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Ramen is a Japanese dish with a translation of "pulled noodles". It consists of Chinese wheat noodles served in a meat or fish-based broth flavored with soy sauce or miso, uses toppings such as sliced pork, nori and scallions. Nearly every region in Japan has its own variation of ramen, such as the tonkotsu ramen of Kyushu and the miso ramen of Hokkaido. Mazemen is the name of a ramen dish, not served in a soup, but rather with a sauce, like noodles that are served with a sweet and sour sauce. Ramen is a Japanese adaptation of Chinese wheat noodles. One theory says that ramen was first introduced to Japan during the 1660s by the Chinese neo-Confucian scholar Zhu Shunsui who served as an advisor to Tokugawa Mitsukuni after he became a refugee in Japan to escape Manchu rule and Mitsukuni became the first Japanese person to eat ramen, although most historians reject this theory as a myth created by the Japanese to embellish the origins of ramen; the more plausible theory is that ramen was introduced by Chinese immigrants in the late 19th or early 20th century at Yokohama Chinatown.

According to the record of the Yokohama Ramen Museum, ramen originated in China and made its way over to Japan in 1859. Early versions were wheat noodles in broth topped with Chinese-style roast pork; the word ramen is a Japanese transcription of the Chinese lamian. In 1910, the first ramen shop named RAIRAIKEN opened at Asakusa, where the Japanese owner employed 12 Cantonese cooks from Yokohama's Chinatown and served the ramen arranged for Japanese customers; until the 1950s, ramen was called shina soba but today chūka soba or just ramen are more common, as the word "支那" has acquired a pejorative connotation. By 1900, restaurants serving Chinese cuisine from Canton and Shanghai offered a simple dish of noodles, a few toppings, a broth flavored with salt and pork bones. Many Chinese living in Japan pulled portable food stalls, selling ramen and gyōza dumplings to workers. By the mid-1900s, these stalls used a type of a musical horn called a charumera to advertise their presence, a practice some vendors still retain via a loudspeaker and a looped recording.

By the early Shōwa period, ramen had become a popular dish. According to ramen expert Hiroshi Osaki, the first specialized ramen shop opened in Yokohama in 1910. After Japan's defeat in World War II, the American military occupied the country from 1945 to 1952. In December 1945, Japan recorded its worst rice harvest in 42 years, which caused food shortages as Japan had drastically reduced rice production during the war as production shifted to colonies in China and Taiwan; the US flooded the market with cheap wheat flour to deal with food shortages. From 1948 to 1951, bread consumption in Japan increased from 262,121 tons to 611,784 tons, but wheat found its way into ramen, which most Japanese ate at black market food vendors to survive as the government food distribution system ran about 20 days behind schedule. Although the Americans maintained Japan's wartime ban on outdoor food vending, flour was secretly diverted from commercial mills into the black markets, where nearly 90 percent of stalls were under the control of gangsters locally referred to as yakuza who extorted vendors for protection money.

Thousands of ramen vendors were arrested during the occupation. In the same period, millions of Japanese troops returned from China and continental East Asia from their posts in the Second Sino-Japanese War; some of them would have been familiar with wheat noodles. By 1950 wheat flour exchange controls were removed and restrictions on food vending loosened, which further boosted the number of ramen vendors: private companies rented out yatai starter kits consisting of noodles, toppings and chopsticks. Ramen yatai provided a rare opportunity for small scale postwar entrepreneurship; the Americans aggressively advertised the nutritional benefits of wheat and animal protein. The combination of these factors caused wheat noodles to gain prominence in Japan's rice-based culture. Ramen became associated with urban life. In 1958, instant noodles were invented by Momofuku Ando, the Taiwanese-Japanese founder and chairman of Nissin Foods. Named the greatest Japanese invention of the 20th century in a Japanese poll, instant ramen allowed anyone to make an approximation of this dish by adding boiling water.

