The Rankine scale is an absolute scale of thermodynamic temperature named after the Glasgow University engineer and physicist William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859. It may be used in engineering systems; the symbol for degrees Rankine is °R. By analogy with Kelvin, some authors term the unit Rankine. Zero on both the Kelvin and Rankine scales is absolute zero, but a temperature difference of one Rankine degree is defined as equal to one Fahrenheit degree, rather than the Celsius degree used on the Kelvin scale. Thus, a temperature of 0 K is equal to 0 °R, a temperature of −458.67 °F equal to 1 °R. Some important temperatures relating the Rankine scale to other temperature scales are shown in the table below. Comparison of temperature scales Balmer, Robert. Modern Engineering Thermodynamics. Oxford: Elsevier Inc. ISBN 978-0-12-374996-3. Magnum, B. W.. "Reproducibility of the Temperature of the Ice Point in Routine Measurements". Nist Technical Note. 1411. Archived from the original on 2007-03-07.
Retrieved 2007-02-11. Pauken, Michael. Thermodynamics For Dummies. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing Inc. ISBN 978-1-118-00291-9. Thompson, Ambler. "Guide for the use of the International System of Units". Doi:10.6028/nist.sp.811e2008. Retrieved 2019-11-07
Moses Wells Sawyer was an American painter and photographer. He made paintings of discoveries from the Pepper-Hearst Expedition; the Florida Museum of Natural History has a few of his photographs. He has works at the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution and the University Museum at University of Pennsylvania; the Library of Florida History and Smithsonian have collections of his papers. Sawyer was born in Iowa to Moses Calvin Sawyer and Helen Jane Cass Sawyer, he received a law degree in 1882, but pursued a career in art after studying with John Vanderpoel at the Art Institute of Chicago. He was an illustrator for the Chicago Daily News and the Chicago Tribune before becoming a draughtsman for the U. S. Geological Survey office in Washington D. C. for the division of illustration. Sawyer's photographs and watercolors from Pepper's expedition are all that remain of many of the finds that deteriorated soon after discovery. Sawyer married Kathleen Bailey after his return from the Florida expedition and they had two children and Bailey.
Sawyer lived in New York until retiring to Spain in ill health and continuing to paint in Europe as well as Central and South America. He relocated again to Sarasota, Florida in 1944, his memberships included the Art Students League, Salmagundi Club, American Watercolor Society. By 1931 he was painting castles, his daughter Helen Alton Sawyer and her husband Jerry Farnsworth were artists. The University of Florida library has several photos of him including one of him painting a landscape on Cape Cod, another outside with his wife Kathleen Alton Bailey Sawyer, one among prominent friends. In 2019 a historical society reenactor read his letter from aboard the Sea Breeze on the 1895-96 expedition. Gulf Coast University offered a 2-hour seminar on Sawyer in fall 2019
Rev. Henry Richard, "the Apostle of Peace", was a Congregational minister and Welsh Member of Parliament, 1868–1888. Richard is best known as an advocate of peace and international arbitration, as secretary of the Peace Society for forty years, his other interests included anti-slavery work. Born in 1812 in Tregaron, Ceredigion, he was the second son of the Rev. Ebenezer Richard, a Calvinistic Methodist minister, he was educated at Llangeitho grammar school, attended Highbury College, near London, to obtain qualifications for the ministry. In 1835, after ordination Richard was appointed pastor at the Congregational Marlborough Chapel, in the Old Kent Road, London, its foundation stone had been laid by Thomas Wilson in 1826. Richard succeeded the Rev. Thomas Hughes, raised sufficient funds to pay off the chapel's building loans and establish a school. Rev. Henry Richard resigned in 1850 to devote himself full-time as secretary to the Peace Society, a post he had undertaken two years earlier on a part-time basis.
He helped organize a series of congresses in the capitals of Europe, was instrumental in securing the insertion of a declaration in favour of arbitration in the treaty of Paris in 1856. Through this work he became universally known in Europe and the United States until his resignation in 1885. During the early 1860s, Henry Richard became a leading figure in the Liberation Society, whose main aim was the disestablishment of the Anglican Church; the Society focused its attentions on Richard's native Wales and sought to contest parliamentary elections. While Richard's published writings were critical of the landed gentry's influence over political life in Wales, he did recognize that the deferential attitudes of those who held the vote at parliamentary elections would be a barrier to any potential political breakthrough. Indeed, in Cardiganshire, levels of support for the Liberation Society were low; the lack of a political aspect to the county's nonconformity was illustrated at the 1865 general election when Richard emerged as a potential Liberal candidate for Cardiganshire.
The sitting member for Cardiganshire, Colonel Powell of Nanteos, had indicated some twelve months prior to the election that he would retire and Sir Thomas Lloyd of Bronwydd had been selected as the Liberal candidate. However, when Powell reversed his decision, Lloyd issued an address stating that he would not oppose the sitting member; as a result, both Richard and David Davies, Llandinam offered themselves as candidates. On his arrival in Cardiganshire, Richard visited Gogerddan to seek the views of the Pryse family and, as a result announced his candidature; the influence of Gogerddan was strong in Aberystwyth and throughout the north of the county, particularly hostile to David Davies. Their support for Richard was influenced by their hostility towards Davies. A selection meeting was arranged to be held at Aberaeron, but shortly before this took place, Powell again announced his retirement. Richard's agents visited Bronwydd to ascertain Lloyd's intentions and, on understanding that Lloyd would now fight the seat after all, Richard withdrew in his favour.
David Davies, did not withdraw and in his speech accepting nomination was critical of Richard's decision to withdraw. Davies came within 361 votes of victory. In 1868 Henry Richard was elected Liberal member of parliament for the Merthyr boroughs in South Wales, Following his election, Richard become known as one of the foremost nonconformists in the House of Commons. Here he was a leading member of the party which advocated the removal of Nonconformist grievances and the disestablishment of the church in Wales. In 1877 Henry Richard MP was appointed chairman of the Congregational Union of Wales. Among Richard's writings may be mentioned: Defensive War The Recent Progress of International Arbitration on the subject of peace and conflict Memoirs of Joseph Sturge in memory of the abolitionist and founder of the mid-nineteenth century Anti-Slavery Society. In the field of journalism he contributed to the Evening Star. Less well known for his anti-slavery work and unable to support the American Civil War as an appropriate means to end slavery, Henry Richard was respected in this field.
Indeed, a few weeks after his death, the Anti-Slavery Society, now Anti-Slavery International, published an obituary in their journal, The Anti-slavery Reporter and Aborigine's Friend Richard died of heart disease on 20 August 1888 at the home of the Lord Lieutenant of Anglesey in Treborth, near Bangor. His body was brought to his London residence in Bolton Gardens, South Kensington, where it lay in state until his funeral on 31 August, his imposing white stone and marble tomb in the form of a shrine with its own gabled roof, replete with his carved portrait, was erected by public subscription in 1891 over his grave at the Congregationalist model non-denominational garden cemetery, Abney Park Cemetery, Stoke Newington, London. The grave lies on an eastern path not far from the southern entrance, his wife Augusta Matilda lies with him. The imposing Henry Richard Memorial statue which dominates the Square at Tregaron was designed by Albert Toft and unveiled by Sir George Osborne Morgan on 18 August 1893.
The inscription on the plinth reads: Born here in Tregaron, he was educated for the