Warren County, Virginia
Warren County is a U. S. county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The 2010 census places Warren County within the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area with a population of 37,575, the county seat is Front Royal. By 1672 the entire Shenandoah Valley was claimed for hunting by the Iroquois Confederation following the Beaver Wars, some bands of the Shawnee settled in the area as client groups to the Iroquois and alternately to the Cherokee after 1721. The Iroquois formally sold their entire claim east of the Alleghenies to the Virginia Colony at the Treaty of Lancaster in 1744, Warren County was established in 1836 from Frederick and Shenandoah counties. At that time the county had a population of 7,000 people, wedding records show marriages of people born in the 1770s marrying in the 1800s who head households of four to eight “free colored” so the early demographics of the population are unclear. Joist Hite lead the Sixteen Families into the Lower Shenandoah Valley, some consider that group the first European settlers of the area, others believe different claims.
Either way, Presbyterians of Scotch-Irish lineage and Quakers followed, rail service was established in 1854 with the construction of the Alexandria and Manassas Gap Railroad between Manassas and Riverton. This line was extended to Strasburg in time to become a factor in the Battle of Front Royal on May 23,1862. Lumber, agriculture and grain mills provided employment in the region for decades after the Civil War, the county is named for Joseph Warren. During the Civil War the Battle of Front Royal took place in the county on May 23,1862. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 217 square miles. The population density was 148 people per square mile, there were 13,299 housing units at an average density of 62 per square mile. The demographics of the county is 92. 71% White,4. 83% Black or African American,0. 27% Native American,0. 43% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 46% from other races, and 1. 29% from two or more races. 1. 56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,24. 00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.57 and the family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was out with 25. 60% under the age of 18,7. 60% from 18 to 24,30. 60% from 25 to 44,23. 90% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 96.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males, the median income for a household in the county was $42,422, and the median income for a family was $50,487
Rappahannock County, Virginia
Rappahannock County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, US. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,373, the name Rappahannock comes from the Algonquian word lappihanne, meaning river of quick, rising water or where the tide ebbs and flows. Rappahannock County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, Rappahannock County was founded by an act of the Virginia General Assembly in 1833, based on the growing populations need to have better access to a county seat. The countys land was carved from Culpeper County, Rappahannock county was named for the river that separates it from Fauquier County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 267.2 square miles. The Rappahannock River forms the boundary and separates Rappahannock County from Fauquier County. Rappahannock County is bounded on the southeast by Culpeper County and on the southwest by Madison County, the Blue Ridge Mountains occupy much of the western portion of the county.
The population density was 26 people per square mile, there were 3,303 housing units, at an average density of 12 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92. 64% White,5. 44% Black or African American,0. 16% Native American,0. 21% Asian,0. 40% from other races,1. 30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23. 40% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.50, and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was out, with 22. 30% under the age of 18,5. 60% from 18 to 24,26. 40% from 25 to 44,31. 80% from 45 to 64. The median age was 43 years, for every 100 females, there were 98.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males, the median income for a household in the county was $45,943, and the median income for a family was $51,848. Males had an income of $32,725 versus $22,950 for females. The per capita income for the county was $23,863, about 5. 20% of families and 7. 60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10. 80% of those under age 18 and 3. 20% of those age 65 or over.