Beginning in the 1980s, ramen became a Japanese cultural icon and was studied around the world from many perspectives. At the same time, local varieties of ramen were hitting the national market and could be ordered by their regional names. A ramen museum opened in Yokohama in 1994. Today ramen is arguably one of Japan's most popular foods, with Tokyo alone containing around 5,000 ramen shops, more than 24,000 ramen shops across Japan. Tsuta, a ramen restaurant in Tokyo's Sugamo district, received a Michelin star in December 2015. A wide variety of ramen exists in Japan, with geographical and vendor-specific differences in varieties that share the same name. Ramen can be broadly categorized by its two main ingredients: broth. Most noodles are made from four basic ingredients: wheat flour, salt and kansui a type of alkaline mineral water, containing sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, as well as sometimes a small amount of phosphoric acid. Although ramen noodles and Udon noodles are both made with wheat, they are different kinds of noodle.

The kansui is the distinguishing ingredient in ramen nood

Daddy and Them

Daddy and Them is a 2001 American comedy-drama film written, directed by, starring Billy Bob Thornton. In addition to Thornton, it stars Laura Dern, Andy Griffith, Ben Affleck, Kelly Preston, Diane Ladd, Brenda Blethyn, Tuesday Knight, Jamie Lee Curtis and Jim Varney; this was Varney's final film appearance. The original plan was to release the film in theaters, but the film got only limited distribution as Miramax found the film not "commercial" enough. Daddy and Them opened to positive reviews, with many critics praising the film's southern humor, Thornton's work as a writer/director, the performances of the entire cast, it holds an 86% rating on the review site Rotten Tomatoes. Ruby and Claude Montgomery are a insecure and jealous couple, who must help when Claude's Uncle Hazel is jailed for attempted murder; the Arkansas family reunites as they travel with Ruby's older sister Rose, with whom Claude had a previous relationship, Ruby and Rose's mother Jewel, who continuously talks about Rose and Claude's past relationship, which irritates Ruby.

Billy Bob Thornton as Claude Montgomery Brenda Blethyn as Julia Montgomery Laura Dern as Ruby Montgomery Andy Griffith as OT Montgomery Kelly Preston as Rose Jamie Lee Curtis as Elaine Bowen Ben Affleck as Lawrence Bowen Diane Ladd as Jewel Sandra Seacat as Elbe Montgomery John Prine as Alvin Montgomery Jim Varney as Hazel Montgomery Tuesday Knight as Billy Montgomery Walton Goggins as Tommy Christian Tamara Glynn as Tamara "Tammy" the Paramedic The song from the same-titled album "In Spite of Ourselves" used during the closing credits was performed by John Prine and Iris DeMent. Daddy and Them on IMDb Daddy and Them at AllMovie Daddy and Them at Box Office Mojo

Museum aan het Vrijthof

The Museum aan het Vrijthof is a museum of modern art and antiques in Maastricht, Netherlands. The museum is housed in the so-called Spanish Government building, one of the oldest non-religious buildings in Maastricht, facing the city's main square, Vrijthof; the building was part of the ecclesiastical territory of the chapter of the church of Saint Servatius and was built for one of the chapter's canons. In the early 16th century the house was enlarged. At that time the facade on the ground floor was blind, except for an arched gateway that led into the courtyard; the three late Gothic windows on the first floor date from this period. Two of them show the pillars of Hercules and the motto of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor:'Plus ultra'; the third window, in the middle, carries the symbols of Habsburg power: the double-headed eagle with the coat of arms of Habsburg and Castile. A little an arcade in Liège Renaissance style was added on the side of the courtyard which bears similarity to the architecture of the main courtyard of the Prince-Bishops' Palace in Liège.

