Sepulveda Boulevard is a major street and transportation corridor in the City of Los Angeles and several other cities in western Los Angeles County, California. It is around 42.8 miles in length, making it the longest street in the city and county of Los Angeles. The Boulevard is known as an area of prostitution. Sepulveda Boulevard runs from Long Beach north through the South Bay and Westside regions, over the Santa Monica Mountains at Sepulveda Pass to northern San Fernando Valley, it passes underneath two of the runways of Los Angeles International Airport. Portions of Sepulveda Boulevard are designated as Pacific Coast Highway. In 1769, the Spanish Portola expedition, the first Europeans to see inland areas of California, traveled north through Sepulveda pass on August 5; the party had been travelling west, intending to reach and follow the coast, but were discouraged by the steep coastal cliffs beginning at today's Pacific Palisades and decided to detour inland. They followed it into the San Fernando Valley.
Sepulveda Boulevard is named for the Sepulveda family of California. The termination of Sepulveda is on a part of the Sepulveda family ranch, Rancho Palos Verdes, which consisted of 31,619 acres of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. In 1784 the Spanish land grant for Rancho San Pedro was issued to Juan Jose Dominguez by King Carlos III—the Spanish Empire. A judicial decree was made by Governor José Figueroa, intended to settle the land dispute between the Domínguez and Sepúlveda families; the rancho was formally divided in 1846, with Governor Pío Pico granting Rancho de los Palos Verdes to José Loreto and Juan Capistrano Sepulveda. Sepulveda Boulevard begins in Long Beach at its intersection with Willow Street and the Terminal Island Freeway. Willow Street extends to the east from here crossing into Orange County and becoming Katella Avenue, a major thoroughfare across that county; the avenue becomes Villa Park Road after passing east of Wanda Road. A block or two the first half of Orange ends and enters the enclave city of Villa Park.
A short while the road reenters Orange and a block changes name to become Santiago Canyon Road at the intersection of Linda Vista Street / Santiago Boulevard. From this point on, it continues going east. Sepulveda Boulevard from SR 103 goes westward through Carson to the Harbor Freeway, where it turns northwest, passing through the unincorporated area of West Carson and Harbor Gateway, Torrance. After entering Redondo Beach, signage changes to Camino Real as it heads to Torrance Boulevard; the route heads a few blocks west along Torrance Boulevard and joins Pacific Coast Highway. The Pacific Coast Highway was on a section of the 19th century El Camino Real crossing the Rancho Sausal Redondo; the present day Camino Real section has El Camino Real bell markers along it. From Torrance Boulevard north to Artesia Boulevard, signage on the SR 1/Sepulveda Boulevard overlap reads "Pacific Coast Highway" as it passes through Hermosa Beach. Sepulveda Boulevard signage resumes north of Artesia, it goes through Manhattan Beach and El Segundo.
Sepulveda Boulevard resumes its name upon entering Los Angeles, crosses the western terminus of the Century Freeway, goes through the LAX Airport Tunnel to pass under its runways. The road passes through an interchange with Century Boulevard, which provides access to LAX's terminals to the west and the San Diego Freeway to the east. At the north end of LAX, SR 1/PCH branches to the west as Lincoln Boulevard while Sepulveda Boulevard continues north to become a primary thoroughfare through the Westside region cities and communities of Westchester, Culver City, West Los Angeles, Westwood. In Culver City, north of Slauson Avenue, it merges for a few blocks with Jefferson Boulevard. From Jefferson, Sepulveda Boulevard runs parallel to I-405 as it goes through West Los Angeles and Westwood, passing the Los Angeles National Cemetery. After going past Bel Air, it parallels the freeway up the Sepulveda Canyon. At the Skirball Cultural Center, Sepulveda Boulevard curves west away from I-405, passes through a tunnel under Mulholland Drive, follows a serpentine route down the north side of the Sepulveda Pass.
