The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections. Since Fleming's death in 1964, eight other authors have written authorised Bond novels or novelizations: Kingsley Amis, Christopher Wood, John Gardner, Raymond Benson, Sebastian Faulks, Jeffery Deaver, William Boyd and Anthony Horowitz; the latest novel is Forever and a Day by Anthony Horowitz, published in May 2018. Additionally Charlie Higson wrote a series on a young James Bond, Kate Westbrook wrote three novels based on the diaries of a recurring series character, Moneypenny; the character has been adapted for television, comic strip, video games and film. The films are the longest continually running film series of all time and have grossed over $7.040 billion in total, making it the fourth-highest-grossing film series to date, which started in 1962 with Dr. No, starring Sean Connery as Bond; as of 2019, there have been twenty-four films in the Eon Productions series.
The most recent Bond film, stars Daniel Craig in his fourth portrayal of Bond. There have been two independent productions of Bond films: Casino Royale and Never Say Never Again. In 2015 the series was estimated to be worth $19.9 billion, making James Bond one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time. The Bond films are renowned for a number of features, including the musical accompaniment, with the theme songs having received Academy Award nominations on several occasions, two wins. Other important elements which run through most of the films include Bond's cars, his guns, the gadgets with which he is supplied by Q Branch; the films are noted for Bond's relationships with various women, who are sometimes referred to as "Bond girls". Ian Fleming created the fictional character of James Bond as the central figure for his works. Bond is an intelligence officer in the Secret Intelligence Service known as MI6. Bond is known by his code number, 007, was a Royal Naval Reserve Commander. Fleming based his fictional creation on a number of individuals he came across during his time in the Naval Intelligence Division during the Second World War, admitting that Bond "was a compound of all the secret agents and commando types I met during the war".
Among those types were his brother, involved in behind-the-lines operations in Norway and Greece during the war. Aside from Fleming's brother, a number of others provided some aspects of Bond's make up, including Conrad O'Brien-ffrench, Patrick Dalzel-Job and Bill "Biffy" Dunderdale; the name James Bond came from that of the American ornithologist James Bond, a Caribbean bird expert and author of the definitive field guide Birds of the West Indies. Fleming, a keen birdwatcher himself, had a copy of Bond's guide and he explained to the ornithologist's wife that "It struck me that this brief, Anglo-Saxon and yet masculine name was just what I needed, so a second James Bond was born", he further explained that: When I wrote the first one in 1953, I wanted Bond to be an dull, uninteresting man to whom things happened. On another occasion, Fleming said: "I wanted the simplest, plainest-sounding name I could find,'James Bond' was much better than something more interesting, like'Peregrine Carruthers'.
Exotic things would happen to and around him, but he would be a neutral figure—an anonymous, blunt instrument wielded by a government department." Fleming decided that Bond should resemble both American singer Hoagy Carmichael and himself and in Casino Royale, Vesper Lynd remarks, "Bond reminds me rather of Hoagy Carmichael, but there is something cold and ruthless." In Moonraker, Special Branch Officer Gala Brand thinks that Bond is "certainly good-looking... Rather like Hoagy Carmichael in a way; that black hair falling down over the right eyebrow. Much the same bones, but there was something a bit cruel in the mouth, the eyes were cold."Fleming endowed Bond with many of his own traits, including sharing the same golf handicap, the taste for scrambled eggs and using the same brand of toiletries. Bond's tastes are often taken from Fleming's own as was his behaviour, with Bond's love of golf and gambling mirroring Fleming's own. Fleming used his experiences of his espionage career and all other aspects of his life as inspiration when writing, including using names of school friends, acquaintances and lovers throughout his books.