The colonnade frieze has three sculpted medallions with the portraits of Charles V, his wife Isabella of Portugal and their son Philip II of Spain, who stayed here at several occasions. It was here that Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma and Governor of the Netherlands, signed the declaration that made William the Silent, leader of the Dutch Revolt, an outlaw, it was during this period. In the 18th and 19th centuries the interior of the building was altered several times, it was during this time. In 1766, the Parisian printer and editor Jean-Edmé Dufour bought the building and used it as a print shop, it was from here. In 1913 the building was publicly sold. Part of it was demolished and replaced in 1923 by a building, now in use as a bank; the rest of the building was restored by Victor de Stuers and presented to the city of Maastricht in order to house a local history museum. From 1969-1973, again from 2010-2012, thorough restorations took place. In 1954, the wealthy The Hague based couple Frederik Wagner en Ambrosina de Wit bequeathed their art collection to a foundation based in the city of Maastricht.

Since 1973 the Wagner-De Wit collection has been on display in what was called Museum Spaans Gouvernement. The pavilion room in the courtyard was built to house valuable boiseries from a demolished 18th-century Maastricht mansion; some of the period rooms decorated in the so-called Liège Régence style, are used for functions. From 2010 till 2012 the museum closed for extensions; the renovation included a partial restoration of the largely blind facade of the Spanish Government building. The extension consisted of adding a neighbouring building to the museum's exhibition space, as well as roofing over the courtyard; the enlarged museum is now about two and a half times bigger than the old premises. The museum re-opened in March 2012. Museum aan het Vrijthof is a private museum; as of 2011, TEFAF has become the main sponsor. In honour of this, the museum has renamed one of its period rooms TEFAF-zaal; the museum's original collection, exhibited until 2014, consists of the Wagner-De Wit bequest and acquisitions.

The collection, brought together by the artistic couple, contained art and artifacts from a wide array of periods and regions, some of, discarded by the current directors. The emphasis in the collection was on Dutch and Flemish painting from the 17th century and paintings from the Hague School; the Wagner-De Wit collection included sculpture from the Middle Ages and Renaissance period and furniture from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries and crystal objects, antique coins, artifacts from the Far East. Over the years, the collection has expanded to include Maastricht silver from the 18th century, Maastricht and Liège pistols from the 18th and 19th centuries, Maastricht painting from the early 20th century. Since 1997 the Bonhomme-Tielens bequest is part of the museum collection. After the re-opening in 2012, some rooms were dedicated to important figures from Maastricht history, like the emperor Charles V, the printer Jean-Edmé Dufour, the architect Mathias Soiron, the entrepreneur Petrus Regout and the artist Philippus van Gulpen.

Timmers, J. J. M. Geschiedenis van het Spaans Gouvernement te Maastricht. Maastricht, 1973 Website Museum aan het Vrijthof

Japanese destroyer Yakaze

The Japanese destroyer Yakaze was one of 15 Minekaze-class destroyers built for the Imperial Japanese Navy during the late 1910s. A decade the ship served as a plane guard. During the Pacific War, she was as the mother ship for a remotely controlled target ship and became a radio-controlled target ship herself in 1942. Although she was badly damaged in mid-1945, Yakaze survived the war and was scrapped in 1948; the Minekaze class was designed with higher speed and better seakeeping than the preceding Kawakaze-class destroyers. The ships had an overall length of 102.5 meters and were 94.5 meters between perpendiculars. They had a beam of 9.04 meters, a mean draft of 2.9 meters. The Minekaze-class ships displaced 1,366 metric tons at standard load and 1,676 metric tons at deep load, they were powered by two Parsons geared steam turbines, each driving one propeller shaft, using steam provided by four Kampon water-tube boilers. The turbines were designed to produce 38,500 shaft horsepower, which would propel the ships at 39 knots.

