SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rangeland

Rangelands are grasslands, woodlands and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals. Types of rangelands include tallgrass and shortgrass prairies, desert grasslands and shrublands, savannas, chaparrals and tundras. Rangelands do not include forests lacking grazable understory vegetation, barren desert, farmland, or land covered by solid rock, concrete and/or glaciers. Rangelands are distinguished from pasture lands because they grow native vegetation, rather than plants established by humans. Rangelands are managed principally with practices such as managed livestock grazing and prescribed fire rather than more intensive agricultural practices of seeding and the use of fertilizers. Grazing is an important use of rangelands but the term rangeland is not synonymous with grazingland. Livestock grazing can be used to manage rangelands by harvesting forage to produce livestock, changing plant composition, or reducing fuel loads. Fire is an important regulator of range vegetation, whether set by humans or resulting from lightning.

Fires tend to reduce the abundance of woody plants and promote herbaceous plants including grasses and grass-like plants. The suppression or reduction of periodic wildfires from desert shrublands, savannas, or woodlands invites the dominance of trees and shrubs to the near exclusion of grasses and forbs; the United States Environmental Protection Agency defines rangeland as "lands on which the native vegetation is predominantly grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs suitable for grazing or browsing use." The EPA classifies natural grassland and savannas as rangeland, in some cases includes wetlands, tundra, "certain forb and shrub communities." The primary difference between rangeland and pasture is management. Prairies are considered part of the temperate grasslands and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, grasses and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Temperate grassland regions include the Pampas of Argentina, the steppes of Eurasia.

Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by other herbaceous plants. However and rush families can be found. Grasslands occur on all continents except Antarctica. In temperate latitudes, such as northwest Europe and the Great Plains and California in North America, native grasslands are dominated by perennial bunch grass species, whereas in warmer climates annual species form a greater component of the vegetation. Steppe, in physical geography, refers to a biome region characterized by grassland plain without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes; the prairie is an example of a steppe, though it is not called such. It may be semi-desert, or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude; the term is used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest, but not dry enough to be a desert. Pampas are the fertile South American lowlands that include the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, La Pampa, Santa Fe, Entre Ríos and Córdoba, most of Uruguay, the State of Rio Grande do Sul, in the southernmost end of Brazil covering more than 750,000 km2.

These vast plains are only interrupted by the low Ventana and Tandil hills near Bahía Blanca and Tandil, with a height of 1,300 m and 500 m respectively. The climate is mild, with precipitation of 600 mm to 1,200 mm, more or less evenly distributed through the year, making the soils appropriate for agriculture; this area is one of the distinct physiography provinces of the larger Paraná-Paraguay Plain division. These plains contain unique wildlife because of the different terrains around it; some of this wildlife includes the rhea, the badger, the prairie chicken. Shrubland is a plant community characterized by vegetation dominated by shrubs also including grasses and geophytes. Shrubland may either occur or be the result of human activity, it may be the mature vegetation type in a particular region and remain stable over time, or a transitional community that occurs temporarily as the result of a disturbance, such as fire. A stable state may be maintained by regular natural disturbance such as browsing.

Shrubland may be unsuitable for human habitation because of the danger of fire. The term "shrubland" was first coined in 1903. Woodland is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade. Woodlands may support an understory of herbaceous plants including grasses. Woodland may form a transition to shrubland under drier conditions or during early stages of primary or secondary succession. Higher densities and areas of trees, with closed canopy, provide extensive and nearly continuous shade are referred to as forest. Savanna is a grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees being sufficiently small or spaced so that the canopy does not close; the open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting of C4 grasses. Desert is a landscape or region that receives an low amount of precipitation, defined as areas with an average annual precipitation of less than 250 millimetres per year, or as areas where more water

Anthony Henniker-Gotley

Anthony Henniker-Gotley was a rugby union international who represented England from 1910 to 1911. He captained that country. Anthony Henniker-Gotley was born on 2 March 1887 in Warwickshire, he was the son of a vicar, the Revd George Henniker Gotley MA. Henniker-Gotley played as a scrum half for Tonbridge School. At his previous school, West Downs School, Winchester a boarding school for boys aged between eight and thirteen, he had been an avid cricketer, playing in the first XI in 1899 to 1901. After Tonbridge he went up to Oxford University and there received his Blue in 1909. At a club level he played for Blackheath FC and at a representative level played for Barbarian FC as well as county rugby for both Surrey and Kent. Henniker-Gotley made his international debut on 3 March 1910 at Parc des Princes in the France vs England match. Of the 6 matches he played, he played his final match for England on 18 March 1911 at Twickenham in the England vs Scotland match, in which game he captained England for the only time.