It was not until the penultimate novel, You Only Live Twice, that Fleming gave Bond a sense of family background. The book was the first to be written after the release of Dr. No in cinemas and Sean Connery's depiction of Bond affected Fleming's interpretation of the character, to give Bond both a sense of humour and Scottish antecedents that were not present in the previous stories. In a fictional obituary, purportedly published in The Times, Bond's parents were given as Andrew Bond, from the village of Glencoe and Monique Delacroix, from the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. Fleming did not provide Bond's date of birth, but John Pearson's fictional biography of Bond, James Bond: The Authorized Biography of 007, gives Bond a birth date on 11 November 1920, while a study by John Griswold puts the date at 11 November 1921. Whilst serving in the Naval Intelligence Division, Fleming had planned to become an author and had told a friend, "I am going to write the spy story to end all spy stories." On 17 February 1952, he began wri
John Logan (writer)
John David Logan is an American playwright, film producer, television producer. He is a three-time Academy Award nominee. Logan was born in San Diego on September 24, 1961, his parents emigrated to the United States from Northern Ireland via Canada. The youngest of three children, he has sister. Logan grew up in California and New Jersey, before moving to Chicago to attend Northwestern University, where he graduated in 1983. Logan was a successful playwright in Chicago for many years before turning to screenwriting, his first play, Never the Sinner, tells the story of Loeb case. Subsequent plays include Hauptmann, about the Lindbergh baby kidnapping, Riverview, a musical melodrama set at Chicago's famed amusement park, his play Red, about artist Mark Rothko, was produced by the Donmar Warehouse, London, in December 2009, on Broadway in 2010, where it received six Tony Awards, the most of any play, including best play, best direction of a play for Michael Grandage and best featured actor in a play for Eddie Redmayne.
Redmayne and Alfred Molina had originated their roles in London and performed on Broadway, for a limited run ending in late June. Logan wrote Any Given Sunday and the television film RKO 281, before gaining an Academy Award nomination for co-writing the Best Picture winner Gladiator in 2000, he received another nomination for writing The Aviator, starring Leonardo DiCaprio and directed by Martin Scorsese. Other notable films written by Logan include Star Trek: Nemesis, The Time Machine, The Last Samurai, the Tim Burton musical Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, for which he received a Golden Globe Award. Logan's feature films include Rango, an animated feature starring Johnny Depp and directed by Gore Verbinski, he wrote Spectre. Two plays by Logan premiered in 2013, he created the 2014 television series Penny Dreadful starring Josh Hartnett, Eva Green and Timothy Dalton, for which he served as sole writer until it concluded with its third season. In November 2015, Logan was reported to have rewritten the script for Alien: Covenant.
During the audio commentary of Alien: Covenant, Scott mentions that Logan has started writing Alien: Covenant 2. In November 2018, it was announced that Showtime would produce a follow-up to the 2014 television series Penny Dreadful entitled Penny Dreadful: City of Angels, which takes place in Los Angeles in 1938. Logan will again be creator, executive producer, sole writer for the show, set to premiere in 2020. Superhero, a new musical by Logan and Tom Kitt, will have its world premiere production Off-Broadway at Second Stage Theatre, with an official opening night on February 28 2019. Never the Sinner Hauptmann Riverview Red Peter and Alice I'll Eat You Last: A Chat with Sue Mengers The Last Ship Moulin Rouge! Superhero Nominated, 2011 – Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, for Hugo Winner, 2010 – Tony Award Best Play, for Red. Winner 2008 – Golden Globe Award Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, for Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street Winner, 1999 – Writers Guild of America Best TV Adapted Writing, for RKO 281 Nominated, 2004 – Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, for The Aviator.
Nominated, 2004 – BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay, for The Aviator Nominated, 2004 – Writers Guild of America Best Original Screenplay, for The Aviator Nominated, 2000 – Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, for Gladiator. Nominated, 2000 – BAFTA Award for Best Original Screenplay, for Gladiator Nominated, 1999 – Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Writing for a Mini-Series or Movie, for RKO 281 John Logan on IMDb 2008 Interview with John Logan via the Internet Archive
M (James Bond)
M is a fictional character in Ian Fleming's James Bond book and film series. Fleming based the character on a number of people he knew who commanded sections of British intelligence. M has appeared in the novels by Fleming and seven continuation authors, as well as appearing in twenty-four films. In the Eon Productions series of films, M has been portrayed by four actors: Bernard Lee, Robert Brown, Judi Dench and Ralph Fiennes, the incumbent. Fleming based much of M's character on Rear Admiral John Godfrey, Fleming's superior at the Naval Intelligence Division during the Second World War. After Fleming's death, Godfrey complained "He turned me into that unsavoury character, M."Other possible inspirations include Lieutenant Colonel Sir Claude Dansey, the deputy head of MI6 and head of the wartime Z network, who achieved different interpretations of his character from those who knew him: Malcolm Muggeridge thought him "the only professional in MI6", while Hugh Trevor-Roper considered Dansey to be "an utter shit, incompetent, but with a certain low cunning".