Among the private schools in the county are two pre-K thru 12 schools, Hearthstone School, and Wakefield Country Day School. there is one 6 thru 12 school, Rappahannock Historical Society,328 Gay Street, Washington, VA22747
Spotsylvania County, Virginia
Spotsylvania County is a county in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2016 estimate, the population was 132,010 and its county seat is Spotsylvania Courthouse. Spotsylvania County is a part of Northern Virginia and the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, at the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Spotsylvania County were a Siouan-speaking tribe called the Manahoac. Spotsylvania County was established in 1721 from Essex and Queen, the county was named in Latin for Lieutenant Governor of Virginia Alexander Spotswood. Many battles were fought in this county during the Civil War, including the Battle of Chancellorsville, Battle of the Wilderness, Battle of Fredericksburg, stonewall Jackson was shot and mortally wounded in Spotsylvania County during the Battle of Chancellorsville. A group of Confederate soldiers from North Carolina were in the woods and they mistook him for a Federal patrol and fired their weapons, wounding him in both arms. General Jackson died a few days from pneumonia at nearby Guinea Station, Confederate wounded were being gathered there for evacuation to hospitals further to the south and away from enemy lines.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 414 square miles. As of the census of 2010, there were 122,397 people,31,308 households, the population density was 226 people per square mile. There were 33,329 housing units at a density of 83 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was,78. 4% White 15. 8% Black or African American 0. 4% Native American 2. 4% Asian 0. 05% Pacific Islander 2. 8% from other races, and 1. 88% from two or more races. 7. 8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,16. 40% of all households were made up of individuals and 5. 40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87 and the family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was out with 30. 00% under the age of 18,7. 30% from 18 to 24,32. 20% from 25 to 44,22. 20% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 97.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.00 males, the 2014 median income for a household in the county was $79,402, and the median income for a family was $87,922.
Males had an income of $49,166 versus $38,076 for females. The per capita income for the county was $31,567, about 3. 90% of families and 5. 80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6. 70% of those under age 18 and 5. 20% of those age 65 or over
Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water. It is distinguished from canoeing by the position of the paddler. A kayak is a low-to-the-water, canoe-like boat in which the paddler sits facing forward, legs in front, using a paddle to pull front-to-back on one side. Most kayaks have closed decks, although sit-on-top and inflatable kayaks are growing in popularity as well, kayaks were created thousands of years ago by the Inuit, formerly known as Eskimos, of the northern Arctic regions. They used driftwood and sometimes the skeleton of whale, to construct the frame of the kayak, the main purpose for creating the kayak, which literally translates to hunters boat was for hunting and fishing. The kayaks stealth capabilities, allowed for the hunter to sneak up behind animals on the shoreline, by the mid-1800s the kayak became increasingly popular and the Europeans became interested. German and French men began kayaking for sport, in 1931, a man named Adolf Anderle became the first person to kayak down the Salzachofen Gorge, this is where the birthplace of modern-day white-water kayaking is believed to have begun.
Kayak races were introduced in the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936, in the 1950s fiberglass kayaks were developed and commonly used, until 1980s when polyethylene plastic kayaks came about. Kayaking progressed as a sport in the U. S. until the 1970s. Now, more than 10 white water kayaking events are featured in the Olympics, kayaks can be classified by their design and the materials from which they are made. Each design has its specific advantage, including performance, stability, kayaks can be made of metal, wood, plastic and inflatable fabrics such as PVC or rubber, and more recently expensive but feather light carbon fiber. Each material has its specific advantage, including strength, portability, resistance to ultraviolet, for example, wooden kayaks can be created from kits or built by hand. Stitch and glue, plywood kayaks can be lighter than any other material except skin-on frame, inflatable kayaks, made from lightweight fabric, can be deflated and easily transported and stored, and considered to be remarkably tough and durable compared to some hard-sided boats.
There are many types of kayaks used in water and white water kayaking. The sizes and shapes vary drastically depending on type of water to be paddled on. The second set of essentials for kayaking is an off-set paddle where the blades are tilted to help reduce wind resistance while the other blade is being used in the water. These vary in length and depending on the intended use, height of the paddler and often. Proper clothing such as a dry suit, wet suit or spray top help protect kayakers from cold water or air temperatures, sit on top kayaks place the paddler in an open, shallowly-concave deck above the water level
Battle of Fredericksburg
A visitor to the battlefield described the battle to U. S. President Abraham Lincoln as a butchery. Burnsides plan was to cross the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg in mid-November, bureaucratic delays prevented Burnside from receiving the necessary pontoon bridges in time and Lee moved his army to block the crossings. When the Union army was able to build its bridges and cross under fire. Union troops prepared to assault Confederate defensive positions south of the city, Burnside ordered the grand divisions of Maj. Gens. Sumner and Joseph Hooker to make frontal assaults against Lt. Gen. James Longstreets position on Maryes Heights. On December 15, Burnside withdrew his army, ending another failed Union campaign in the Eastern Theater, in November 1862, Lincoln needed to demonstrate the success of the Union war effort before the Northern public lost confidence in his administration. Confederate armies had been on the earlier in the fall, invading Kentucky and Maryland, and although each had been turned back.
