Usermaatre Ramesses III was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt. He is thought to have reigned from 1186 to 1155 BC and is considered to be the last great monarch of the New Kingdom to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, his long reign saw the decline of Egyptian political and economic power, linked to a series of invasions and internal economic problems that plagued pharaohs before him. He has been described as "warrior Pharaoh" due to his strong military strategies, he led the way by defeating the invaders known as "the Sea People", who had caused destruction in other civilizations and empires. He was able to save Egypt from collapsing at the time when many other empires fell during the Late Bronze Age. Ramesses III was the son of Queen Tiy-Merenese, he was assassinated in the Harem conspiracy led by one of his secondary wives, her son Pentawer, a group of high officials. Ramesses' two main names transliterate as wsr-mꜢʿt-rʿ–mry-ỉmn rʿ-ms-s–ḥḳꜢ-ỉwnw, they are realised as Usermaatre-Meryamun Rameses-Heqaiunu, meaning "The Ma'at of Ra is strong, Beloved of Amun, Born of Ra, Ruler of Heliopolis".
Ramesses III is believed to have reigned from March 1186 to April 1155 BC. This is based on his known accession date of I Shemu day 26 and his death on Year 32 III Shemu day 15, for a reign of 31 years, 1 month and 19 days. Alternative dates for his reign are 1187–1156 BC. In a description of his coronation from Medinet Habu, four doves were said to be "dispatched to the four corners of the horizon to confirm that the living Horus, Ramses III, is in possession of his throne, that the order of Maat prevails in the cosmos and society". During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Greek Dark Ages, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders and experienced the beginnings of increasing economic difficulties and internal strife which would lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great sea battles. Although the Egyptians had a reputation as poor seamen, they fought tenaciously.
Rameses lined the shores with ranks of archers who kept up a continuous volley of arrows into the enemy ships when they attempted to land on the banks of the Nile. The Egyptian navy attacked using grappling hooks to haul in the enemy ships. In the brutal hand-to-hand fighting which ensued, the Sea People were utterly defeated; the Harris Papyrus states: As for those who reached my frontier, their seed is not, their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever. As for those who came forward together on the seas, the full flame was in front of them at the Nile mouths, while a stockade of lances surrounded them on the shore, prostrated on the beach and made into heaps from head to tail. Ramesses III settled them in southern Canaan, their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states in this region such as Philistia after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. Ramesses III was compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his Year 5 and Year 11 respectively.
The heavy cost of these battles exhausted Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia. The severity of these difficulties is stressed by the fact that the first known labour strike in recorded history occurred during Year 29 of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for the favoured and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Set Maat her imenty Waset, could not be provisioned. Something in the air prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and arrested global tree growth for two full decades until 1140 BC; the result in Egypt was a substantial increase in grain prices under the reigns of Ramesses VI–VII, whereas the prices for fowl and slaves remained constant. Thus the cooldown affected Ramesses III's final years and impaired his ability to provide a constant supply of grain rations to the workmen of the Deir el-Medina community; these difficult realities are ignored in Ramesses' official monuments, many of which seek to emulate those of his famous predecessor, Ramesses II, which present an image of continuity and stability.