Henniker-Gotley was an early British and Irish Lion, representing the Combined British in the 1910 tour of Argentina, in which he featured in the only international match against the host nation. Henniker-Gotley moved to Rhodesia in 1911. During the First World War he served in East Africa, he was a political officer in Tanganyika from 1918 to 1923 and called to the Bar in 1923. He became the District Commissioner in Tanganyika in 1923, served in this capacity until 1926. From 1926 he went into business in Durban until 1933 and became Bursar and assistant master at St Columba's College, from 1934 to 1936. From 1936 he acted as a Temporary Education Officer for the Royal Air Force and served in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve as a Flight Lieutenant in Fighter Command. After the outbreak of the Second World War he was promoted to Squadron Leader in 1941. Following the war he was a civilian Substitution Officer with the RAF until 1947. Henniker-Gotley married Nora McMaster on 2 June 1923, her father was the Test cricketer Emile McMaster and her brother was the first-class cricketer Michael McMaster.

He died on 4 May 1972

Inés de la Torre

Inés Enríquez y Sandoval or Inés Enríquez Tavera de Saavedra, 1st Countess of Torre was a Spanish and French court official. She served as Première dame d'honneur to the queen of France, Anne of Austria, from 1615 until 1618. Inés de la Torre was a daughter of Juan de Saavedra el Turquillo and Francisca Enríquez de Sandoval, a cousin to the influential favorite of Philip III of Spain, Francisco Gómez de Sandoval, 1st Duke of Lerma, she was heiress of the house of Saavedra. She married Per Afán de señor de la Torre de la Reina. Inés de la Torre served as lady-in-waiting to Margaret of Austria, Queen of Spain; as a widow, she was created the first Countess de la Torre by the king. In 1615, was appointed head of the ladies-in-waiting of Anne of Austria prior to her departure from Spain to her wedding to Louis XIII of France. In an effort to retain their influence upon Anne in France, king Philip III and the Duke of Lerma appointed people they regarded a loyal to themselves to the offices of the household, to accompany her to France, as cousin to the duke of Lerma, Inés de la Torre, was given the highest position and expected to protect the interests of Spain at the French court.

She was instructed by the Spanish king to make sure that Anne retained her life rules in France, she was to give him regular reports of his daughters doings. When Anne arrived at the French royal court in Paris, a dilemma occurred, as she was given a new household composed of Frenchmen upon her arrival, but did not wish to dismiss her Spanish retinue. A compromise was met; this resulted in a situation where several offices at her court was split, the post of Première dame d'honneur was shared by Inés de la Torre and her French counterpart Laurence de Montmorency, just as the second rank office of Dame d'atour was shared between the Spanish Luisa de Osorio and her French counterpart Antoinette d'Albert de Luynes. Inés de la Torre had a powerful influence over queen Anne; the double court of queen Anne was not popular, as it caused jealousy and rivalry at court because of the queen's preference of her Spanish retinue, she was accused of isolating herself with her Spanish ladies-in-waiting and of retaining her Spanish customs, which prevented her form adjusting to France and was regarded to have contributed to the difficulty of developing a relationship to the king, Louis XIII.

This situation was not changed by the queen mother regent, who remained queen and first lady at court, preferred the self-imposed isolation of queen Anne. In 1617, the regency government of Maria de' Medici fell and its leading figures, her favorites Concino Concini and Leonora Dori, was ousted from power by help of Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes. de Luynes took upon himself to adjust the organisation of the royal household and replaced all the Spanish ladies-in-waiting of Anne with French ones: the process was completed in Winter of 1618-1619, when all that remained of Anne's Spanish retinue was her Spanish confessor and one chamber woman. It was discovered in connection to this that Inés de la Torre had used her position to embezzle huge sums of money intended for the expenses of the queen's household, it was known that she had co-operated with the Spanish ambassador to France, Hector de Pignatelli y Colonna, duke of Monteleon, giving him regular reports and in fact acting as a spy. She was returned to Spain.

The loss of Inés de la Torre caused her to be replaced as the queen's favorite by Marie de Rohan who introduced Anne to French fashion and customs and managed to effect an closer relation between the king and queen, but in time became a much controversial favorite