Lincoln urged Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to advance against the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi. McClellan had stopped Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Antietam in Maryland, mcClellans replacement was Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, the commander of the IX Corps. Burnside had established a reputation as an independent commander, with successful operations earlier that year in coastal North Carolina and, However, he felt himself unqualified for army-level command and objected when offered the position. Burnside assumed command on November 7, in response to prodding from Lincoln and general-in-chief Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, Burnside planned a late fall offensive, he communicated his plan to Halleck on November 9. The plan relied on movement and deception. He would concentrate his army in a visible fashion near Warrenton, feigning a movement on Culpeper Court House, Orange Court House and he believed that the Orange and Alexandria Railroad would be an inadequate supply line. Lincoln reluctantly approved the plan on November 14 but cautioned his general to move with great speed, the Union Army began marching on November 15, and the first elements arrived in Falmouth on November 17.
Burnside first requisitioned the pontoon bridging on November 7 when he detailed his plan to Halleck, the plan was sent to the attention of Brig. Gen. George Washington Cullum, the chief of staff in Washington. Plans called for both riverine and overland movement of the trains to Falmouth. On November 14, the 50th New York Engineers reported the pontoons were ready to move, unknown to Burnside, most of the bridging was still on the upper Potomac. Communications between Burnsides staff engineer Cyrus B, comstock and the Engineer Brigade commander Daniel P. Woodbury indicate that Burnside had assumed the bridging was en route to Washington based on orders given on November 6
A fall line is the geomorphologic break that demarcates the border between an upland region of relatively hard crystalline basement rock and a coastal plain of softer sedimentary rock. A fall line is prominent when crossed by a river. Many times a fall line will recede upstream as the river cuts out the dense material. Because of these features riverboats typically cannot travel any farther inland without portaging, on the other hand, the rapid change in elevation of the water, and the resulting energy release, makes the fall line a good location for water mills, grist mills, and sawmills. Because of the need for a river leading to the ocean. The slope of fall zones on rivers played a role in settlement patterns, for example, the fall line represents the inland limit of navigation on many rivers. As such, many fall line cities grew around transferring people, fall lines proved useful for hydroelectric dams such as those at Rochester, New York, at Columbia, South Carolina, and at Conowingo, Maryland, on the Susquehanna River. C.
Much of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line passes through areas where no evidence of faulting is present, South Carolina is similar as well with the Congaree River. Before navigation improvements such as locks, the line was often the head of navigation on rivers due to rapids and waterfalls. Numerous cities were founded at the intersection of rivers and the fall line, U. S. Route 1 links many of the fall line cities. Geologic map of Georgia Spring line settlement Fall-line
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a zone between river environments and maritime environments. They are subject both to marine influences—such as tides and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The inflows of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea began to rise about 10. Estuaries are typically classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns, the banks of many estuaries are amongst the most heavily populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the worlds population living along estuaries and the coast.
The word estuary is derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea, there have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary. However, this definition excludes a number of water bodies such as coastal lagoons. This broad definition includes fjords, river mouths, an estuary is a dynamic ecosystem having a connection to the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides. The sea water entering the estuary is diluted by the water flowing from rivers. The pattern of dilution varies between different estuaries and depends on the volume of water, the tidal range. Drowned river valleys are known as coastal plain estuaries. In places where the sea level is rising relative to the land, sea water progressively penetrates into river valleys and this is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border, the width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is typically large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward.
Water depths rarely exceed 30 m, examples of this type of estuary in the U. S. are the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, and Delaware Bay along the Mid-Atlantic coast, and Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay along the Gulf Coast. They are relatively common in tropical and subtropical locations and these estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches. Formation of barrier beaches partially encloses the estuary, with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters, bar-built estuaries typically develop on gently sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts. They are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments, barrier beaches form in shallow water and are generally parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries
Caroline County, Virginia
Caroline County is a United States county located on the Eastern part of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Northern boundary of the county borders on the Rappahannock River, the Caroline county seat is Bowling Green. Caroline County was established in 1728 and was named in honor of Caroline of Ansbach, wife of the reigning King and it is the birthplace of the renowned racehorse Secretariat, winner of the 1973 Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes, the Triple Crown. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 28,545, Caroline is part of the Greater Richmond Region. Caroline County was established in the British Colony of Virginia in 1727 from Essex and Queen and it was named for Caroline of Ansbach, the wife of King George II of Great Britain, who had recently taken the British throne at the time. During the Colonial Period, Caroline County was the birthplace of Thoroughbred horse racing in North America, arabian horses were imported from England to provide the basis for American breeding stock.
