American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Spanish explorers arrived on Californias coasts as early as the mid-16th century. In 1769 the first Spanish Franciscan mission was built in San Diego, local tribes were relocated and conscripted into forced labor on the mission, stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. Disease, over work, and torture decimated these tribes, many were baptized as Roman Catholics by the Franciscan missionaries at the missions. Mission Indians were from many regional Native American tribes, their members were often relocated together in new mixed groups, for instance, the Payomkowishum were renamed Luiseños after the Mission San Luis Rey, and the Acjachemem were renamed the Juaneños after the Mission San Juan Capistrano. The Catholic priests forbade the Indians from practicing their native culture, resulting in the disruption of many linguistic, spiritual. When Mexico gained its independence in 1834, it assumed control of the Californian missions from the Franciscans, Mexico secularized the missions and transferred or sold the lands to other non-Native administrators or owners.
Many of the Mission Indians worked on the newly established ranchos with little improvement in their living conditions, around 1906 Alfred L. Kroeber and Constance G. On January 12,1891 the U. S, in 1927, Sacramento Bureau of Indian Affairs Superintendent Lafayette A. Dorrington was instructed by Assistant Commissioner E. B. Merritt in Washington D. C. to list tribes in California that Congress had not yet purchased land to be used as reservations. As part of the 1928 California Indian Jurisdictional Act enrollment, Native Americans were asked to identify their “Tribe or Band. ”The majority of applicants supplied the name of the mission that they knew their ancestors were associated with. The enrollment was part of a plan to provide reservation lands promised, some bands occupy trust lands—Indian Reservations—identified under the Mission Indian Agency. The Mission Indian Act of 1891 formed the administrative Bureau of Indian Affairs unit which governs San Diego County, Riverside County, San Bernardino County, there is one Chumash reservation in the last county, and more than thirty reservations in the others.
Los Angeles, San Luis Obispo, and Orange counties do not contain any tribal trust lands. But, resident tribes, including the Tongva in the first and these and the tribal governments of fifteen other reservations operate casinos today. The total acreage of the Mission group of reservations constitutes approximately 250,000 acres, los Coyotes Band of Mission Indians Manzanita Band of Mission Indians Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians Mission Creek Band of Mission Indians - Mission Creek Reservation of Cahuilla. Morongo Band of Mission Indians Pala Band of Mission Indians Pauma Band of Mission Indians Pechanga Band of Mission Indians Ramona Band or Village of Mission Indians San Cayetano Band of Cahuilla. San Manuel Band of Mission Indians San Miguel Arcangel, descandants of Mission San Miguel Indians in San Miguel, Mythology of the Mission Indians, The Journal of the American Folk-Lore Society, Vol. XVII, No. Two Myths of the Mission Indians of California, Journal of the American Folk-Lore Society, Vol.
XIX, a Native American Encyclopedia, History and Peoples
In an economics context, land development is sometimes advertised as land improvement or land amelioration. It refers to investments making land more usable by humans, for accounting purposes it refers to any variety of projects that increase the value of the property. Most are depreciable, but some improvements are not able to be depreciated because a useful life cannot be determined. Home building and containment are two of the most common and the oldest types of development and this profit enhancement means identifying and developing the best scheme for the local marketplace, whilst satisfying the local planning process. Development Analysis puts development prospects and the development process itself under the microscope, development analysis can add significantly to the value of land and development, and as such is a crucial tool for landowners and developers. It is a step in Kevin A. Lynchs 1960 book The Image of the City. The landowner can share in additional planning gain via an awareness of the development potential.
This is done via a residual development appraisal or residual valuation, the residual appraisal calculates the sale value of the end product, and hypothetically deducts costs, including planning and construction costs, finance costs and developers profit. The residue, or leftover proportion, represents the land value, therefore, in maximising the GDV, land value is concurrently enhanced. Land value is highly sensitive to supply and demand, build costs and affordable housing contributions, understanding the intricacies of the development system and the effect of value drivers can result in massive differences in the landowners sale value. Land improvement in the economic sense can often lead to degradation from the ecological perspective. Land development and the change in land value does not usually take into account changes in the ecology of the developed area, new creation of farmland will rely on the conversion and development of previous forests, savannas or grassland. Recreation of farmland from wasteland, deserts or previous impervious surfaces is considerably less frequent because of the degraded or missing fertile soil in the latter, starting from forests, land is made arable by assarting or slash-and-burn.