The ships carried 401 metric tons of fuel oil which gave them a range of 3,600 nautical miles at 14 knots. Their crew consisted of 148 officers and crewmen; the main armament of the Minekaze-class ships consisted of four 12-centimeter Type 3 guns in single mounts. The guns were numbered'1' to'4' from front to rear; the ships carried three above-water twin sets of 53.3-centimeter torpedo tubes. They could carry 20 mines as well as minesweeping gear. In 1937, Yakaze was converted into a radio control ship for the ex-battleship Satsuma, serving as a target ship; as part of the conversion, her torpedo tubes were removed and her main armament was reduced to one or two 12 cm guns. On 20 July 1942, she was reclassified as a target ship for aircraft and her armament was reduced to a single 5-centimeter gun and four license-built 25 mm Type 96 light AA guns, her power was reduced to 11,260 shp which cut her speed to 24 knots. Yakaze, built at the Mitsubishi shipyard in Nagasaki, was laid down on 15 August 1918, launched on 20 April 1920 and completed on 19 July 1920.

On commissioning, Yakaze was assigned to the Kure Naval District under the IJN 2nd Fleet. In 1931, Yakaze was teamed with sister ships Minekaze and Sawakaze at Sasebo Naval District to form Destroyer Division 2 under the 1st Air Fleet as part of the escort of the aircraft carriers Akagi and Hōshō to assist in search and rescue operations for downed aircraft. At the time of the First Shanghai incident of 1932, Yakaze was engaged in river patrol duties along the Yangzi River in China. At the time of the surrender of Japan in September 1945, the Yakaze was bottomed at Yokosuka due to damage and flooding incurred during the Attack on Yokosuka on 18 July 1945. After the war, Yakaze was broken up in 1948. Gardiner, Robert & Gray, eds.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5. Howarth, Stephen; the Fighting Ships of the Rising Sun: The Drama of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1895–1945. Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-11402-8. Jentschura, Hansgeorg.

Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869–1945. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. ISBN 0-87021-893-X. Nevitt, Allyn D.. "IJN Yakaze: Tabular Record of Movement". HYOTEKIKAN. Retrieved 10 November 2015. Watts, Anthony J. & Gordon, Brian G.. The Imperial Japanese Navy. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0385012683. Whitley, M. J.. Destroyers of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-326-1

Miguel Silva (footballer, born April 1995)

João Miguel Macedo Silva is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Vitória S. C. as a goalkeeper. Born in Guimarães, Silva joined the academy of local Vitória S. C. at the age of 18. He started playing as a senior with their reserves but, at the age of just 20, was promoted to the first team by manager Sérgio Conceição, his first match in the Primeira Liga occurred on 28 November 2015 in a 2–1 away win against Boavista FC, he finished the season with a further 23 appearances as his team finished in tenth position. In the following years, Silva battled for first-choice status with Brazilian Douglas. Silva won the first of his two caps for Portugal at under-21 level on 6 October 2016, in a 3–3 away draw to Hungary for the 2017 UEFA European Championship qualifiers. Miguel Silva at ForaDeJogo Portuguese League profile National team data Miguel Silva at Soccerway

1974 Astro-Bluebonnet Bowl

The 1974 Astro-Bluebonnet Bowl was an American college football bowl game, played on December 23, 1974 at the Astrodome in Houston, Texas. It was the sixteenth edition of the Bluebonnet Bowl; the game matched the Houston Cougars against the NC State Wolfpack. It was the final contest of the 1974 NCAA Division I football season for both teams; the game ended in a 31–31 tie. The game matched the Houston Cougars against the NC State Wolfpack of the Atlantic Coast Conference; the game was the first bowl game featuring the Cougars and the Wolfpack, was their third overall meeting. The two teams had met twice before, with each team winning one against the other, the teams' previous meeting was in 1969, when the Cougars defeated the Wolfpack 34–13; the NC State Wolfpack of the ACC entered. During the regular season, they had compiled a 9–2 record, including a 4–2 record against conference opponents; the game represented the Wolfpack's first appearance in the Bluebonnet Bowl. The conference-independent Cougars entered the game unranked in the AP Poll.

Their regular-season record was 8–3. The game represented the Cougars' fourth appearance in the Bluebonnet Bowl. Source