He built important additions to the temples at Luxor and Karnak, his funerary temple and administrative complex at Medinet-Habu is amongst the largest and best-preserved in Egypt. No temple in the heart of Egypt prior to Ramesses' reign had needed to be protected in such a manner. Thanks to the discovery of papyrus trial transcripts, it is now known that there was a plot against his life as a result of a royal harem conspiracy during a celebration at Medinet Habu; the conspiracy was instigated by Tiye, one of his three known wives, over whose son would inherit the throne. Tyti's son, Ramesses Amenherkhepshef, was the eldest and the successor chosen by Ramesses III in preference to Tiye's son Pentaweret; the trial documents show. Chief among them were Queen Tiye and her son Pentaweret, Ramesses' chief of the chamber, seven royal butlers, two Treasury overseers, two A
Nichols Field known as Alexander Airport, was an airfield 3 mi north of the Colorado Springs, Colorado city between the Pikeview RR station, the Papeton and Roswell neighborhoods. An airstrip was built on 320 acres east of Papeton, CO, around 1920; the land was owned by the Colorado Springs Company, the airstrip was built by Winfield E. Bowersox, who learned to fly and attained his pilot's license in 1913 from the Wright Aviation School; the airstrip and a few buildings was about four blocks from the end of the street car line, between Papeton and Hwy 85/87.s. The Alexander Film Company moved their aircraft manufacturing plant from Denver to Colorado Springs in 1931, just off Nevada Ave between Peakview and Roswell, CO; the field became known as Nichols Field or Alexander Field, by May 1926. A building was labeled "Pan American Airways"; the city's first air-mail service began at Nichols Field in 1927. Alexander Aircraft Company moved their aircraft manufacturing facilities from Denver to Colorado Springs, where they would build larger facilities to build their biplanes for civilian use.
In 1931, the Department of Commerce described the airport to be on 260 acres with an oiled 4,200 ft runway on a minor slope. There were two hangars at the airport. There was a mine and windmill north of the airport, a water tower with an obstruction light to the west. In 1928 the Pikes Peak Flying school began at the airport, was sold by Henry Chase Stone the following year. In 1929, Pikes Peak Air Commerce, Inc. operated what Ralph N. Miller described as "possibly the highest flying school in America today" at Alexander Airport. Planes flying in and out of the airport at 6,200 feet in altitude, Miller stated, were 80% as efficient as planes and have harder landings than planes operating at sea level because of the thinner mountain air; this can make for a more careful, conservative pilot. A group of Boy Scouts formed the unique Eaglerock Glider troop in January 1930 to build and fly a glider at the Alexander Airport. Beginning in June 1930, 20 troop members took turns flying the Alexander glider, with more than 300 flights by December 1931.
In 1937, Aircraft Mechanics, founded by former employees of Alexander Aircraft Company, bought the airfield and manufacturing plant. They restored and repaired airplanes, including Alexander Eaglerocks, during World War II, build exhaust manifolds and engine mounts, they built seats for aircraft, including Air Force aircraft ejection seats and crew seats for commercial aircraft and the Space Shuttle. By 1946, the airstrip was called Nichols Field, where Pikes Peak Air Commerce, Inc. continued to do business. Two crossing runways were added by 1947. By 1961, the former airfield was covered with structures
William Fisk was an English portrait and history painter. He was born at Thorpe-le-Soken, the son of a yeoman farmer at Can Hall, his father sent him to school at Colchester, at nineteen years of age placed him in a mercantile house in London. There he remained for ten years, he married about 1826, after the birth of his eldest son he devoted himself to art as a profession. Between 1835 and 1848 he lived off Tottenham Court Road, in London, he retired to some property at Danbury in Essex, where he died on 8 November 1872. In 1818 Fisk sent to the Royal Academy a portrait of Mr. G. Fisk, in 1819 a portrait of a Child and Favourite Dog. In 1829 he sent to the Royal Academy a portrait of William Redmore Bigg, R. A. and continued to exhibit portraits there for a few years. At the British Institution he exhibited in 1830 The Widow, in 1832 Puck. From about 1834 Fisk took to painting the large historical compositions, for which he became best known, he took care to obtain contemporary portraits and authorities for costume, which he faithfully reproduced on his canvases.
Some of them were engraved, were popular. They comprised Lady Jane Grey. About 1840 Fisk started a series of pictures connected with the reign of Charles I, Cromwell's Family interceding for the life of Charles I, he was a frequent contributor to the Suffolk Street exhibition. His obituary in the Art Journal said that "if Mr. Fisk’s works may not be classed in a high rank of historical painting, they are most creditable examples — well composed, careful in execution, accurate in costumes and accessories." "Fisk, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Fisk, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900