A further inspiration for M was Maxwell Knight, the head of MI5, who signed his memos as "M" and whom Fleming knew well. The tradition of the head of MI6 signing their name with a single letter came from Mansfield Smith-Cumming, who would sign his initial "C" with green ink. Another possibility for the model of M was William Melville, an Irishman who became the head of the Secret Service Bureau, the forerunner of both MI5 and MI6: Melville was referred to within government circles as M. Melville recruited Sidney Reilly into government service and foiled an assassination plot against Queen Victoria on her 1887 Golden Jubilee. Fleming's biographer John Pearson hypothesised that Fleming's characterisation of M reflects memories of his mother: Fleming's third Bond novel, establishes M's initials as "M**** M*******" and his first name is subsequently revealed to be Miles. In the final novel of the series, The Man with the Golden Gun, M's full identity is revealed as Vice Admiral Sir Miles Messervy KCMG.
A naval theme runs throughout Fleming's description of M and his surroundings, his character was described by journalist and Bond scholar Ben Macintyre as "every inch the naval martinet". Macintyre notes that in his study of Fleming's work, Kingsley Amis outlined the way Fleming had described M's voice, being: angry. Over the course of twelve novels and two collections of short stories, Fleming provided a number of details relating to M's background and character. In On Her Majesty's Secret Service it is revealed that M's pay as head of the Secret Service is £6,500 a year, £1,500 of which comes from retired naval pay. Although his pay is good for the 1950s and 1960s, it is never explained how M received or can afford his membership at Blades, an upscale private club for gentlemen he frequents in London to gamble and dine. Blades has a restricted membership of only 200 gentlemen and all must be able to show £100,000 in cash or gilt-edged securities. Kingsley Amis noted in his study, The James Bond Dossier, that on M's salary his membership of the club would have been puzzling.
As a personal favour to M, the staff at Blades keeps a supply of cheap red wine from Algeria on hand but does not include it on the wine list. M refers to it as "Infuriator" and tends only to drink it in moderate quantities unless he is in a bad mood; the academic Paul Stock argues that M's office is a metonym for England and a stable point from which Bond departs on a mission, whilst he sees M as being an iconic representative of England and Englishness. In the first post-Fleming book, Colonel Sun, M is kidnapped from Quarterdeck, his home, Bond goes to great lengths to rescue him; the continuation books, written by John Gardner, retain Sir Miles Messervy as M, who protects Bond from the new, less aggressive climate in the Secret Service, saying that at some point Britain will need "a blunt instrument". In Gardner's final novel, COLD, M is kidnapped and rescued by Bond and finishes the book by retiring from MI6. Continuation Bond author Raymond Benson's 1998 novel The Facts of Death continued Messervy's retirement, where he still resides in Quarterdeck.
The book introduces a new M, Barbara Mawdsley. M was played by Bernard Lee from Dr. No, until Moonraker. In Dr. No, M refers to his record of reducing the number of operative casualties since taking the job, implying someone else held the job before him; the film saw M refer to himself as head of MI7. Earlier in the film, the department had been referred to as MI6 by a radio operator. A number of Bond scholars have noted that Lee's interpretation of the character was in line with the original literary representation. Smith and Lavington, remarked that Lee was "the incarnation of Fleming's crusty admiral."Lee died of cancer in January 1981, four months into the filming of For Your Eyes Only and before any of his scenes could be filmed. Out of respect, no new actor was hired to assume the role and, the script was re-written so that the character is said to be on leave, with his lines gi
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Sévérine is a fictional character who appears in the 23rd James Bond film Skyfall. Played by Bérénice Marlohe, Sévérine is a former sex slave who works as an accomplice of Raoul Silva, she is captured and killed by Silva. Marlohe had secured the role after two auditions for director Sam Mendes and casting director Debbie McWilliams, she looked to Xenia Onatopp as a point of inspiration for her performance. Distancing herself from the Bond girl title, she interpreted the character as more modern and realistic. Costume designer Jany Temime designed Sévérine's wardrobe using concepts from film noir as well as contemporary fashion, with close attention paid to the black dress she wears when meeting Bond in a Macau casino. Following Sévérine's first appearances in promotional materials for Skyfall, film critics noted that the character was a return to the classic elements of the James Bond films Bond meeting a beautiful and mysterious woman. Critics had a mixed response to Sévérine when compared to previous Bond girls.