Patriot Edmund Pendleton played a role in the Virginia Resolution for Independence. Caroline native John Penn was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, both were born near what is now Ladysmith. He was to become prominent as a builder and developer, Confederate General, leader of Virginias short-lived Readjuster Party. The Chandler residence is now known as the Jackson Shrine, during Union General Ulysses S. Grants Overland Campaign, Confederate troops under General George E. Pickett fought Union troops near Milford. Just as the Civil War was concluding in April 1865, President Lincoln was assassinated in Washington, as the conspirators fled, a manhunt was launched. After 10 days, in the wee hours of April 26, federal troops tracked down John Wilkes Booth, Lincolns assassin, Booth was fatally shot during their capture by federal troops. Herold was returned to Washington, where he was executed by hanging with 3 co-conspirators on July 7,1865, in 1958, Richard and Mildred Loving challenged miscegenation laws in the state when they married.
Although they married in Washington, DC, they returned to live in Caroline County, where they were arrested and charged under the states anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924. Their case went to the Supreme Court of the United States, at the southern edge of the county, The Meadow, a farm originally established in 1810, became a premier facility for breeding and training Thoroughbred race horses. In 1972, Riva Ridge, raised at The Meadow, won the Kentucky Derby, the following year, born at The Meadow, won the famous Triple Crown for the Chenery familys Meadow Stable. In 2003, The State Fair of Virginia purchased Meadow Farm for development as a new site for the annual Virginia State Fair. Long held at locations in the capital of Richmond and Henrico County, the fair was increasingly squeezed out by expanding development around it, most recently, it was held at Strawberry Hill in central Henrico County, at the facility which became the Richmond International Raceway
The James River is a river in the U. S. state of Virginia. It is 348 miles long, extending to 444 miles if one includes the Jackson River, the James River drains a catchment comprising 10,432 square miles. The watershed includes about 4% open water and an area with a population of 2.5 million people and it is the 12th longest river in the United States that remains entirely within a single state. Tidal waters extend west to Richmond, the capital of Virginia, larger tributaries draining to the tidal portion include the Appomattox River, Chickahominy River, Warwick River, Pagan River, and the Nansemond River. At its mouth near Newport News Point, the Elizabeth River, many boats pass through this river to import and export Virginia products. The navigable portion of the river was the highway of the Colony of Virginia during its first 15 years, facilitating supply ships delivering supplies. However, for the first five years, despite many hopes of gold and riches, in 1612, businessman John Rolfe successfully cultivated a non-native strain of tobacco which proved popular in England.
Soon, the became the primary means of exporting the large hogsheads of this cash crop from an ever-growing number of plantations with wharfs along its banks. This development made the efforts of the Virginia Company of London successful financially, spurring even more development, investments. The upper reaches of the river above the head of navigation at the line were explored by fur trading parties sent by Abraham Wood during the late 17th century. Although ocean-going ships were unable to navigate beyond present-day Richmond, portage of products, produce from the Piedmont and Great Valley regions traveled down the river to seaports at Richmond and Manchester through such port towns as Lynchburg, Scottsville and Buchanan. The James River was considered as a route for transport of produce from the Ohio Valley, the James River and Kanawha Canal was built for this purpose, to provide a navigable portion of the Kanawha River, a tributary of the Ohio River. For the most mountainous section between the two points, the James River and Kanawha Turnpike was built to provide a link via wagons.