It passes under I-405 just before crossing Ventura Boulevard in Sherman Oaks. Sepulveda Boulevard runs parallel to the east of I-405, crossing the Ventura Freeway and the Los Angeles Metro Orange Line rapid transit route, through San Fernando Valley communities of Van Nuys and North Hills, to its northern terminus at the Rinaldi Street interchange with I-405 in Mission Hills. There is a separate section of Sepulveda Boulevard in Sylmar, running from Roxford Street to San Fernando Road, a frontage road along the Golden State Freeway. Prior to the construction of the 405 freeway in the 1960s, that disjunct piece and the main section of Sepulveda Boulevard were one continuous street, separated when the 405 freeway interchange with the Golden State Freeway was built atop the section between Rinaldi and Roxford Streets. Public transit along Sepulveda Boulevard is provided by several different bus lines; the north south-part provides bus service in the San Fernando Valley and through the Sepulveda Pass by Metro Local line 234 and Metr
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves in the autumn. The term deciduous means "the dropping of a part, no longer needed" and the "falling away after its purpose is finished". In plants, it is the result of natural processes. "Deciduous" has a similar meaning when referring to animal parts, such as deciduous antlers in deer, deciduous teeth in some mammals. Wood from deciduous trees is used in a variety of ways in several industries including lumber for furniture and flooring, bowling pins and baseball bats and furniture, cabinets and paneling. In botany and horticulture, deciduous plants, including trees and herbaceous perennials, are those that lose all of their leaves for part of the year; this process is called abscission. In some cases leaf loss coincides with winter -- namely in polar climates. In other parts of the world, including tropical and arid regions, plants lose their leaves during the dry season or other seasons, depending on variations in rainfall.
The converse of deciduous is evergreen, where foliage is shed on a different schedule from deciduous trees, therefore appearing to remain green year round. Plants that are intermediate may be called semi-deciduous. Other plants are semi-evergreen and lose their leaves before the next growing season, retaining some during winter or dry periods; some trees, including a few species of oak, have desiccated leaves that remain on the tree through winter. Many deciduous plants flower during the period when they are leafless, as this increases the effectiveness of pollination; the absence of leaves improves wind transmission of pollen for wind-pollinated plants and increases the visibility of the flowers to insects in insect-pollinated plants. This strategy is not without risks, as the flowers can be damaged by frost or, in dry season regions, result in water stress on the plant. There is much less branch and trunk breakage from glaze ice storms when leafless, plants can reduce water loss due to the reduction in availability of liquid water during cold winter days.
Leaf drop or abscission involves complex physiological changes within plants. The process of photosynthesis degrades the supply of chlorophylls in foliage; when autumn arrives and the days are shorter or when plants are drought-stressed, deciduous trees decrease chlorophyll pigment production, allowing other pigments present in the leaf to become apparent, resulting in non-green colored foliage. The brightest leaf colors are produced when days grow short and nights are cool, but remain above freezing; these other pigments include carotenoids that are yellow and orange. Anthocyanin pigments produce red and purple colors, though they are not always present in the leaves. Rather, they are produced in the foliage in late summer, when sugars are trapped in the leaves after the process of abscission begins. Parts of the world that have showy displays of bright autumn colors are limited to locations where days become short and nights are cool. In other parts of the world, the leaves of deciduous trees fall off without turning the bright colors produced from the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments.
The beginnings of leaf drop starts when an abscission layer is formed between the leaf petiole and the stem. This layer is formed in the spring during active new growth of the leaf; the cells are sensitive to a plant hormone called auxin, produced by the leaf and other parts of the plant. When auxin coming from the leaf is produced at a rate consistent with that from the body of the plant, the cells of the abscission layer remain connected; the elongation of these cells break the connection between the different cell layers, allowing the leaf to break away from the plant. It forms a layer that seals the break, so the plant does not lose sap. A number of deciduous plants remove nitrogen and carbon from the foliage before they are shed and store them in the form of proteins in the vacuoles of parenchyma cells in the roots and the inner bark. In the spring, these proteins are used as a nitrogen source during the growth of new leaves or flowers. Plants with deciduous foliage have advantages and disadvantages compared to plants with evergreen foliage.