Reception to Bond's treatment of Sévérine was negative. However, some critics defended Sévérine's story arc as appropriate for Bond's character development; the character has been a topic of racial criticism. Sévérine first encounters James Bond while on an assignment in Shanghai, she leads an art dealer to a large window to position his assassination by the mercenary Patrice. After the dealer is killed, Bond confronts Patrice about his employer, but does not receive an answer before the assassin falls to his death. Sévérine and Bond exchange a glance, Bond takes the payment intended for Patrice, a token for a casino in Macau. Sévérine greets Bond on his arrival at the casino, they share a drink at the bar, Bond presses her for more information about her boss Raoul Silva. Identifying her wrist tattoo as the mark of the Macau sex trade, Bond deduces that she was once a sex slave and was taken in by Silva to work as his representative under the guise of being "rescued". Promising to help her escape from Silva and to kill him, Bond asks for Sévérine to arrange a meeting with her boss.
She trusts him and warns him about her guards' intentions to assassinate him by throwing him into a pit with komodo dragons. She tells Bond that if he survives, he can find her on the Chimera. Bond dispatches Sévérine's sneaks aboard her boat. After he joins her in the shower, the two have sex. While approaching Silva's base on Dead Island, a frightened Sévérine tells Bond that it is not too late to retreat. However, they are taken prisoner by the guards and escorted through an abandoned city on the island. Sévérine is separated from Bond, Silva's men beat her as punishment for her betrayal. After Bond is interrogated by Silva, he is taken to a courtyard, where Sévérine is bound to a statue. Silva places a shot glass of Scotch whisky on her head, challenges Bond to shoot it with an antique percussion cap pistol. Bond intentionally misses Sévérine. Silva shoots her in the head, killing her. Sévérine is portrayed by French actress Bérénice Marlohe. After hearing about a casting call for Skyfall in Paris, Marlohe contacted the movie's director Sam Mendes through Facebook, emailed her acting reel to the casting director Debbie McWilliams.
Six months prior to her Bond audition, Marlohe stated that she had a dream about acting alongside Javier Bardem, interpreted it as a positive sign that she would get the part. She auditioned twice for the role, first for McWilliams and for Mendes. Marlohe was one of several French actresses to play a Bond girl. Following the film's release, Marlohe identified the role as a transition in her career as it led to further acting opportunities, her decision to hire a Hollywood talent agent. A fan of James Bond films, Marlohe said that "you can feel a lot of freedom in creation because it is a world between reality and imagination", she was more intrigued by the Bond villains Grace Jones' performance as May Day in the 1985 film A View to a Kill. Marlohe cited Xenia Onatopp in the 1995 film GoldenEye as her favorite Bond girl, said she was inspired by Famke Janssen for her approach to Sévérine; when asked about her preference for antagonists, Marlohe responded that she preferred parts that have "elements of whimsy and madness to them".
Outside of the James Bond series, she portrayed the character's mental instability from Heath Ledger's performance as the Joker in the 2008 film The Dark Knight. Marlohe based her performance as Sévérine around the mythological chimera, choosing to emphasize a sense of "dangerousness spreading through "; when asked to define the traits of a Bond girl, she described the role as "a powerful woman with a kind of male charisma and male power" and a "bit of animality". During promotional interviews, Marlohe advocated for the removal of the title of Bond girl, explaining that she aimed to imagine the character as more modern and realistic. While creating Sévérine's wardrobe, costume designer Jany Temime aimed to maintain a sense of mystery around the character, she combined film noir designs with contemporary fashion, such as selecting a shift dress from one of L'Wren Scott's 2012 collections for its 1940s silhouette. The designer identified Sévérine through her sexuality, wanted to showcase the character as "sexy and exceptional and dark" by having her appear as naked as possi
To go "undercover" is to avoid detection by the entity one is observing, to disguise one's own identity or use an assumed identity for the purposes of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn or confirm confidential information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order to gather information or evidence. Traditionally, it is a technique employed by law enforcement agencies or private investigators, a person who works in such a role is referred to as an undercover agent. Undercover work has been used in a variety of ways throughout the course of history, but the first organized, but informal, undercover program was first employed in France by Eugène François Vidocq in the early 19th century, from the late First Empire through most of the Bourbon Restoration. At the end of 1811, Vidocq set up an informal plainclothes unit, the Brigade de la Sûreté, converted to a security police unit under the Prefecture of Police; the Sûreté had eight twelve, and, in 1823, twenty employees.