Agricultural development furthermore includes, Hydrological measures Soil improvement, road construction Because the newly created farmland is more prone to erosion than soil stabilized by tree roots, such a conversion may mean irreversible crossing of an ecological threshold. The resulting deforestation is not easily compensated for by reforestation or afforestation. Examples of land restoration/land rehabilitation counted as land development in the strict sense are still rare, renaturation, stream restoration may all contribute to a healthier environment and quality of life, especially in densely populated regions. The same is true for planned vegetation like parks and gardens, but restoration plays a particular role, because it reverses previous conversions to built and agricultural areas
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution.
The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v.
Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to vote
New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, after 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain, an appointed minister of the King of Spain, who ruled as monarch over the colony. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City and it developed highly regional divisions, which reflect the impact of climate, the presence or absence of dense indigenous populations, and the presence or absence of mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him and it was on this basis that the conquest and government of the New World was achieved.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain and it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas Septentrion, from North America, to the west of the continent, New Spain included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies and this was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. To shore up its claims in North America starting in the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity, the societies could provide the conquistadors, especially Hernán Cortés, a base from which the conquerors could become autonomous, or even independent, of the Crown.
As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, the crown had set up the Casa de Contratación in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and they were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. The Francisco Hernández Expedition, the first scientific expedition to the New World, was sent to gather information medicinal plants, an earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in 1526 to deal with the Caribbean settlements. That Audiencia, housed in the Casa Reales in Santo Domingo, was charged with encouraging further exploration, management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy.
Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in 1540
Declaration of war
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another. The declaration is a speech act by an authorized party of a national government. The legality of who is competent to declare war varies between nations and forms of government, in many nations, that power is given to the head of state or sovereign. In other cases, something short of a declaration of war, such as a letter of marque or a covert operation. The official international protocol for declaring war was defined in the Hague Convention of 1907 on the Opening of Hostilities, in addition to this, non-state or terrorist organizations may claim to or be described as declaring war when engaging in violent acts. These declarations may have no standing in themselves, but they may still act as a call to arms for supporters of these organizations. A definition of the three ways of thinking about a declaration of war was developed by Saikrishna Prakash. He argues that a declaration of war can be seen from three perspectives, Categorical theory, under which the power to declare war includes the power to all decisions to enter war.
This means that the power to declare war in effect rests with the ability to engage in combat, pragmatic theory, which states that the power to declare war can be made unnecessary by an act of war in itself. Formalist theory, under which the power to declare war constitutes only a formal documentation of executive war-making decisions and this sits closest to traditional legal conceptions of what it is to declare a war. An absolute declaration of war declares war absolutely due to the failure of negotiations over the grievances and remedies found in the conditional declaration and it ends absolutely the state and condition of peace, replacing it with the state and condition of war until such time as peace is restored. Degree of justification of the war A reasoned declaration of war justifies the resort to war by stating the grievances that have made peace intolerable, an unreasoned declaration of war does not justify the resort to war, or does so only minimally. Degree of perfection with which the act was made A perfect declaration of war is a formal, solemn speech act made in accordance with the proper laws, rites.
An imperfect declaration of war is an informal, unsolemn speech act not made in accordance with the laws, rites. The practice of declaring war has a long history, the ancient Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh gives an account of it, as does the Old Testament. However, the practice of declaring war was not always strictly followed, the primary multilateral treaties governing such declarations are the Hague Conventions. The utility of formal declarations of war has always been questioned, the Hague Convention of 1907 called Convention Relative to the Opening of Hostilities gives the international actions a country should perform when opening hostilities. Neutral Powers, cannot rely on the absence of notification if it is established that they were in fact aware of the existence of a state of war
A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, and early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality. Cabildos were sometimes appointed, sometimes elected, but they were considered to be representative of all land-owning heads of household, the colonial cabildo was essentially the same as the one developed in medieval Castile. For example, Hernán Cortés established La Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz to free himself from the authority of the Governor of Cuba. The word cabildo has the same Latin root as the English word chapter, historically the term ayuntamiento was often preceded by the word excelentísimo as a style of office, when referring to the council. This phrase is often abbreviated Exc. mo Ay, with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the establishment of the Visigothic Kingdom, the ancient municipal government vanished. In areas where the old territoria survived, the Visigothic kings appointed a single officer, after the Muslim conquest, the new rulers appointed various judicial officers to manage the affairs of the cities.