Since deciduous plants lose their leaves to conserve water or to better survive winter weather conditions, they must regrow new foliage during the next suitable growing season. Evergreens suffer greater water loss during the winter and they can experience greater predation pressure when small. Losing leaves in winter may reduce damage from insects. Removing leaves reduces cavitation which can damage xylem vessels in plants; this allows deciduous plants to have xylem vessels with larger diameters and therefore a greater rate of transpiration during the summer growth period
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit. A shopping arcade is a specific type of shopping precinct, distinguished in English for mall shopping by the fact that connecting walkways are not owned by a single proprietor and are in open air. Shopping malls in 2017 accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States. Many early shopping arcades such as the Burlington Arcade in London, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, numerous arcades in Paris are famous and still trading. However, many smaller arcades have been demolished, replaced with large centers or "malls" accessible by vehicle. Technical innovations such as electric lighting and escalators were introduced from the late 19th century. From the late 20th century, entertainment venues such as movie theaters and restaurants began to be added.
As a single built structure, early shopping centers were architecturally significant constructions, enabling wealthier patrons to buy goods in spaces protected from the weather. In places around the world, the term shopping centre is used in Europe and South America. Mall is a term used predominantly in North America. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are used. In North America, Persian Gulf countries, India, the term shopping mall is applied to enclosed retail structures, while shopping centre refers to open-air retail complexes. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "malls" are referred to as shopping centres. Mall refers to either a shopping mall – a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area – or an pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. In North America, mall is used to refer to a large shopping area composed of a single building which contains multiple shops "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term "arcade" is more used in the United Kingdom, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street covered or between spaced buildings.
The majority of British shopping centres are located in city centres found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; these centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year.
There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year. One of the earliest examples of public shopping areas comes from ancient Rome, in forums where shopping markets were located. One of the earliest public shopping centers is Trajan's Market in Rome located in Trajan's Forum. Trajan's Market was built around 100-110 CE by Apollodorus of Damascus, it is thought to be the world's oldest shopping center – a forerunner of today's shopping mall; the Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in the 15th century and is still one of the largest covered shopping centers in the world, with more than 58 streets and 4,000 shops. Numerous other covered shopping arcades, such as the 19th-century Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus, might be considered as precursors to the present-day shopping mall. Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, covered, dates from the 10th century; the 10-kilometer-long, covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar has a lengthy history.
The oldest continuously occupied shopping mall in the world is to be the Chester Rows. Dating back at least to the 13th century, these covered walkways housed shops, with storage and accommodation for traders on various levels. Different rows specialized in different goods, such as'Bakers Row' or'Fleshmongers Row'. Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg, which opened in 1785, may be regarded as one of the first purposely-built mall-type shopping complexes, as it consisted of more than 100 shops covering an area of over 53,000 m2; the Marché des Enfants Rouges in Paris still runs today. The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England still runs today; the Passage du Caire was opened in Paris in 1798. The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819; the Arcade
Cheviot Hills, Los Angeles
Cheviot Hills is a neighborhood of single-family homes on the Westside of the city of Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1924, the neighborhood has been the filming location of countless movies and television shows due to its convenient location between Fox Studios and Sony Studios; the neighborhood has long been home to many actors, television personalities, studio executives. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, Cheviot Hills' street and other borders are Rancho Park Golf Course and Hillcrest Country Club to the northwest. Using these boundaries, Cheviot Hills is flanked on the north by West Los Angeles and Century City, on the east by Beverlywood and Castle Heights, on the south by Palms, on the west by Rancho Park; the Mapping L. A. boundaries are broader. Although the CHHOA covers areas beyond the original Cheviot Hills tract, such as Monte-Mar Vista and most of Tract 13945, Mapping L. A.'s boundaries include all or parts other neighborhoods, such as Castle Heights and California Country Club Estates, which have their own homeowners' associations.
The 2000 U. S. census counted 6,945 residents in the 1.54-square-mile Cheviot Hills neighborhood—an average of 4,520 people per square mile, among the lowest densities for the city. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 7,303; the median age for residents was older than the city at large. The neighborhood was considered "not diverse" ethnically, with a high percentage of white people; the breakdown was whites, 78.8%. Japan and Mexico were the most common places of birth for the 20.8% of the residents who were born abroad—considered a low figure for Los Angeles. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $111,813, a high figure for Los Angeles, the percentage of households earning $125,000 and up was considered high for the county; the average household size of 2.2 people was low for the county. Renters occupied 35.7% of the housing stock and house- or apartment owners held 64.3%. The percentages of veterans who served during World War II or the Korean War were among the county's highest.