One year it expanded again, to 28 secret agents. In addition, there were eight people who worked secretly for the Sûreté, but instead of a salary, they received licences for gambling halls. A major portion of Vidocq's subordinates were ex-criminals like himself. Vidocq trained his agents, for example, in selecting the correct disguise based on the kind of job, he himself still went out hunting for criminals too. His memoirs are full of stories about how he outsmarted crooks by pretending to be a beggar or an old cuckold. At one point, he simulated his own death. In England, the first modern police force was established in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel as the Metropolitan Police of London. From the start, the force employed plainclothes undercover detectives, but there was much public anxiety that these powers were being used for the purpose of political repression. In part due to these concerns, the 1845 official Police Orders required all undercover operations to be authorized by the superintendent.
It was only in 1869 that Police commissioner Edmund Henderson established a formal plainclothes detective division. The first Special Branch of police was the Special Irish Branch, formed as a section of the Criminal Investigation Department of the MPS in London in 1883 to combat the bombing campaign that the Irish Republican Brotherhood had begun a few years earlier; this pioneering branch was the first to be trained in counter terrorism techniques. Its name was changed to Special Branch as it had its remit expanded to incorporate a general role in counter terrorism, combating foreign subversion and infiltrating organized crime. Law enforcement agencies elsewhere established similar Branches. In the United States, a similar route was taken with the establishment of the Italian Squad in 1906 by the New York City Police Department under police commissioner William McAdoo to combat rampant crime and intimidation in the poor Italian neighborhoods. Various federal agencies began their own undercover programs shortly afterwards – the Federal Bureau of Investigation was founded in 1908.
There are two principal problems. The first is the maintenance of identity and the second is the reintegration back into normal duty. Living a double life in a new environment presents many problems. Undercover work is one of the most stressful jobs; the largest cause of stress identified is the separation of an agent from friends and his normal environment. This simple isolation can lead to anxiety. There is no data on the divorce rates of agents; this can be a result of a need for secrecy and an inability to share work problems, the unpredictable work schedule and lifestyle changes and the length of separation can all result in problems for relationships. Stress can result from an apparent lack of direction of the investigation or not knowing when it will end; the amount of elaborate planning and expenditure can pressure an agent to succeed, which can cause considerable stress. The stress that an undercover agent faces is different from his counterparts on regular duties, whose main source of stress is the administration and the bureaucracy.
As the undercover agents are removed from the bureaucracy, it may result in another problem. The lack of the usual controls of a uniform, constant supervision, a fixed place of work, or a set assignment could, combined with their continual contact with the organized crime, increase the likelihood for corruption; this stress may be instrumental in the development of alcohol abuse in some agents. They are more prone to the development of an addiction as they suffer greater stress than other police, they are isolated, drugs are very accessible. Police, in general, have high alcoholism rates compared to most occupational groups, stress is cited as a factor; the environment that agents work in involves a liberal exposure to the consumption of alcohol, which in conjunction with the stress and isolation could result in alcoholism. There can be some guilt associated with going undercover due to betraying those who have come to trust the officer; this can cause anxiety or in rare cases, sympathy with those being targeted.
This is true with the infiltration of political groups, as the agent will share similar characteristics with those they are infiltrating like class, ethnicity or religion. This could result in the conversion of some agents; the lifestyle led by undercover agents is different compared to other areas in law enforcement, it can be quit
Le Chiffre is a fictional character appearing in Ian Fleming's 1953 first James Bond novel, Casino Royale. On screen Le Chiffre has been portrayed by Peter Lorre in the 1954 television adaptation of the novel for CBS's Climax! television series, by Orson Welles in the 1967 spoof of the novel and Bond film series, by Mads Mikkelsen in the 2006 film version of Fleming's novel. Fleming based the character on occultist Aleister Crowley. Le Chiffre, alias "Die Nummer", "Mr. Number", "Herr Ziffer" and other translations of "The Number," "The Numeral," "The Figure," "The Cipher," or "The Code" in various languages, is the paymaster of the "Syndicat des Ouvriers d'Alsace", a SMERSH-controlled trade union, he is first encountered as an inmate of the Dachau displaced persons camp in the US zone of Germany in June 1945 and transferred to Alsace-Lorraine and Strasbourg three months on a stateless passport. There he adopts the name Le Chiffre because as he claims, he is "only a number on a passport". Not much else is known about Le Chiffre's background or where he comes from, except for educated guesses based on his description: Height 5 ft. 8 in.
