100 Sandoval Community Unit School District 501 Illinois' 19th congressional district State House District 107 State Senate District 54 "East Fork Township, Clinton County, Illinois". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-10. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States National Atlas City-Data.com Illinois State Archives