All of today's Cheviot Hills was within the Spanish land grant known as Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes. Undeveloped until the 1920s, initial construction in the residential section west of Motor Avenue dates to the 1920s. From the 1920s to 1953, the streetcar line known as the Santa Monica Air Line of the Pacific Electric Railway ran along the southern edge of Cheviot Hills and provided passenger service between Cheviot Hills, downtown Los Angeles, downtown Santa Monica. Much of the neighborhood east of Motor Avenue and south of Forrester Drive was built on the site of the former California Country Club, the residences date to the early 1950s; the neighborhood features several homes by prominent architects, such as the Strauss-Lewis House by Raphael Soriano and the Harry Culver Estate, designed by Wallace Neff. The neighborhood was middle class, with 1926 prices for homes starting at $50,000, or around $663,000 today. However, prices have increased in recent years and now rival those of neighboring Beverly Hills, Bel Air, Holmby Hills, resulting in a surge of new development at the cost of many of the neighborhood's original 1920s homes.
Cheviot Hills was named Redfin's "hottest" neighborhood in the country for real estate for 2014, the "hottest" neighborhood in Los Angeles for 2015. In 2015 CityLab named Cheviot Hills as the 24th most expensive neighborhood in the United States to rent in. Developed between 1926 and 1940, Monte Mar Vista is the most affluent part of Cheviot Hills; the neighborhood was developed by W. R. McConnell, Fred W. Forrester, John P. Haynes and consists of sixteen blocks along the northern side of Cheviot Hills bound by the Hillcrest Country Club, Cheviot Hills Park, Rancho Park Golf Course to the north and east and Lorenzo and Club Drive to the south. In 1928, the development was taken over by Ole Hanson and the Frank Meline Company, who continued to develop the neighborhood; because of the area's location, many properties enjoy expansive views that overlook the Hillcrest Country Club and Rancho Park Golf Course as well as views of Century City, the Hollywood Hills, the Hollywood Sign. Many of the lots are large covering several parcels, homes were designed by prominent architects including John L. DeLario, Roland E. Coartes, Wallace Neff, Eugene R. Ward.
The first house designed by Craig Ellwood, Lappin House, is located in this part of Cheviot Hills. Built in 1952 on the site of the former California Country Club, California Country Club Estates is a neighborhood of single-family homes, known locally as New Cheviot, as opposed to the rest of Cheviot Hills, known as Old Cheviot; the neighborhood is located within Cheviot Hills, bound to the north by Club Drive and to the west by Queensbury Drive, but has a separate home owner's association with binding CC&Rs attached to each lot, its borders are marked by signs and central medians. The neighborhood was developed by Sanford Adler, the owner of the Flamingo Las Vegas and El Rancho Hotel and Casino, included homes built by architects such as A. Quincy Jones. Situated within a short drive of both Fox Studios and Sony Pictures Studios, the neighborhood has been the site for the filming of motion
Autumn leaf color
Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normal green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs by which they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn season, various shades of red, purple, orange, magenta and brown. The phenomenon is called autumn colours or autumn foliage in British English and fall colors, fall foliage or foliage in American English. In some areas of Canada and the United States, "leaf peeping" tourism is a major contribution to economic activity; this tourist activity occurs between the beginning of color changes and the onset of leaf fall around September and October in the Northern Hemisphere and April to May in the Southern Hemisphere. A green leaf is green because of the presence of a pigment known as chlorophyll, inside an organelle called a chloroplast; when they are abundant in the leaf's cells, as they are during the growing season, the chlorophyll's green color dominates and masks out the colors of any other pigments that may be present in the leaf. Thus, the leaves of summer are characteristically green.
Chlorophyll has a vital function: it captures solar rays and uses the resulting energy in the manufacture of the plant's food — simple sugars which are produced from water and carbon dioxide. These sugars are the basis of the plant's nourishment — the sole source of the carbohydrates needed for growth and development. In their food-manufacturing process, the chlorophylls break down, thus are being continually "used up". During the growing season, the plant replenishes the chlorophyll so that the supply remains high and the leaves stay green. In late summer, as daylight hours shorten and temperatures cool, the veins that carry fluids into and out of the leaf are closed off as a layer of special cork cells forms at the base of each leaf; as this cork layer develops and mineral intake into the leaf is reduced at first, more rapidly. During this time, the chlorophyll begins to decrease; the veins are still green after the tissues between them have completely changed color. Much chlorophyll is in the most abundant membrane protein on earth.