Weight 18 stone. Complexion pale. Clean-shaven. Hair red- brown,'en brosse.' Eyes dark brown with whites showing all round iris. Small, rather feminine mouth. False teeth of expensive quality. Ears small, with large lobes, indicating some Jewish blood. Hands small, well-tended, hirsute. Feet small. Racially, subject is a mixture of Mediterranean with Prussian or Polish strains. Dresses well and meticulously in dark double-breasted suits. Smokes incessantly Caporals. At frequent intervals inhales from benzedrine inhaler. Voice soft and even. Bilingual in French and English. Good German. Traces of Marseillais accent. Smiles infrequently. Does not laugh. Habits: Mostly expensive, but discreet. Large sexual appetites. Flagellant. Expert driver of fast cars. Adept with small arms and other forms of personal combat, including knives. Carries three Eversharp razor blades, in hatband, heel of left shoe, cigarette case. Knowledge of accountancy and mathematics. Fine gambler. In the novel, he makes a major investment in a string of brothels with money belonging to SMERSH.
The investment fails. Le Chiffre goes to the casino Royale-les-Eaux in an attempt to replace his lost funds. MI6 sends Bond, an expert baccarat player, to the casino to bankrupt Le Chiffre and force him to take refuge with the British government and inform on SMERSH. Bond bests Le Chiffre in a game of Chemin de Fer. Le Chiffre kidnaps Bond's love interest, Vesper Lynd, to lure Bond into a trap and get back his money; the trap works, Le Chiffre tortures Bond to get him to give up the money. He is interrupted by a SMERSH agent, who shoots him between the eyes with a silenced TT pistol as punishment for losing the money. Le Chiffre's death is seen by the Soviet government as an embarrassment, which in addition to the death and defeat of Mr. Big in Live and Let Die, leads to the events of From Russia, with Love. Basil – bodyguard and martial arts expert who takes pleasure in roughing up Bond, he is killed by a SMERSH agent. Kratt - Le Chiffre's Corsican bodyguard who wields a walking-stick gun with which he threatens to cripple Bond at the gaming table.
He is killed by a SMERSH agent. Le Chiffre is a secondary villain in the 1967 satire and appears in one of the few segments of the film adapted from Fleming's book; as in the novel, Le Chiffre is charged with recovering a large sum of money for SMERSH after he loses it at the baccarat table. He first attempts to raise the funds by holding an auction of embarrassing photographs of military and political leaders from China, the US and the USSR, but this is foiled by Sir James Bond's daughter, Mata Bond. With no other option, he returns to the baccarat table to try to win back the money, he encounters baccarat Master Evelyn Tremble, recruited by Bond to stop Le Chiffre from raising the money. Le Chiffre attempts to distract Tremble by performing elaborate magic tricks, but fails to prevent Tremble from winning. Afterwards, he arranges for Tremble to be kidnapped and subjects the agent to psychedelic torture in order to get back the money; the torture session is interrupted when his SMERSH masters, led by the film's main villain, Dr. Noah, shoot him dead.
Le Chiffre is the main villain of the official 2006 James Bond film, Casino Royale, portrayed by Danish actor Mads Mikkelsen. Believed by MI6 to be Albanian and stateless, Le Chiffre is a private banker who finances international terrorism. M implies that Le Chiffre conspired with al-Qaeda in orchestrating 9/11, or at least deliberately profiteering from the attacks by short selling large quantities of airline stocks beforehand. In the video game version of Quantum of Solace, it is said that his birth name is "Jean Duran", in the MI6 mission briefings. A mathematical genius and a chess prodigy, his abilities enable him to earn large sums of money on games of chance and probabilities, he likes to show off by playing poker, he suffers from haemolacria. As in Fleming's novel, he dresses in immaculate black suits and uses a Salbutamol inhaler, here plated with platinum. Le Chiffre is contacted by Mr. White, a representative of an elite criminal organisation known as SPECTRE. White introduces Steven Obanno, a leader of the Lord's Resistance Army in Uganda, to Le Chiffre, arranges to bank several briefcases full of cash for Obanno.
Le Chiffre invests the money along with his other creditors' funds i