Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Chrysler House is a 23-story, 99 m skyscraper located at 719 Griswold Street in Downtown Detroit, Michigan. The class-A office building is adjacent to the Penobscot Building in the heart of the U. S. designated Detroit Financial District. It is used with retail space on the street level; the building was known for many years as the Dime Building. When completed, the tower was named the Dime Savings Bank Building for its primary tenant, it was renamed the Commonwealth Building known as Griswold Place. It became the Dime Building again in 2002, before being renamed in 2012; the original Lincoln Highway Association national headquarters occupied office 2115 on the 21st floor from 1913 to 1928. For several years through 1983, the building housed the headquarters of Bank of the Commonwealth until the bank merged with Comerica. In 2002, a $40-million renovation was completed. In August 2011, Quicken Loans founder Dan Gilbert purchased the building along with the nearby Qube, First National Building and Wright-Kay Building.
On April 30, 2012, Gilbert and Chrysler Group LLC chairman Sergio Marchionne announced that Chrysler will move its Great Lakes Business Center and some executive offices, with 70 employees, into the two top floors of the building. As part of the lease, the building was renamed for the company; the tower was designed in the Neoclassical architectural style by Daniel Burnham. The steel-framed structure is faced with white glazed terra cotta trim; the most distinctive feature is the central light court which begins on the third floor and creates a U-shaped floor plan on the upper office floors. This feature can be seen in an earlier version on Burnham's Miner's National Bank Building, now Citizens Bank financial Center, completed one year earlier in downtown Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Miner's National Bank is a similar, but smaller-scale design with the main banking hall in the space below the light court and featuring a large skylight. A expansion of the building altered the U-shape of the upper floors.
In a subsequent renovation, the lower two floors were refaced with gray granite and a pediment above the central entrance and cornice were removed. List of tallest buildings in Detroit Chrysler Headquarters and Technology Center Sergio Marchionne Media related to Dime Building at Wikimedia Commons Moore, Charles. Daniel H. Burnham, Planner of Cities, Volume 2. Houghton Mifflin. Duggan, Daniel. "Dime Building renamed Chrysler House as automaker moves workers into space in downtown Detroit." Crain's Detroit Business. April 30, 2012. Hoffman, Bryce G. "Chrysler opens Detroit office in former Dime Building." Detroit News. September 24, 2012. Gallagher, John. "Quicken Loans helps welcome Chrysler to historic new digs today." Detroit Free Press. April 30, 2012. "Marchionne, 70 employees moving to Detroit's Dime Building." The Detroit News
One Campus Martius
One Campus Martius is a building located in downtown Detroit, Michigan. It began construction in 2000 and was finished in 2003, it has 17 floors in total, 15 above-ground, 2 below-ground, has 1,088,000 square feet of office space. The high-rise was built as an office building with a restaurant, retail units, space for Compuware and a fitness center, as well as an atrium; the building now has Quicken Loans, Meridian Health, Plante Moran and Compuware as its major tenants. The building was constructed in the late-modernist architectural style, using glass and limestone as its main materials. AIA Detroit's Urban Priorities Committee rated the building's entry as one of the top ten Detroit interiors; the building sits on the Kern Block, once home to the Kern Department store. The store had existed in some form or another on this site since 1900; the last incarnation of the store was demolished in 1966, the area remained greenspace until 1999 when Campus Martius Park began to take shape. Compuware moved its headquarters and 4,000 employees to a newly constructed building on the site in 2003.
Quicken Loans agreed to a five-year lease agreement to move its headquarters and 1,700 employees to the building in 2010. Plante Moran followed suit with a lease agreement in 2013, deciding to move 75 employees to the building. Compuware's presence in the building has lessened as it has downsized during the 2010s the company now has around 800 employees in the building; the building was sold in a joint venture to Dan Gilbert's real estate group Bedrock Real Estate and Meridian Health for $142 Million in November 2014. As part of the deal Quicken Loans took an additional floor bringing its space in the building to 300,000 sq. ft. Meridian moved 700 team members into the building in spring 2015 with 1700 employees expected by the end of the year. Compuware's remaining employees will stay in the building; the headquarters facility, completed in 2002, has 1,088,000 square feet of space. The headquarters facility includes an on-site daycare, a 38,000 square feet fitness center, 55,000 square feet of retail space.
The lobby contains. This 3,000-space parking structure stands 45-meter tall with 12-stories; this parking structure includes over 20,600 square feet of retail and office space on its first floor, a 2,891-square-foot daycare center on its second level. The Compuware Garage is home to the Cadillac Center Station on the Detroit People Mover route. Sharoff, Robert. American City: Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3270-6. One Campus Campus Martius - Bedrock Real Estate Services Downtown Detroit photo gallery Compuware official website One Campus Martius at Emporis Compuware Garage at Emporis Compuware Headquarters Complex at Emporis "Compuware World Headquarters". SkyscraperPage. Google Maps location of Compuware World Headquarters Construction footage from 2002
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Grand Circus Park Historic District
The Grand Circus Park Historic District contains the 5-acre Grand Circus Park in Downtown Detroit, Michigan that connects the theatre district with its financial district. It is bisected by Woodward Avenue, four blocks north of Campus Martius Park, is bounded by Clifford, John R. and Adams Streets. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983; the building at 25 West Elizabeth Street was added to the district in 2000, additional structures located within the district, but built between 1932 and 1960, were approved for inclusion in 2012. A part of Augustus Woodward's plan to rebuild the city after the fire of 1805, the city established the park in 1850. Woodward's original plan called for the park to be a full circle, but after construction began, property owners north of Adams Street were reluctant to sell due to rising land values; the Detroit Opera House overlooks the eastern edge of the park and the grounds include statuary and large fountains. Near this historic site, General George Armstrong Custer delivered a eulogy for thousands gathered to mourn the death of President Abraham Lincoln.