Qadis heard any cases that fell under the purview of Sharia law and sahibs oversaw the administration of the other areas of urban life, such as the markets. The cabildo proper began its evolution in the process of the Reconquista. These new bodies took their permanent form by the end of the 14th century, as part of the same process, a municipal council with different attributes and composition evolved in the neighboring Kingdom of Aragon during this period. In theory, every municipality in the Spanish colonies in the Americas, municipalities were not just the cities but included the surrounding lands. All lands were assigned to a municipality. Usually the cabildo made local laws and reported to the presidente of the audiencia, the cabildo had judicial and administrative duties. For this reason it was addressed with the formula, Consejo. The cabildo consisted of types of officials. There were four to twelve regidores, depending on the size, were not just deliberative officers, but all shared in the administration of the territory, dividing tasks among themselves.
Initially the regidores were elected by all the heads of household, in the late Middle Ages, these elections often turned violent, with citizens forming bands to control elections and even resorting to murder. To minimize this kings began to appoint a number of, or even all of. By the modern era different cabildos had different mixes of elected and appointed regidores both on the Peninsula and overseas, finally, to add another layer of control, the kings introduced corregidores to represent them directly and preside over the cabildos
Mexican secularization act of 1833
The Mexican secularization act of 1833 was passed twelve years after Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821. Mexico feared Spain would continue to have influence and power in California because most of the Spanish missions in California remained loyal to the Roman Catholic Church in Spain, as the new Mexican republic matured, calls for the secularization of the missions increased. The missions were part of the first major effort by Europeans to colonize the Pacific Coast region, the settlers introduced European fruits, cattle, horses and technology into the Alta California region and to the Mission Indians. The El Camino Real road connected the missions from San Diego to Mission San Francisco Solano, in Sonoma, between 1683 and 1834, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established a series of religious outposts from todays Baja California and Baja California Sur into present-day California. José María de Echeandía, the first Mexican-born elected Governor of Alta California issued a Proclamation of Emancipation on July 25,1826.
All Indians within the districts of San Diego, Santa Barbara. Those who wished to remain under mission tutelage were exempted from most forms of corporal punishment. In 1831, the number of Indians under missionary control in all of Upper-Alta California was about 18,683 and about 4,342 of garrison soldiers, free settlers, to that end, he appointed a number of comisionados to oversee the emancipation of the Indians. The Mexican government passed legislation on December 20,1827 that mandated the expulsion of all Spaniards younger than sixty years of age from Mexican territories, Spaniards could pose a threat to Mexico because Spain did not recognize Mexican independence and attempted to regain control over its former colony. Governor Echeandía nevertheless intervened on behalf of some Franciscans in order to prevent their deportation once the law took effect in California, in response, Father-Presidente Narciso Durán transferred the headquarters of the Alta California Mission System to Mission Santa Bárbara, where it remained until 1846.
Governor Figueroa issued a regulation on August 9,1834 outlining the requirements for the distribution of property to each mission’s neophytes, among the provisions were that 5. To each head of a family and to all over 20 years old, plus 6. pro rata. one-half of the livestock and 7. Half or less of the chattels and seed. The ranchos made of former mission lands were divided into large land grants. This meant that the missions would hold only to the worship chapel, the residences of the priests. In some missions all of the buildings were lost and some mission buildings were divided. As the four to six soldiers assigned to guard each Mission were dismissed, Mission San Juan Capistrano was the very first to have land taken way, on August 9,1834 Governor Figueroa issued his Decree of Confiscation. Nine other settlements followed, with six more in 1835, San Buenaventura and Mission San Francisco de Asís were among the last to have land taken way, in June and December 1836
A gold rush is a new discovery of gold that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune. Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, the wealth that resulted was distributed widely because of reduced migration costs and low barriers to entry. While gold mining itself was unprofitable for most diggers and mine owners, some people made fortunes. The resulting increase in the gold supply stimulated global trade. Historians have written extensively about the migration, colonization, Gold rushes helped spur a huge immigration that often led to permanent settlement of new regions. Activities propelled by gold rushes define significant aspects of the culture of the Australian, at a time when the worlds money supply was based on gold, the newly mined gold provided economic stimulus far beyond the gold fields. Gold rushes extend back as far as gold mining, to the Roman Empire, whose gold mining was described by Diodorus Siculus and Pliny the Elder, within each mining rush there is typically a transition through progressively higher capital expenditures, larger organizations, and more specialized knowledge.
