1.
Rankine cycle
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The Rankine cycle is a model that is used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems, though the theoretical principle also applies to reciprocating engines such as steam locomotives. The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work. The heat is supplied externally to a loop, which usually uses water as the working fluid. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine, a Scottish polymath, the Rankine cycle closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines commonly found in thermal power generation plants generate power. The heat sources used in power plants are usually nuclear fission or the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas. The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is limited by the heat of vaporization of the working fluid. This gives a theoretical maximum Carnot efficiency for the turbine alone of about 63. 8% compared with an actual overall thermal efficiency of up to 42% for a modern coal-fired power station. This low steam turbine entry temperature is why the Rankine cycle is used as a bottoming cycle to recover otherwise rejected heat in combined-cycle gas turbine power stations. The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a loop and is reused constantly. This exhaust heat is represented by the Qout flowing out of the side of the cycle shown in the T/s diagram below. Cooling towers operate as heat exchangers by absorbing the latent heat of vaporization of the working fluid. The benefit of this is offset by the low temperatures of steam admitted to the turbine, gas turbines, for instance, have turbine entry temperatures approaching 1500°C. However, the efficiency of actual large steam power stations. There are four processes in the Rankine cycle and these states are identified by numbers in the above T-s diagram. Process 1-2, The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure, as the fluid is a liquid at this stage, the pump requires little input energy. Process 2-3, The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by a heat source to become a dry saturated vapour. The input energy required can be easily calculated graphically, using a chart, or numerically. Process 3-4, The dry saturated vapour expands through a turbine and this decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapour, and some condensation may occur
2.
Celsius
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Celsius, also known as centigrade, is a metric scale and unit of measurement for temperature. As an SI derived unit, it is used by most countries in the world and it is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius, who developed a similar temperature scale. The degree Celsius can refer to a temperature on the Celsius scale as well as a unit to indicate a temperature interval. Before being renamed to honour Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, and gradus, which means steps. The scale is based on 0° for the point of water. This scale is widely taught in schools today, by international agreement the unit degree Celsius and the Celsius scale are currently defined by two different temperatures, absolute zero, and the triple point of VSMOW. This definition also precisely relates the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale, absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being precisely 0 K and −273.15 °C. The temperature of the point of water is defined as precisely 273.16 K at 611.657 pascals pressure. This definition fixes the magnitude of both the degree Celsius and the kelvin as precisely 1 part in 273.16 of the difference between absolute zero and the point of water. Thus, it sets the magnitude of one degree Celsius and that of one kelvin as exactly the same, additionally, it establishes the difference between the two scales null points as being precisely 273.15 degrees. In his paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer, he recounted his experiments showing that the point of ice is essentially unaffected by pressure. He also determined with precision how the boiling point of water varied as a function of atmospheric pressure. He proposed that the point of his temperature scale, being the boiling point. This pressure is known as one standard atmosphere, the BIPMs 10th General Conference on Weights and Measures later defined one standard atmosphere to equal precisely 1013250dynes per square centimetre. On 19 May 1743 he published the design of a mercury thermometer, in 1744, coincident with the death of Anders Celsius, the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus reversed Celsiuss scale. In it, Linnaeus recounted the temperatures inside the orangery at the University of Uppsala Botanical Garden, since the 19th century, the scientific and thermometry communities worldwide referred to this scale as the centigrade scale. Temperatures on the scale were often reported simply as degrees or. More properly, what was defined as centigrade then would now be hectograde.2 gradians, for scientific use, Celsius is the term usually used, with centigrade otherwise continuing to be in common but decreasing use, especially in informal contexts in English-speaking countries
3.
Fahrenheit
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Fahrenheit is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by the physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, after whom the scale is named. It uses the degree Fahrenheit as the unit, several accounts of how he originally defined his scale exist. The lower defining point,0 °F, was established as the temperature of a solution of brine made from parts of ice. Further limits were established as the point of ice and his best estimate of the average human body temperature. All other countries in the world now use the Celsius scale, defined since 1954 by absolute zero being −273.15 °C, on the Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point of water is 32 degrees Fahrenheit and the boiling point is 212 °F. This puts the boiling and freezing points of water exactly 180 degrees apart, therefore, a degree on the Fahrenheit scale is 1⁄180 of the interval between the freezing point and the boiling point. On the Celsius scale, the freezing and boiling points of water are 100 degrees apart, a temperature interval of 1 °F is equal to an interval of 5⁄9 degrees Celsius. The Fahrenheit and Celsius scales intersect at −40°, absolute zero is −273.15 °C or −459.67 °F. For an exact conversion, the formulas can be applied. Again, f is the value in Fahrenheit and c the value in Celsius, f °Fahrenheit to c °Celsius, C °Celsius to f °Fahrenheit, −40 = f. Fahrenheit proposed his temperature scale in 1724, basing it on two points of temperature. In his initial scale, the point is determined by placing the thermometer in a mixture of ice, water. This is a mixture which stabilizes its temperature automatically, that stable temperature was defined as 0 °F. The second point,96 degrees, was approximately the human bodys temperature, in any case, the definition of the Fahrenheit scale has changed since. According to a letter Fahrenheit wrote to his friend Herman Boerhaave, his scale was built on the work of Ole Rømer, whom he had met earlier. In Rømers scale, brine freezes at zero, water freezes and melts at 7.5 degrees, body temperature is 22.5, Fahrenheit multiplied each value by four in order to eliminate fractions and increase the granularity of the scale. Fahrenheit observed that water boils at about 212 degrees using this scale, under this system, the Fahrenheit scale is redefined slightly so that the freezing point of water is exactly 32 °F, and the boiling point is exactly 212 °F or 180 degrees higher. It is for this reason that human body temperature is approximately 98° on the revised scale
4.
