Ramallah is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located 10 km north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of 880 meters above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh. It serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority. Ramallah was an Arab Christian town. Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority. Ancient rock-cut tombs have been found near Ramallah. Potsherds from the Crusader/Ayyubid and early Ottoman period have been found there. Ramallah has been identified with the Crusader place called Ramalie. Remains of a building with an arched doorway from the Crusader era, called al-Burj, have been identified, but the original use of the building is undetermined. Ramallah was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine. In 1596 it was listed in the tax registers as being in the nahiya of part of the Liwa of Quds, it had a population of 9 Muslim households. It paid a fixed tax rate of 25% on wheat, olives, vines or fruit trees, goats or beehives.
All of the revenue went to a waqf. Modern Ramallah was founded in the mid-1500s by the Haddadins, a clan of brothers descended from Ghassanid Christians; the Haddadins, their leader Rashid El-Haddadin, arrived from east of the Jordan River from the areas of Karak and Shoubak. The Haddadin migration is attributed to unrest among clans in that area. Rashid and his brothers were blacksmiths; the Haddadin name comes from the old word Haddad. Haddadin was attracted to the mountainous site of Ramallah because it was similar to the other mountainous areas he came from. In addition, the forested area could supply him with plenty of fuel for his forges. In 1838 American biblical scholar Edward Robinson visited the area, noting that the inhabitants were Christian "of the Greek rite". There were 200 taxable men; the village "belonged" to the Haram al-Sharif, Jerusalem, to which it paid an annual tax of 350 Mids of grain. In 1883, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine described Ramallah as A large Christian village, of well-built stone houses, standing on a high ridge, with a view on the west extending to the sea.
It stands amongst gardens and olive-yards, has three springs to the south and one on the west. On the east there is a well. There are rock-cut tombs to the north-east with well-cut entrances, but blocked with rubbish. In the village is a Greek church, on the east a Latin convent and a Protestant schoolhouse, all modern buildings; the village lands are ecclesiastical property, belonging to the Haram of Jerusalem. About a quarter of the inhabitants are the rest Orthodox Greeks. In the 21st century, a large community of people with direct descent from the Haddadins who founded Ramallah live in the United States; the town still contains a Christian minority. The change in demographics is due to new migration of Muslims to the area, emigration of Christians from the area. Ramallah grew throughout the 17th and 18th centuries as an agricultural village. In 1700, Yacoub Elias was the first Ramallah native to be ordained by the Eastern Greek Melkite Orthodox Church of Jerusalem, the Christian denomination that prevailed in the Holy Land at the time.
In the early 19th century, the first Greek Melkite Jerusalemite Orthodox Christian church was built. In the 1850s, "The Church of Transfiguration", was built to replace it. During that same decade, the Latin Church established its presence in Ramallah, constituting the second largest Christian denomination in the city; the Roman Catholic Church established the St. Joseph's Girls' School run by St. Joseph sisters, as well as the co-educational Al-Ahliyyah College high school runs by Rosary sisters. With the influx of Muslim and Christian refugees and internal migration, new mosques and churches were built. In the 19th century, the Religious Society of Friends established a presence in Ramallah and built the Ramallah Friends Schools, one for girls and a boys' school, to alleviate the dearth of education for women and girls. Eli and Sybil Jones opened "The Girls Training Home of Ramallah" in 1869. A medical clinic was established in 1883, with Dr. George Hassenauer serving as the first doctor in Ramallah.
In 1889, the girls academy became the Friends Girls School. As the FGS was a boarding school, it attracted a number of girls from surrounding communities, including Jerusalem, Lydda and Beirut; the Friends Boys School was founded in 1901 and opened in 1918. The Quakers opened a Friends Meeting House for worship in the city center in 1910. According to the school's official website, most high school students choose to take the International Baccalaureate exams instead of the traditional "Tawjihi" university exams; the activity of foreign churches in Palestine in the late 19th century increased awareness of prosperity in the West. In Ramallah and Bethlehem, a few miles south, local residents began to seek economic opportunity overseas. In 1901, merchants from Ramallah emigrated to the United States and established import-export businesses, selling handmade rugs and other exotic wares across the A
Tas Tsonis is a computer scientist who continues to play a prominent role in using graphical algorithms, computer science, computational geometry to automate the personalization of apparel and accessories. He has been granted twelve US patents based on graphical algorithms. Tsonis co-founded Pulse Microsystems in 1982, with Brian Goldberg. Pulse is credited with "the first set of pattern archiving software, network management software and data acquisition software for embroidery industry." They patented methods to take artwork, stored using scalable vector graphics, translate those into instruction for knitting and embroidery machines, enabling artwork to be incorporated into fabrics at the best resolution possible for the fabric under construction. In 2004 Tsonis and Goldberg co-founded Viigo, a firm that developed app software. Tsonis is a graduate of the University of Waterloo, and, in 2016, was honoured by the University with its annual J. W. Graham Medal; each year the award recognizes one of the University's graduates who has played a significant role in the use of computers
Jonathan "Joni" Montiel Caballero is a Spanish footballer who plays as a midfielder for Rayo Vallecano. Montiel was born in Madrid, he joined Rayo Vallecano's youth setup in 2010 at the age of 11. He made his senior debut on 25 October 2015, starting with the reserves in a 1–1 Tercera División home draw against Fútbol Alcobendas Sport. Montiel was first included in a first team matchday squad at the age of 17, remaining an unused substitute in Rayo Vallecano's 3–1 loss at neighbours Getafe CF in the last 32 second leg of the season's Copa del Rey, advancing on the away goals rule. Four days he featured in a La Liga game for the first time, playing the final ten minutes in place of Zé Castro as the team lost 10–2 at Real Madrid. On 24 April 2016 Montiel scored his first senior goal, netting the second for the B's in a 3–0 home win against AD Parla. In the 2016 summer, after the main squad's relegation, he was promoted to José Ramón Sandoval's team. On 30 January 2018, Montiel signed a new three-year contract with Rayo and was loaned to CD Toledo in Segunda División B.
On 31 August, he moved to Deportivo Fabril in a temporary deal. Rayo Vallecano profile Joni Montiel at BDFutbol Joni Montiel at Soccerway