They may progress from high-unit value to lower unit value minerals, a rush typically begins with the discovery of placer gold made by an individual. At first the gold may be washed from the sand and gravel by individual miners with little training, using a pan or similar simple instrument. Winning the gold in this manner requires almost no capital investment, only a pan or equipment that may be built on the spot. The low investment, the value per unit weight of gold. After the sluice-box stage, placer mining may become increasingly large scale, requiring larger organisations, small claims owned and mined by individuals may need to be merged into larger tracts. Difficult-to-reach placer deposits may be mined by tunnels, water may be diverted by dams and canals to placer mine active river beds or to deliver water needed to wash dry placers. The more advanced techniques of ground sluicing, hydraulic mining and dredging may be used, typically the heyday of a placer gold rush would last only a few years.
Hard rock mining, like mining, may evolve from low capital investment and simple technology to progressively higher capital. The surface outcrop of a gold-bearing vein may be oxidized, so that the gold occurs as native gold, the first miners may at first build a simple arrastra to crush their ore, they may build stamp mills to crush ore more quickly. As the miners dig down, they may find that the part of vein contains gold locked in sulfide or telluride minerals. If the ore is still rich, it may be worth shipping to a distant smelter
Fages was born in Guissona, Lérida/Lleida province, Spain. In 1762 he entered the infantry in Catalonia in 1762. In May 1767 Fages, commissioned as a lieutenant in the newly formed Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia, set sail from Cádiz along with a company of light infantry and he and his men served under Domingo Elizondo in Sonora. In 1769, Fages was selected by visitador José de Gálvez to lead the portion of the Gaspar de Portolá-led expedition to found San Diego. Lieutenant Fages sailed from Guaymas to the Baja California port of La Paz, on January 9,1769, he boarded the galleon San Carlos, captained by Vicente Vila and bound for San Diego. Also on board were Franciscan friar Fernando Parrón, engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó, surgeon Pedro Prat, after sailing nearly 200 miles beyond San Diego due to cartography errors, the San Carlos doubled back south. It finally arrived in San Diego Bay on April 29, with scurvy-ridden troops, in his letter reporting to Gálvez, Fages observed of the local Kumeyaay Indians, …They appear to be docile and alert.
We have made good friends with them and we are never lacking some little rabbits, hares. We give them some glass beads, but they value very highly any kind of cloth — no matter how poor it might be — since in exchange for some that I had, I received some furs and nets. Costansó, while branding the Kumeyaay as lazy idlers, noted that they have bestowed great affection upon Don Pedro Fages and they have invited him at various times to be with their women, an expression of friendship that the rest have not merited. Fages ordered a leather target erected at a practical distance, the Indians fired their arrows, which had only a mild effect on the leather. Fages ordered his best marksmen to shoot at the same target, upon hearing the noise and seeing the destruction so close at hand, the Indians changed their expressions and some of the more timid ones left, giving very clear signs of their surprise and fear. On July 14,1769, Fages set out from San Diego with a party of 74 men on the Portolá expedition to locate Monterey Bay.