Architect Henry Bacon designed the Russell Alger Memorial Fountain in Grand Circus Park. Bacon's other projects include the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C; the fountain contains a classic Roman figure symbolizing Michigan by American sculptor Daniel French who sculpted the figure of Lincoln for the Memorial. In 1957, the City of Detroit constructed a parking garage under the two halves of the park; the eastern portion houses space for 250 cars and the western portion accommodates 540. The half-moon shaped park is divided down its center by Woodward Avenue, the city's main thoroughfare; the Alger Fountain anchors the eastern half and is capped on its north western edge with a statue of mayor William Cotter Maybury. Its western half is anchored by the Edison Fountain and capped on its north eastern edge with a statue of mayor Hazen Pingree; the Maybury and Pingree monuments have been relocated several times. The Pingree statue was erected in 1904 near Woodward and Park Avenues facing south, while his rival, occupied a site in the eastern half of the park facing Pingree across Woodward Avenue.
After the 1957 garage construction, Pingree was returned to his original site while Maybury was placed at the north boundary of the park with his back to his foe. In the 1990s, both statues moved once again to their current locations. Among the notable buildings encircling the park are the David Broderick Tower and David Whitney Building on the south, Kales Building, Central United Methodist Church on the north, Comerica Park and Detroit Opera House on the East. On November 12, 2007, Quicken Loans announced its development agreement with the city to move its headquarters to downtown Detroit, consolidating about 4,000 of its suburban employees in a move considered to be a high importance to city planners to reestablish the historic downtown; the construction sites reserved for development under the agreement include the location of the former Statler on Grand Circus Park and the former Hudson's location.. Grand Circus is serviced by a People Mover station; the Detroit Opera House is located at Grand Circus.
The east necklace of downtown links the stadium area to Greektown along Broadway. The east necklace contains a sub-district sometimes called the Harmonie Park District, which has taken on the renowned legacy of Detroit's music from 1930s through the 1950s to the present. Near the Opera House, emanating from Grand Circus along the east necklace are other venues including the Music Hall Center for the Performing Arts and the Gem Theatre and Century Club; the historic Harmonie Club and Harmonie Centre are located along Broadway. The Harmonie Park area ends near Randolph; the Detroit Athletic Club stands in view of center field at Comerica Park. Part of the east necklace, the area contains architecturally notable buildings planned for renovation as high-rise residential condominiums such as the Gothic Revival Metropolitan Building at 33 John R Street; the Hilton Garden Inn is in the Harmonie Park area. The east necklace area is serviced by the People Mover at the Broadway Stations. Campus Martius Park Detroit International Riverfront Grand Circus Park People Mover station Theatre in Detroit Sobocinski, Melanie Grunow.
Detroit and Rome: building on the past. Regents of the University of Michigan. ISBN 0-933691-09-2. Motor City District Regains Its Luster - slideshow by The New York Times
Monroe Avenue Commercial Buildings
The Monroe Avenue Commercial Buildings known as the Monroe Block, is a historic district located along a block-and-a-half stretch at 16-118 Monroe Avenue in Detroit, just off Woodward Avenue at the northern end of Campus Martius. The district was designated a Michigan State Historic Site in 1974 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975; the thirteen original buildings were built between 1852 and 1911 and ranged from two to five stories in height. The National Theatre, built in 1911, is the oldest surviving theatre in Detroit, a part of the city's original theatre district of the late 19th century, the sole surviving structure from the original Monroe Avenue Commercial Buildings historic period; the early buildings on the block were constructed in Victorian commercial style, designed by architects such as Sheldon and Mortimer Smith during the mid-to-late 19th century. The Johnson block, in particular, constituted what was at the time one of the last remaining blocks of pre-Civil War buildings in Detroit.
In the nearby Randolph Street Commercial Buildings Historic District, the building at 1244 Randolph St. is a rare survivor from the 1840s. The Victorian styled Odd Fellows Building is located at the corner of Monroe; the Monroe buildings were occupied by numerous short-term tenants through the years, including grocers and saloons. In the early 20th century, a wave of European immigration brought jewelry shops, pawn shops, tailors to the area. At around the same time, the Campus Martius area was developing into the entertainment center of Detroit; the Detroit Opera House located on the north side of the Campus across Monroe Avenue from the buildings in this district, anchored the area, and, in 1901, the Wonderland vaudeville theatre moved next door. The early 20th century was the dawn of the movie age, in Detroit it began on Monroe Avenue; the first movie theater in Detroit, the Casino, was opened on Monroe Avenue in 1906 by John H. Kunsky, it was reputedly the second movie theatre in the world, it propelled Kunsky to a 20-theatre empire worth $7 million in 1929.
