Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his early death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the largest, work of his career; the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality, he was influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models.
His career falls into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria a period of about four years absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region, where his father Giovanni Santi was court painter to the Duke; the reputation of the court had been established by Federico da Montefeltro, a successful condottiere, created Duke of Urbino by Pope Sixtus IV – Urbino formed part of the Papal States – and who died the year before Raphael was born. The emphasis of Federico's court was more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque-like court entertainments, his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the small court of Urbino he was more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Federico was succeeded by his son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, who married Elisabetta Gonzaga, daughter of the ruler of Mantua, the most brilliant of the smaller Italian courts for both music and the visual arts. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Court life in Urbino at just after this period was to become set as the model of the virtues of the Italian humanist court through Baldassare Castiglione's depiction of it in his classic work The Book of the Courtier, published in 1528. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but visited, they became good friends. Raphael became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bembo, both cardinals, were becoming well known as writers, would be in Rome during Raphael's period there.
Raphael mixed in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a full humanistic education however. Raphael's mother Màgia died in 1491 when he was eight, followed on August 1, 1494 by his father, who had remarried. Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, he continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been "a great help to his father". A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity, his father's workshop continued and together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello the court painter, Luca Signorelli, who until 1498 was based in nearby Città di Castello. According to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice "despite the tears of his mother".
The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, has been disputed. An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. Most modern historians agree that Raphael at least worked as an assistant to Perugino from around 1500. Vasari wrote that it was impossible to distinguish between their hands at this period, but many modern art historians claim to do better and detect his hand in specific areas of works by Perugino or his workshop. Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but thinly on flesh areas. An excess of resin in the varnish causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters; the Perugin
Richard Wexler is a noted child welfare advocate and executive director of the National Coalition for Child Protection Reform, an organization seeking major change in America's child protection systems, favoring family preservation, opposing excessive and inappropriate interventions, critical of inadequate or inappropriate foster care and adoptions. In Congressional testimony, Wexler has described the group as "a nonpartisan, nonprofit child advocacy organization." Though critical of liberal policies in the child-protection industry, Wexler, in Congressional testimony, identified himself as a "liberal," noting the irony of his positions, which put him at odds with liberals supporting, or working in, an interventionist child protection system. To establish his liberal credentials before endorsing a plan from the Bush administration, he testified in 2006: I am a lifelong liberal Democrat, noncountercultural‑McGovernick, lapsed‑card‑carrying member of the ACLU. My board members include a former director of Housing and Homelessness for the Child Welfare League of America and a former legal director of the Children's Defense Fund.
Addressing child welfare issues since at least the early 1990s, Wexler has testified before Congress and state legislatures, advised the United States Senate Health Subcommittee on Children and Families, submitted other testimony and evidence to Congress and state legislatures. Wexler's interest in the child welfare system originated in his 19-year work as a reporter for newspapers, public radio and public television. Wexler's writing about the child welfare system has appeared in The New York Times, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, other major newspapers, he has been interviewed by the New York Times, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Los Angeles Daily News, the Associated Press, USA Today, CBS 60 Minutes, National Public Radio, CNN, ABC's Good Morning America, NBC Today, CBS This Morning, ABC World News Tonight, the CBS Evening News, other media. Wexler is the author of the book Wounded Innocents: The Real Victims of the War Against Child Abuse.
His organization's website, others, report that Wexler is a former journalist who graduated from Richmond College of the City University of New York, the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, where he was awarded the school's highest honor, a Pulitzer Traveling Fellowship. It reports he is a former Assistant Professor of Communications of the Beaver Campus of Pennsylvania State University. National Coalition for Child Protection Reform
Maulana Muhammad Abdus Sobhan was a Bangladeshi politician. He was a member of the Central Working committee of the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami, he was a two time elected parliamentarian from Pabna-5 constituency, during the elections of 1991 and 2001 respectively. He went to trial for his relationship with war crimes committed during the War of Liberation of Bangladesh in 1971. Abdus Sobhan was born in 19 February 1936 in the village of Mominpara, Sujanagar thana, Pabna district, his father, Late Munshi Nayeem Uddin Ahmed, was an Islamic scholar. In 1965, he moved with his family to Pathortola, Pabna city, has resided there permanently, he enrolled at the Ramchandrapur Maktab. He completed his primary education in Manikhaat and Machpara Primary School. In 1941, he studied there till 1947, completing his matriculation. In 1950, he obtained his Alim certification. In 1952, he obtained his Fazil Degree from Sirajganj Alia Madrassah. In 1954, he obtained his Kamil degree with distinction from the same madrassah, obtaining 7th position in the first division in the Madrassah Board.
After completion of his Fazil studies, he joined Pabna Aliya Madrasah. After that he taught at Gopalchandra institute, Arifpur Ulat Senior Madrassah and Magura Baroria Fazil Madrasah, his teaching career spanned 10 years from 1952-1962. Abdus Sobhan was active in politics from his student life, he was Secretary of Pabna District for East Pakistan Jamiat Talaba Arabiya. In 1951, he joined over time was appointed the Ameer of Pabna District, he was a member of the Central Majlis-e-Shura, the Central Working Committee and the Executive Committee of Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami. He was a Nayeb-e-Ameer of the party. In 1962 and again in 1965, he was elected as a member of the East Pakistan Constituent Assembly and acted as the senior deputy leader of the opposition in his latter term, he was a member of parliament elected from Pabna-5 constituency in 1991, deputy leader of the Jamaat's parliamentary group, securing 47.31% of the votes. In 2001, he was again elected as a Member of Parliament from Pabna-5 constituency as a candidate of 4-party alliance, securing 56.78% of the votes in his constituency.
In 1996, he campaigned on a platform to increase women's education. Abdus Sobhan was arrested on 20 September 2012 from Bangabandhu Bridge area while he was traveling from Dhaka to Pabna, he was taken to Pabna to appear before the court that issued the warrant against him in connection with a case filed in 2003. A day after his arrest he appeared before the International Crimes Tribunal in Dhaka on charges of crimes against humanity committed during the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971; the International Crimes Tribunal-1 framed nine charges of wartime offences against Abdus Sobhan for alleged crimes against humanity in 1971. Sobhan denied the charges brought against him and claimed that he had served as a mole for the Mukti Bahini against Pakistani forces in his time at the Peace Committee. Sobhan died on 14 February 2020 at Dhaka Medical College Hospital at the age of 83. Next day 15 February he was buried on Pabna Sadar Arifpur graveyard