Kelvin
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The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale. It is one of the seven units in the International System of Units and is assigned the unit symbol K. The kelvin is defined as the fraction 1⁄273.16 of the temperature of the triple point of water. In other words, it is defined such that the point of water is exactly 273.16 K. The Kelvin scale is named after the Belfast-born, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Lord Kelvin, unlike the degree Fahrenheit and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred to or typeset as a degree. The kelvin is the unit of temperature measurement in the physical sciences, but is often used in conjunction with the Celsius degree. The definition implies that absolute zero is equivalent to −273.15 °C, Kelvin calculated that absolute zero was equivalent to −273 °C on the air thermometers of the time. This absolute scale is known today as the Kelvin thermodynamic temperature scale, when spelled out or spoken, the unit is pluralised using the same grammatical rules as for other SI units such as the volt or ohm. When reference is made to the Kelvin scale, the word kelvin—which is normally a noun—functions adjectivally to modify the noun scale and is capitalized, as with most other SI unit symbols there is a space between the numeric value and the kelvin symbol. Before the 13th CGPM in 1967–1968, the unit kelvin was called a degree and it was distinguished from the other scales with either the adjective suffix Kelvin or with absolute and its symbol was °K. The latter term, which was the official name from 1948 until 1954, was ambiguous since it could also be interpreted as referring to the Rankine scale. Before the 13th CGPM, the form was degrees absolute. The 13th CGPM changed the name to simply kelvin. Its measured value was 7002273160280000000♠0.01028 °C with an uncertainty of 60 µK, the use of SI prefixed forms of the degree Celsius to express a temperature interval has not been widely adopted. In 2005 the CIPM embarked on a program to redefine the kelvin using a more experimentally rigorous methodology, the current definition as of 2016 is unsatisfactory for temperatures below 20 K and above 7003130000000000000♠1300 K. In particular, the committee proposed redefining the kelvin such that Boltzmanns constant takes the exact value 6977138065049999999♠1. 3806505×10−23 J/K, from a scientific point of view, this will link temperature to the rest of SI and result in a stable definition that is independent of any particular substance. From a practical point of view, the redefinition will pass unnoticed, the kelvin is often used in the measure of the colour temperature of light sources. Colour temperature is based upon the principle that a black body radiator emits light whose colour depends on the temperature of the radiator, black bodies with temperatures below about 7003400000000000000♠4000 K appear reddish, whereas those above about 7003750000000000000♠7500 K appear bluish
5.
Thermodynamic temperature
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Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic temperature is defined by the law of thermodynamics in which the theoretically lowest temperature is the null or zero point. At this point, absolute zero, the constituents of matter have minimal motion. In the quantum-mechanical description, matter at absolute zero is in its ground state, the International System of Units specifies a particular scale for thermodynamic temperature. It uses the Kelvin scale for measurement and selects the point of water at 273.16 K as the fundamental fixing point. Other scales have been in use historically, the Rankine scale, using the degree Fahrenheit as its unit interval, is still in use as part of the English Engineering Units in the United States in some engineering fields. ITS-90 gives a means of estimating the thermodynamic temperature to a very high degree of accuracy. Internal energy is called the heat energy or thermal energy in conditions when no work is done upon the substance by its surroundings. Internal energy may be stored in a number of ways within a substance, each way constituting a degree of freedom. At equilibrium, each degree of freedom will have on average the energy, k B T /2 where k B is the Boltzmann constant. Temperature is a measure of the random submicroscopic motions and vibrations of the constituents of matter. These motions comprise the internal energy of a substance, more specifically, the thermodynamic temperature of any bulk quantity of matter is the measure of the average kinetic energy per classical degree of freedom of its constituent particles. Translational motions are almost always in the classical regime, translational motions are ordinary, whole-body movements in three-dimensional space in which particles move about and exchange energy in collisions. Figure 1 below shows translational motion in gases, Figure 4 below shows translational motion in solids, Zero kinetic energy remains in a substance at absolute zero. Throughout the scientific world where measurements are made in SI units, many engineering fields in the U. S. however, measure thermodynamic temperature using the Rankine scale. By international agreement, the kelvin and its scale are defined by two points, absolute zero, and the triple point of Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. Absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature, is defined as being precisely 0 K, the triple point of water is defined as being precisely 273.16 K and 0.01 °C. This definition does three things, It fixes the magnitude of the unit as being precisely 1 part in 273.15 kelvins