In 1906, Detroit's second movie theatre, the Bijou, opened two doors down from the Casino. These were the first of a string of theaters along this section of Monroe. In addition, the Family Theater opened in 1914 in an older building in the district. Other nearby theaters included the Temple Theater at Woodward Avenue across Monroe, the Liberty, the Palace at 130-132 Monroe. In the 1920s, the Detroit cinema hub centered around Grand Circus Park, with nearby Monroe Avenue receiving less attention; the district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. In early 1990, most of the aging structures were cleared away, leaving only the National Theater as a reminder of the history of the area; the buildings that once stood in this site were a mix of pre- and post-Civil War architecture, along with a group of movie theaters from the early 20th century. John Constantine Williams, a member of one of Detroit's wealthiest mid-19th-century families and son of John R. Williams, built this structure in 1872-73, directly adjacent to his earlier structure at 32-42 Monroe.
Architect Mortimer L. Smith designed the building; the building served as an office building, with storefronts on the ground floor. In 1880, the upper floors of the building were converted into the Kirkwood Hotel, which survived for a decade under various management; the lower floors remained commercial space. The building reverted to office space in the 1890s reopened as the Hotel Campus in 1901. In 1909, most of the building was gutted and converted into the 934-seat Family Theater; the Family stayed open through much of the century, was renamed the Follies in 1967. Six years in 1973, the Follies burned to the ground; the Follies section of the building was demolished soon thereafter, leaving only the three western-most commercial and retail spaces. In the late 1970s the city vacated the property, the remainder was demolished in early 1990; the second Williams Block was five stories tall, divided into bays containing three windows per floor. The building was constructed of brick, sheathed on the front with sandstone.
A cast iron cornice and flat roof topped the structure. Belt courses were located above and below windows, additional decoration consisted of bas relief carvings and cast iron entablatures; the first Williams block was built by John Constantine Williams in 1859, was designed by architect Sheldon Smith. The building was used as an office building with commercial space on the first floor. In the late 1880s, the building was converted into a 52-room hotel, known first as the Stanwix as Gies' European hotel, with a restaurant on the first floor. In 1909, the hotel and restaurant was renamed the Berghoff the Tuxedo, and, in 1919, the Frontenac; the Hotel Berghoff was owned by Wm. D. C. Moebs & Co. who were the proprietors of the adjoining Berghoff Cafe. In December 1913 Wm. D. C. Moebs opened the Cafe Frontenac next to the Hotel Berghoff. In 1918 the name of the hotel was Grill still under the same owners; the name change was short lived because in 1919 the businesses were called the
David Stott Building
The David Stott Building is a class-A office building located at 1150 Griswold Street in Downtown Detroit, within the Capitol Park Historic District. It was designed in the Art Deco style by the architectural firm of Donaldson and Meier and completed in 1929; the skyscraper is named after David E. Stott, an English-born businessman who owned a mill company, the David Stott Flour Mills, was on the boards of multiple other companies, including the Stott Realty Company. First conceived in 1921, the tower was built by the Stott Realty Company in honor of its founder twelve years after his death. Construction began on June 1, 1928, the tower opened on June 17, 1929; the advent of the Great Depression brought a halt to all major construction in Detroit: as a result, the David Stott Building was the last skyscraper built in the city until the mid-1950s. The tower stands 38 stories tall, with three additional floors below street level, it was designed by architect John M. Donaldson of Meier in the Art Deco style.
The building's design, characterized by a strong sense of verticality, was profoundly influenced by Eliel Saarinen's 1922 Chicago Tribune Tower design. Verticality is emphasized by the near absence of ornamentation, by a small footprint which yields a slender profile; the building rises from a reddish granite base and incorporates buff-colored brick and limestone as its surface materials. As with many of the other Detroit buildings of the era, it boasts architectural sculpture by Corrado Parducci; the building features a series of setbacks from the 23rd floor upward. The tower's tiered summit is brightly lighted with uplights on each facade and complements the lighted Westin Book Cadillac Hotel downtown; the David Stott Building neighbors 1001 Woodward to the southeast. SkyBar Detroit opened in 2011 on the 33rd floor of the David Stott Tower but closed in 2015 after the building was purchased by Dan Gilbert's Bedrock Management Services. Fisher Building Guardian Building List of tallest buildings in Detroit Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, Architectural Sculpture of America, unpublished manuscript.
Meyer, Katherine Mattingly and Martin C. P. McElroy with Introduction by W. Hawkins Ferry, Hon A. I. A.. Detroit Architecture A. I. A. Guide Revised Edition. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1651-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Sharoff, Robert. American City: Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3270-6. Savage, Rebecca Binno. Art Deco in Detroit. Arcadia. ISBN 0-7385-3228-2. "David Stott Building". SkyscraperPage. David Stott Building at Emporis