LHC II captures light in photosynthesis. It is located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and it is composed of an apoprotein along with several ligands, the most important of which are chlorophylls a and b. In the fall, this complex is broken down. Chlorophyll degradation is thought to occur first. Recent research suggests that the beginning of chlorophyll degradation is catalyzed by chlorophyll b reductase, which reduces chlorophyll b to 7‑hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a, reduced to chlorophyll a; this is believed to destabilize the complex. An important enzyme in the breakdown of the apoprotein is FtsH6, which belongs to the FtsH family of proteases. Chlorophylls degrade into colorless tetrapyrroles known as nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites; as the chlorophylls degrade, the hidden pigments of yellow xanthophylls and orange beta-carotene are revealed. These pigments are present throughout the year, but the red pigments, the anthocyanins, are synthesized de novo once half of chlorophyll has been degraded.
The amino acids released from degradation of light harvesting complexes are stored all winter in the tree's roots, branches and trunk until next spring, when they are recycled to releaf the tree. Carotenoids are present in leaves the whole year round, but their orange-yellow colors are masked by green chlorophyll; as autumn approaches, certain influences both inside and outside the plant cause the chlorophylls to be replaced at a slower rate than they are being used up. During this period, with the total supply of chlorophylls dwindling, the "masking" effect fades away. Other pigments that have been present in the cells all during the leaf's life begin to show through; these are carotenoids and they provide colorations of yellow, brown and the many hues in between. The carotenoids occur, along with the chlorophyll pigments, in tiny structures called plastids, within the cells of leaves. Sometimes, they are in such abundance in the leaf that they give a plant a yellow-green color during the summer.
However, they become prominent for the first time in autumn, when the leaves begin to lose their chlorophyll. Carotenoids are common in many living things, giving characteristic color to carrots, corn and daffodils, as well as egg yolks, rutabagas and bananas, their brilliant yellows and oranges tint the leaves of such hardwood species as hickories, maple, yellow poplar, birch, black cherry, cottonwood and alder. Carotenoids are the dominant pigment in coloration of about 15-30% of tree species; the reds, the purples, their blended combinations that decorate autumn foliage come from another group of pigments in the cells called anthocyanins. Unlike the carotenoids, these pigments are not present in the leaf throughout the growing season, but are produced towards the end of summer, they develop in late summer in the sap of the cells of the leaf, this development is the result of complex interactions of many influences—both inside and outside the plant. Their formation depends on the breakdown of sugars in the presence of bright light as the level of phosphate in the leaf is reduced.
During the summer growing season, phosphate is at a high level. It has a vital role in the breakdown of the sugars manufactured by chlorophyll, but in the fall, along with the other chemicals and nutrients, moves out of the leaf into the stem of the plant; when this happens, the sugar-breakdown process changes, lea
Beverly Glen Boulevard
Beverly Glen Boulevard is one of five major routes that connect the Westside of Los Angeles to the San Fernando Valley, Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Coldwater Canyon Avenue. It starts at Rancho Park Golf Course on Pico Boulevard in West Los Angeles, it proceeds to intersect with Santa Monica and Wilshire boulevards, passing near Century City, Sinai Temple and Los Angeles Country Club. The road marks the eastern border of the Westwood Prosperity Unit development built by Janss Investment Company as the foundation of the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles; as the road travels further north, it intersects with Sunset Boulevard near UCLA and passes the gated communities of Bel Air and the middle school campus of the Harvard-Westlake School. The hills through which the boulevard passes north of Sunset and south of Mulholland Drive is known as Beverly Glen. Beverly Glen runs parallel to the wealthy section of its gated communities. After passing Mulholland, Beverly Glen Boulevard swerves west and passes through the exclusive hillside homes in Sherman Oaks.
"Stilt Street" is a row of twenty stilt houses designed by architect Richard Neutra that perch on the steep hillside above the boulevard. The road ends at Ventura Boulevard in the south end of the Valley. Commuters seeking to go further north into the Valley go one block west to Van Nuys Boulevard which spans most of the Valley's length. Beverly Glen Boulevard is east of the San Diego Freeway; when traffic on the 405 becomes unbearable, many commuters take Beverly Glen or Sepulveda instead, causing considerable congestion on both streets