The party included Catalonian volunteers, leather-jacketed soldiers, Christian Indians from Baja California, during this time he was promoted to captain. Although the party failed to recognize Monterey Bay as they passed it, the 74 men returned exhausted to San Diego on January 24,1770, having had to slaughter and eat their mules on the return trek south. In March 1770 Felipe de Barri, in Baja California, was governor of both Baja and Alta California. But, since Monterey was far away, Fages had free rein to run Alta as acting governor, taking charge of constructing the Spanish presidio in Monterey, Fages imposed strict discipline on his soldier laborers. He decided the amount of work they had to do in a certain time, heavy rains punctuated the spring and winter of 1770-1, but Fages permitted no let-up in the work
In June 1846, a number of American immigrants in Alta California rebelled against the Mexican departments government. The immigrants had not been allowed to buy or rent land and had threatened with expulsion from California because they had entered without official permission. Mexican officials were concerned about a war with the United States coupled with the growing influx of Americans into California. The rebellion was soon overtaken by the beginning of the Mexican–American War, the name California Republic appeared only on the flag the insurgents raised in Sonoma. It indicated their aspiration of forming a government for California. The insurgents elected military officers but no structure was ever established. The flag featured an image of a California grizzly bear and became known as the Bear Flag and the revolt as the Bear Flag Revolt. Three weeks later, on July 5,1846, the Republics military of 100 to 200 men was subsumed into the California Battalion commanded by U. S. Army Brevet Captain John C.
By 1845–46, Alta California had been neglected by Mexico for the twenty-five years since Mexican independence. The 1845 removal of Manuel Micheltorena, the latest governor to be sent by Mexico and forcefully ejected by the Californians, resulted in a divided government. The region south of San Luis Obispo was ruled by Governor Pio Pico with his capital in The Town of Our Lady the Queen of Angels of the Porciúncula River and Castro disliked each other personally and soon began escalating disputes over control of the Customhouse income. Decrees issued by the government in Mexico City were often acknowledged and supported with proclamations. By the end of 1845, when rumors of a force being sent from Mexico proved to be false. The relationship between the United States and Mexico had been deteriorating for some time, which Mexico still considered to be its territory, had been admitted to statehood in 1845. Mexico had earlier threatened war if this happened, james K. Polk was elected President of the United States in 1844, and considered his election a mandate for his expansionist policies.
Mexican law had long allowed grants of land to naturalized Mexican citizens, obtaining Mexican citizenship was not difficult and many earlier American immigrants had gone through the process and obtained free grants of land. The orders required Californias officials not to land grants. All non-citizen immigrants, who had arrived without permission, were threatened with being forced out of California, Alta Californias Sub-Prefect Francisco Guerrero had written to U. S
History of Mexico
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century and this era before the arrival of Europeans is called variously the prehispanic era or the precolumbian era. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan became the Spanish capital Mexico City, from 1521, the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire incorporated the region into the Spanish Empire, with New Spain its colonial era name and Mexico City the center of colonial rule. It was built on the ruins of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, during the colonial era, Mexicos long-established Mesoamerican civilizations mixed with European culture. For three centuries Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, whose legacy is a country with a Spanish-speaking, after a protracted struggle for independence, New Spain became the sovereign nation of Mexico, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba.
A brief period of monarchy, called the First Mexican Empire, was followed by the founding of the Republic of Mexico, legal racial categories were eliminated, abolishing the system of castas. Slavery was not abolished at independence in 1821 or with the constitution in 1824, Mexico continues to be constituted as a federated republic, under the Mexican Constitution of 1917. The Age of Santa Anna is the period of the late 1820s to the early 1850s that was dominated by criollo military-man-turned-president Antonio López de Santa Anna. In 1846, the Mexican–American War was provoked by the United States, even though Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the disastrous defeat, he returned to office. The Liberal Reform began with the overthrow of Santa Anna by Mexican liberals, the Reform sparked a civil war between liberals defending the constitution and conservatives, who opposed it. The US was engaged in its own Civil War, so did not attempt to block the foreign intervention, abraham Lincoln consistently supported the Mexican liberals.
At the end of the war in the US and the triumph of the Union forces. France withdrew its support of Maximilian in 1867 and his monarchist rule collapsed in 1867, with the end of the Second Mexican Empire, the period often called the Restored Republic brought back Benito Juárez as president. Following his death from an attack, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada succeed him. He was overthrown by liberal military man Porfirio Diaz, who after consolidating power ushered in a period of stability, the half-century of economic stagnation and political chaos following independence ended. The Porfiriate is the era when army hero Porfirio Díaz held power as president of Mexico almost continuously from 1876-1911 and he promoted order and progress that saw the modernization of the economy and the flow of foreign investment to the country. The period is called the Porfiriato, which ended with the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution in 1910. Under Díaz, Mexicos industry and infrastructure were modernized by a strong, increased tax revenues and better administration brought dramatic improvements in public safety, public health, mining, foreign trade, and national finances