However, before the canal could be completed, in the mid-19th century, railroads emerged as a more practical technology. The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway was completed between Richmond and the Ohio River at the new city of Huntington, West Virginia by 1873, dooming the canals economic prospects. In the 1880s, the Richmond and Alleghany Railroad was laid along the portion of the canals towpath. In modern times, this line is used primarily in transporting West Virginia coal to export coal piers at Newport News. The James River contains numerous parks and other recreational attractions, fishing, kayaking and swimming are some of the activities that people enjoy along the river during the summer
Fredericksburg is an independent city in Virginia, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,286, the city population was estimated at 28,118 in 2015. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Fredericksburg with neighboring Spotsylvania County for statistical purposes, located near where the Rappahannock River crosses the Fall Line, Fredericksburg was a prominent port in Virginia during the colonial era. Fredericksburg is home to major commercial centers including Central Park and Spotsylvania Towne Centre. Major employers include the University of Mary Washington, Mary Washington Healthcare, many Fredericksburg-area residents commute to work by car and rail to Washington and Richmond, as well as Fairfax, Prince William, and Arlington counties. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Fredericksburg were a Siouan-speaking tribe called the Manahoac, english colonists recorded the name of the Manahoac village there as Mahaskahod.
Located on the Rappahannock River near the head of navigation at the fall line, the land on which the city was founded was part of a tract patented in 1671. The Virginia General Assembly established a fort on the Rappahannock in 1676, in 1714, Lt. Gov. Named for Frederick, Prince of Wales, son of King George II, the colonial towns streets bore the names of members of the royal family. The county court was moved to Fredericksburg in 1732, and the served as county seat until 1780. In 1781, Fredericksburg was incorporated as a town, with its own court, council and it received its charter as a city in 1879, and under Virginia law was separated from Spotsylvania County. The city adopted its present city manager/council form of government in 1911, the city has close associations with George Washington, whose family moved to Ferry Farm in Stafford County just off the Rappahannock River opposite Fredericksburg in 1738. Washingtons mother Mary moved to the city, and his sister Betty lived at Kenmore, other significant early residents include the Revolutionary War generals Hugh Mercer and George Weedon, naval war hero John Paul Jones, and future U. S.
president James Monroe. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom in Fredericksburg, during the 19th century, Fredericksburg sought to maintain its sphere of trade, but with limited success. It promoted the development of a canal on the Rappahannock and construction of a turnpike, by 1837, a north-south railroad, which became the Richmond and Potomac Railroad, linked the town to Richmond, the state capital. A much-needed railroad joining the town to the region to the west was not finished until after the Civil War. During the Civil War, Fredericksburg gained strategic importance due to its location midway between Washington and Richmond, the capitals of the Union and the Confederacy. During the Battle of Fredericksburg, December 11–15,1862, the town sustained significant damage from bombardment, a Second Battle of Fredericksburg was fought in and around the town on May 3,1863, in connection with the Chancellorsville campaign. The battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House were fought nearby in May 1864, after the war, Fredericksburg recovered its former position as a center of local trade and slowly grew beyond its prewar boundaries
Union (American Civil War)
The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States, or the Confederacy. All of the Unions states provided soldiers for the U. S. Army, the Border states played a major role as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy. The Northeast provided the resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies. The Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican governors who energetically supported the war effort, the Democratic Party strongly supported the war in 1861 but in 1862 was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the Copperheads. The Democrats made major gains in 1862 in state elections. They lost ground in 1863, especially in Ohio, in 1864 the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket.
The war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border, prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an entirely new national banking system. The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers wives, widows and for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered to escape the draft, Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities, especially New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as the North and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, which was the South. The Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacys secession and maintained at all times that it remained entirely a part of the United States of America, in foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government.
The term Union occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union. Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV. Even before the war started, the preserve the Union was commonplace. Using the term Union to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the political entity. In comparison to the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war. Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water together, usually refers to the joining of tributaries. The opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from, distributaries are most often found in river deltas. Right tributary and left tributary are terms stating the orientation of the relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream, where tributaries have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks. These are typically designated by compass direction, for example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks. The Chicago Rivers North Branch has the East and Middle Fork, the South Branch has its South Fork, forks are sometimes designated as right or left.
Here, the handedness is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream, for instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary which is called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river, the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being typically the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary, another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure